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Full text of "Bi-centennial history of Albany. History of the county of Albany, N. Y., from 1609 to 1886. With portraits, biographies and illustrations. [By] Howell [and] Tenney. Assisted by local writers"

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Cornell University 

The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 

In compliance with cunrent 

copyright law, Cornell University 

Library produced tJiis 

replacement volume on paper 

that meets the ANSI Standard 

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irreparably deteriorated original. 







;^o vufvce f>lCc.vto^i^ tf»i. vuotfv « re.pcctfuWy feblcateb. 




N. Y., 

FROM 1609 TO 1886. 








00/^/5 volume is the zvork of fttany writers. It will therefore exhibit various characteristics 
of style, and each writer will be responsible only for what he wrote, and the Editor-in- 
Chief answers only for the outward form of expression, and not for the substaiice of the 

The publishers have shown no little perseverance in overcoming obstacles in the progress of 
the work, and have spared no pains or. expense to secitre a valuable history for the subscribers 
and the public. 

An exhaustive history of Albany and its many thousands of citizens would need twenty 
volumes of the size of this to include a full history of all the men, women and events that have 
contributed both directly and indirectly to its history and present prosperity. 

A Judicious selection of material has, therefore, been found necessary, and even some prun- 
ing to make publication possible. 

The issue of the zvork has been delayed beyond our hopes and expectations simply on account 
of the immense labor in accumulating facts and reducing them to a connected narrative. 

Not only was it necessary to embody here for tJie present generation the history of the past, 
but also to present a pen picture of what Albany and Schenectady Counties are at the present time 
for the benefit of future generations. 

It has been the aim of the publishers to have given also biographies of some of the represent- 
ative men of all professions, and a representative exiiibit of tlie various industries in the two 

It is the hope of all concerned in the book that a vahiable contribution to the history of two 
of the oldest counties in the State is mozv offered to the public. 


Cyc)HE part we have performed in the preparation of this History of the County and City of 
Albany is indicated at the headings of the principal divisions and in the Table of Contents. 
The labor involved in this planning, writing and editing is far greater than we had anticipated, 
or than any but a careful historian can appreciate. 

We have had valuable aid in special contributio?is from writers whose names are given; and 
many others have contributed facts and suggestions which have been gratefully received. 

We have sought for '■'■the truth of history'' from every source in our reach, and patiently 
gathered what seemed best fitted to our purpose. 

We could have made a smaller volume, but many facts and factors demanded recognition. 
More easily we could have made a larger one, but duty to our worthy publishers icrged all 
possible condensation. 

We think all will notice with approval the strictly topical presentation and discussion of 
our subjects. We have tried to make a book of facts, tvell selected, and well arranged. We have 
sacrificed nothing to figures of speech or " words of learned length." 

We commit this volume, with its excellencies and defects, to the friends who have encouraoed 
us, and whom we have tried to please; and to no one with more confidence than to the honest and 
faithful student of history, who will most readily appreciate zvhat is good and pardon what is 
faulty in it. 

^z^*^-^.^ Q^y^ 



Table ok Contents. 


I. Outline History of the State of New York 

(edited by Prof. Jonathan Tenney) I-II 

Chapter I. Discovery of New York. Indians of 

the Five Nations I 

Chapter II. New York under the Dutch. English 

Governors to 1765 2 

Chapter III. War with France and Commence- 
ment of the Revolution 4 

Chapter IV. Revolutionary Events in New York. 

The State Government established 6 

Chapter V. The War of 1812 between the United 

States and Great Britain 7 

Chapter VI. Internal Improvements. Constitu- 
tional Amendments, Schools, Statistics 9 

II. History qk the County of Albany (by 

Prof. Jonathan Tenney) 12-432 

Topography 12 

Sand Surface 12 

Geography: Hills, Islands, Ponds, Rivers, Hud- 
son River 12 

Geology : Soil 17 

Mineralogy 18 

Paleontology 19 

Botany 21 

Natural History: Quadrupeds, Birds, Fishes, 

Reptiles, Entomology 29 

Meteorology: Tables of Rainfall and Tempera- 
ture 32 

Iroquois Indians: Indian Lands, the Indian Edu- 
cation and Christianity. Indian Treaties, 
Trade and other affairs, Indian Commissioners 34 
Early Discovery: Verrazano, Henry Hudson and 

his followers 42 ; 

New Netherlands: the English Claim 44 i 

The United New Netherlands Company 45 

The Dutch West India Company 45 

The Dutch Governors 46 [ 

The First Settlement 48 j 

Rensselaerwy ck and Beverwyck 49 

Stuyvesant and the English Conquest 67 ! 

Organization, Divisions and Boundary of the j 

County... 6g [ 

Outline Sketches of the Towns of the County : 
Berne, Bethlehem, Coeymans, Cohoes, Guil- 
derland, Knox, New Scotland, Rensselaerville, ! 

Watervliet, Westerlo 72 

History of the Board of Supervisors, by L. B. 

Proctor 80-123 

The Bench and Bar; or, I^gal History: Robert 
Yates, Jolm Lansing, Jr., Abraham Van 
Vechten, Johii V. Henry, John V. N. Yates, 
Martin Van Buren, Benjamin F. Butler, 
Greene C. Bronson, Marcus T. Reynolds, 
Samuel Stevens, John C. Spencer, James 
Edward, Azor Taber, Amos Dean, Henry G. 
Wheaton, Nicholas Hill, Peter Cagger, Ira 
Harris, Rufus W. Peckham, Lewis Benedict 
and list of living lawyers, by L. B. Proctor. 123-154 

Judges and other Court Officers 154 

Biographies of Lawyers, with portraits, by L. B. 

Pj-octor 155-202 

Medicine in Albany County: Clu-onological 
List of County Medical Society, Officers of 

the Society, by Dr. F. C. Curtis 203-222 

Introduction and Progress of Homoeopathy, by 

Dr. H. M. Paine 222-230 

Eclectic Medical Society 230 

Female Physicians 230 

Biographies of Physicians, with Portraits 231-241 

Biographical Notes of some Physicians 241-247 

History of Education: Dutch Colonial, English 
Colonial, Higher and Professional, After the 
Revolutionary War, County Superintendents, 
Teachers' Institutes, Geological Survey, Re- 
gents of the University, General Notes 248-269 

Table of Villages, Post Offices, Railway .Sta- 

/ tions. Distances, Local Names, etc 269 

Mlistory of Population 271-276 

Anti-Rentism, by Hon. A. J. Colvin 277-285 

The Manor and the VanRensselaers: Attorneys, 
Legal Points, Sketches of the Patroons, Hen- 

drick Van Rensselaer Branch, Females 286-292 

Land Patents, Settlements, Leases, Titles and 

Boundaries 293-295 

The Beaver and the Fur Trade 296-3CO 

Slavery 300-303 

Homicides, by Elisha Mack 304-309 

Travel and Transportation 309-313 

Railroads: Central, Hudson River, Albany and 
Vermont, Boston and Albany, West Shore, 
Susquehanna, Albany and Depots (see also 

P- 676) 313-317 

Express Business: American, National, Western, 

Baggage. 317-322 

Telegraph Business 322-324 

Telephone and Messenger Service 325 

Agriculture in Albany County 326 

'* Farm Animals 329 

" Horticulture, Floriculture and Rural 

Literature 333 

" New York State Agricultural Society 335 
" Albany County Agricultural Society. 336 

The Shakers 337-340 

Temperance Work 340-344 

Secret Temperance Orders: Sons of Temper- 
ance, Temple of Honor, Good Templars. . . . 344-346 

The Old Stadt Huys, or City Hall 346 

Albany County Jails 347-349 

" County Aims-House 349-352 

" Penitentiary 352 

County Legislative Officers: Senators, Assembly- 
men ; also Treasurers 353-356 

Journalists and Journalism, with Biographies: 
Jesse Buel, Moses I. Cantine, William Cas- 
sidy, Edwin Crosswell, Sherman Crosswell, 
Hugh J. Hastings, Charles R. Webster, Thur- 
low Weed, and other biographies with por- 
traits 356-374 

Albany County Press: Past, Present, Outside 

^ of Albany 375-378 

English Colonial Governors of New York 379-382 

Colonial Military Affairs and Wars in Albany 

County 382 

King William's War 384 

Queen Anne's War 386 

King George's War 387 



Old French and Indian Wars 388 

American Revolutionary Period : Militia of 1775 
-76, Mayor and Common Council, Committee 
of Safety, Colonial, Provincial and Continental 

Assemblies, Continental Conventions 391-419 

War of 1812 419-422 

The War with Mexico 422 

War of the Rebellion ( see also " Military 

Organization " on pp. 709-718) 423-428 

West Point Cadets 429 

County Inspectors 429 

Board of Charities: Its Work in Albany County, 

by Mrs. E. L. Tenney 429-432 

III. United States Buildings and Institutions 

IN Albany County: U. S. Arsenal; Govern- 
ment Building ; Albany Post Office; U. S. 
Custom-House; U. S. Internal Revenue Office; 
Steamboat Inspectors; U. S. Circuit Court; 
U. S. District Court; U. S. Signal Service; 
United States Officers, Natives or Residents 
of Albany, by Prof Jonathan Tenney, Editor. 433-441 

IV. State Buildings and Officers in Albany Co. : 

Constitutional Conventions; Constitutional 
Commission ; Public State Officers ; Governors' 
Mansions in Albany; State Legislatures; Old 
State Hall; Geological Hall; New State Hall; 
The Old Capitol; The New Capitol; Stone- 
work, by Prof. Jonathan Tenney, Editor. . .441-457 

v. History of the City of Albany, Prof. 
Jonatlian Tenney, Editor: Early History, 
Settlement, Made a City, Natural Features, 
Relations to the County, Situations, Names, 
Boundaries and Changes, Square Miles, Rela- 
tions to the River and the Sea 458-774 

Municipal History and Charters 461-485 

Navigation of the Hudson : Steamboats, Ferries, 

Bridges Across the Hudson 485-496 

Docks, Wharves and Basin of Albany, by Gen. 

S. V. Talcott 496-503 

Sewerage of Albany 503 

Streets of Albany 504 

Water Supply 512 

Street Lighting 515 

Public Parks 517 

Street Railways 5 '9 

^ire Department 519 

^Erie Canal as related to Albany 523 

Albany Insurance Companies 526 

Banks and Bankers; Savings Banks; with Biogra- 
phies of Bankers 527-555 

Manufacturing Interests of Albany, with Biogra- 
phies of Manufacturers 555-609 

Commercial Interests of Albany 609-65 1 

Albany Hotels 65 1 

Public Halls 654 

Police Department 654 

Mayors of Albany: Biographical Sketches 657-666 

Views in Albany about 1800. Illustrated 666 

Old Houses and Landmarks. Illustrated 672 

Churchyards and Cemeteries 674 

Mohawk and Hudson River Railroad - .. 676 

City Buildings : Old City Hall; New City Hall; 

City Building 677 

Schools and other Literary Institutions : Union 
University ; Normal School ; Law School ; 
Dudley Observatory; Albany Academy; Al- 
bany Female Academy; Convent and Academy 
of the Sacred Heart; St. Agnes' School; Chris- 
tian Brothers' Academy ; Albany Business Col- 
lege; Chautauqua Literary and Scientific Circle; 
Industrial School; State Library; Albany Insti- 
tute; Young Men's Association; Dana Natural 
History Society; The Dickens Club; Public Ed- 
ucation ; Lancaster School ; Public Schools ; 

High School; Tables 679-699 

Printers and Printing 699 

Law Book Publishers 702 


Photography 702 

The Albany Stage, by Henry P. Phelps 703 

Dentistry 707 

Centennial Celebration, July 22, 1786 709 

Military Organizations. .Aided by Major McFar- 

lane. Sergeant Wolfe, and others 709-718 

Secret Orders: Free Masons; Odd Fellowship; 

Knights of Pythias ^\% 

Mutual Aid Societies 721 

Political Clubs 721 

Labor and Laborers 722 

Colored People of Albany 725 

St. Andrew's Society 726 

St. George's Benevolent Society 726 

Public Bath 727 

Christian Work : City Tract and Missionary So- 
ciety; Young Men's Christian Association; So- 
ciety of St. Vincent de Paul; Orphan Asylum; 
St. Vincent's Female Orphan Asylum; Orphans' 
Home of St. Peter's Church; House of Shelter; 
Home for the Friendless ; Home for Aged Men ; 
Children's Friend Society ; Child's Hospital; 
Women's Christian Temperance Society; Open 
Door Mission; Hospital for Incurables; Wo- 
men's Union Missionary Society ; Woman's Ex- 
change; Women's Indian Association 727 

The Albany Woman's Suffrage Society, by Miss 

Kate Stoneman 735-737 

Art and Artists, by Mrs. E. L. Tenney 737-739 

Engraving 739 

Architecture 739 

Surveyors and Engineers 741 

Music in Albany 742 

Social Clubs and Sporting Associations 745 

/Military Bands and Orchestra 748 

^ Religious Institutions: Adventists ; Baptists ; 
Catholic; Christian; Congregational; Episco- 
pal; Evangelical; Hebrew; Liberal; Lutheran; 
Methodists; Presbyterian; Quakers; Reformed; 
Spiritualists; Unitarian; Universalist. Assisted 
by Revs. C. A. Walworth, G. W. Dean, W. 
W. Battershall, J. L. Reese, D. L. Schwartz, P. 
P. Harrover, E. F. Gee, H. M. King, Max 
Schlesenger, Hon. A. B. Pratt, M. McGowan, 
Esq. , and others 749-774 

Towns and Villages of Albany County, Rev. 
George R. Howell, Editor: 
(See, also. Outline Sketches in Table of Contents) 

Berne, by Rev. Robert Doig 775-800 

Bethlehem, by Jacob S. Markle 800-823 

Coeymans, by Jacob S. Markle 824-840 

Cohoes, by Rev. Wm. M. Johnson 949-974 

Guilderland 840-869 

Knox 869-889 

New Scotland, by Jacob S. Markle 889-91 1 

Rensselaerville, by Norman W. Faulke 911-921 

Westerlo, by Jacob S. Markle 92 1-928 

Watervliet, by Jacob S. Markle 929-949 

West Troy, by V. J. Oothout 974-997 

Green Island, by V. J. Oothout 994-997 


Agriculture. See County . 

Albany, City of — 

Architecture -, 

Art and Artists !...!!!.!!'.!. 777 

Assessors .gi 

Basin, Docks and Wharves ] ^gg 

Banks and Banking C27 c^s 

Board of Contract and Apportionment ' A-i 

" Equalization of Taxes .__\ ,16 

Bonded Debt paid since 185 1 '" jQg 

Bridges '^.'.'.".\'^^. 40;. 

Budget, City and County 

99, I02, 104, 106, 107, 108, 483 



Buildings, The City 677, 678 

, " and Builders 587 

^yCemeteries. See Churchyards. 

Canal, The Erie 523 

Chamberlain, The City 83, 478-482 

Christian Work in 727 

Charter, The General Provisions of 484 

Churchyards and Cemeteries 674 

Commercial Interests of 6og 

Corporation, Executive Power of 481 

" Counsel of the 482 

Docks and Wharves 496-499 

Engineer and Surveyor, The 483-5 1 2 

Excise 100-102 

Fees, Official. See Salaries 

Ferries, The 489 

Fire Alarm Telegraph 521 

" Department 519 

" Prevention of 485 

" Hall, The 114-116 

" History of. 458-461 

Inspectors of Weights and Measures 484 

" Steamboats 438 

Insurance Companies 526 

Lamps, Gas and Electric Lighting, Bureau of. , 512 

Law School, The 680 

Manufacturing Interests of 555 

Marshal, The 484 

Mayors of. The 83-126, 657-666 

" Court, The 126 

Municipal History of 461-485 

Officers. See Officers. 

Music in 742 

Officers 477-480 

" Appointed by Mayor 482 

" Election of 485 

" Fees and Salaries of 484 

Pavements 509 

Physicians of 483 

Property, Private, taken for Public Use 484 

Protective Patrol 527 

Parks, Public 517 

Receiver of Taxes 482 

Salaries and Fees of Officers of 484 

Schools and Literary Institutions 679 

Sewerage of 503 

Steamboat Inspectors 438 

Steamboats 487 

Street Commissioner 483 

" Department 511 

" Improvements. 512 

" Lighting 515 

" Railways 519 

Streets of. 504 

Superintendent of Poor-House 484 

Taxes. See Budget. 

** Board of Equalization of 1 16 

" Table of Equalization of, 1872-73, 1883 

103, 104, 106, 120 

" Receiver of 482 

" Rates of 122 

Theatres in 703 

Treasurer's Report 122 

Town Boundaries, Alteration of. 84 

Union of City and County Affairs 82 

Valuation of, The Equalized 122 

Views in, about 1800, Some 666 

Water Supply 512 

Weights and Measures, Inspector of 484 

" " Sealer of 108 

Ai.nANY County — 

Agriculture in 326 

Agricultural Literature in 333 

' ' Society of 336 

Aims-House 349-352 

Amendments, Constitutional 9 

Anti-Rentism in 277-285 

Architecture in Albany 739 

Art and Artists 737 

Assembly, Meml)ers of, from 354 


Assessors 485 

Attorney-General 442 

Audits of, Publication of 106 

Banks 485 

" and Bankers 5^7 

" designated for Deposit 483 

" Savings 533 

Basin, The Albany 499 

Bath, Public 727 

Beaver and Fur Trade, The 296-303 

Bench and Bar of 123-203 

Beverwyck and Rensselaerwyck 49-66 

Birds of 29 

Board of Canvassers 82 

" Charities 429-432 

" Finance 80-122 

" Supervisors 80-123 

Books of Records 115,122 

Boundaries of. 292 

Botany of 21-28 

Bounty Fund 100 

Budget 98, 99, 104, 108 

Buildings 82, 86, 106 

Sites of,The 82 

Charities, Board of 429-432 

Claims against the 86 

Colonial Military Affairs and Wars in 383-390 

Constitutional Conventions, in. State '. . . 441 

Coroners 116, 119, 121 

District Attorney 83, 84, 86, 117 

Early Courts of ''. 1 23 

Education, History of. 248-270 

Entomology of 30 

Express Business in 317 

Farm Animals in 329 

Farming in 326 

Fishes of 30 

Floriculture in 333 

Geography of 12 

Geology of 17 

Hills 12 

History of. The Early 80 

" Board of Supervisors 80-122 

" Bench and Bar of 1 23-203 

Homicides in 304 

Horticulture in 333 

Indians in 34 

" Lands in '. 36 

" Education and Civilization in 37 

Indian Treaties, Trades, etc 40 

" Affairs, Commissioner of 41 

Industries of, Special Officers connected with. . . 429 
Islands of 13 

>''^- • ;. ,■ • • ; 99. 347 

Journalists and Journalism in 356-378 

Judges, Salary of 103 

Land, Surface of 12 

Lands of, The Public 82 

Land Patents, Settlements, I^eases, Titles, etc., 292-295 

Legislative Officers from 353 

Manor and Van Rensselaers, The 286-291 

Medicine in, History of 203-247 

Members of Assembly from 354 

Meteorology of 32, 33 

Mineralogy of 18 

Natural History of 29 

Newspapers Published. See Journalists, etc. 

Officers, Public 442 

Organization and Division of 6g 

Overseers of the Poor. See Poor. 

Paleontology of, The lo 

Penitentiary, The 352 

Population, History of 271-276 

Ponds of 14 

Press, The County yjr 

Prominent Lawyers 128 

Quadrupeds of 29 

Railroads of 31-3 

Rainfall of -33 

Redistribution of \\n 



Registry Laws 98 

Rivers of 14 

Salaries of Officials 84 

School Commissioners 266 

Senators, United States, from 353 

Severe Punishments 125 

Shakers in 337 

Sheriff, The 156 

Slavery in 300 

Soil 18 

Special Sessions 97 

Superintendents in County Schools 265 

Supervisors, The Board of, History of 80 

" Members of, List of, 1818-84 87-92 

" Powers of Local Legislation of. 85 

" Proceedings of, 1861-84 92-123 

" Salaries of 84, 85 

" Sessions of, 86, 98, 99, 102-104, 106, 108, 

109, 112, 116, 117, 120 

" Standing Committees of 103 

" Statutory and Legal History of . . . 82 

State of New York: Its Buildings, Public Offices, 

etc., in 441 

Supreme Court 126 

" under the First State Constitu- 
tion 130 

Surrogates 155 

Taxes 117 

" Receiver of 482 

Teachers in, Early 265 

Telegraph Business in 325 

Telephone and Messenger Service 325 

Temperature of 33 

Temperance Work in 340-346 

Topography of 12 

Travel and Transportation in 309 

Treasurer's Reports and Statements, 

98, 99, loi, 105, 108, 113, 132, 355, 482 
United States Officers, Public Buildings, and 

other Institutions in 433 

War Loan Bonds of 107 

Watchman of Clerk's Office 115 

Biographies of Physicians 241 

Birds of the County 29 

Board of Canvass 82 

' ' Charities 426 

" Contract and Appropriation 483 

' ' Finance 482 

" Equalization of Taxes 116 

" Supervisors and the Penitentiary 83 

Books of Record of County 115 

Botany of the County 26 

Boundaries 292 

Buildings and Builders 587 

" for the Insane 97 

County 86 

" Sites of 82 

Bureau of Engineering and Surveying 512 

" Lamps, Gas and Electric Lighting 512 

" Street Improvements 512 

Canal Commissioners 443 

Canvassers, Board of , 82 

Capitol, The Old 446 

" " New 449 

** Commissioners of 450 

Centennial Celebration of 1786, The 709 

Census, U. S., of 1790-1880, in County 276 

Chamberlain, Tlie City 83, 478 

Charitable Institutions— 

Aged Men, Home for 432, 732 

Albany Orphan Asylum 431, 729 

" Guardian Society and Home for the 

Friendless 43 1. 73 ' 

City Hospital 221,431 

" " Homoeopathic Hospital 431 

" " House of Shelter 731 

" " .St. N'incenl's Fonialo Orphan 432, 729 


Babies' Nursery 43 1 

Bath, The Public 727 

Buildings for the Insane 97 

Children's Friend Society 431, 732 

Child's Hospital 222, 431, 732 

City Homoeopathic Hospital 222 

Female Orphan Asylum of St. Vincent. . . .431, 432, 729 

Friendless, Home for the 431 

Guardian Society and Home for the Friendless. 43 1, 731 
Home for the Aged, Little Sisters of the Poor .431, 432 

" Aged Men 432, 732 

" the Friendless and Guardian Society. 431 

" the Orphans of St. Peter's 432, 729, 730 

Ho.spita], Albany City 221, 222, 431 

" Alms-house 222 

" Child's 222,431, 732 

" Homceopathic and Dispensary . 105, 222, 229 

" for Incurables 222, 734 

" St. Peter's 221, 222,431 

House of Shelter, The Albany 432, 731 

Incurables, Hospital for. . . .- 222 

Insane, Buildings for 97 

Juvenile Delinquents 108 

Little Sisters of the Poor 431, 432 

Albany Babies' Nursery 431 

Open Door Mission 432 

Orphan Asylum, The Albany 431, 729 

" " St. Vincent's Female 432 

Home of St. Peter's Church 432, 729 

Public Bath 727 

St. Joseph's Industrial School 431 

Shelter, House of, The Albany 432, 731 

St. Peter's Church, Orphan Home of 432, 730 

" Hospital 221, 222,431 

St. Vincent de Paul, The Society of 728 

St. Vincent's Female Orphan Asylum 432, 729 

Charities, The Board of 429 

Charter, The General Provisions of 484 

Cholera Epidemic of 1832, The 214 

Christian Work in Albany 727 

Churches — 

Adventists 745 

Baptists 740 

" First 749 

" " African 750 

" .Second " 750 

'* Calvary 7C0 

" Emanuel 750 

" State Street 750 

" Tabernacle 74Q 

" Washington Avenue 750 

, " " Street 750 

VCatholic (Roman) Assumption, Church of the. .756,757 

" " Holy Cross (German) 756 

" " Immaculate Conception, Cath- 
edral of 754 

" Our Lady of Angels (German) . 756 

" " Our Lady Help of Christians. . . 756 

" Sacred Heart of Jesus, Parish of 757 

" " St. Ann's yr5 

" " St. John's •jr, 

" " St. Joseph's 7i-r 

" St. Mary's ^rn 

" St. Patrick's ".'.'.'.'.'.".". 7c6 

Congregational, First ] irg 

" Second ' yrg 

Evangelical '.'........ 762 

" German Associated, Church of! .. 763 

" First German Lutheran. . . •76-3 

St. John's Cki 

St. Paul's ifi 

p.", Trinity v:.': i! ! ! i ! ; HI 

Episcopal ' g 

" All Saints, Cathedral of ih 

" st.paui's :.:::;::■■ lio 

;; «'«^'= 758 

Trinity '^^ 

Grace ^g^ 

'• Holy Innocents. . . 76, 

"<=1^'««' '.'.v.' '.'.'.'.'..'. 763 



Hebrew, Anshe Emeth 763 

Bethel 763 

" " Jacob 763 

Liberal 763 

" Albany Associated 764 

Lutheran 763 

" First German 763 

Methodist Episcopal 764 

" " Ferry Street 768 

" " Hudson Street 768 

" " Mission, The Open Door. . . 733 

" " Open Door Mission 431 

Presbyterian 768 

' ' First 769 

" Second 769 

Third 769 

" Fourth 769 

" Fifth 769 

" Sixth 769 

" State Street 770 

' ' United 770 

' ' West End 770 

Quakers 770 

Reformed ' 770 

" First 770 

" Second 771 

" Third 771 

" Fourth 771 

" Holland 771 

Spiritualists 771 

Universalists 772 

Unitarian 772 

Circuit Court United States 439 

Citizens' Association of Albany 121 

C ity Hall, The Rebuilding of 114 

' ' Officers 477-479 

' ' Physicians 483 

Claims against the County 86 

Clubs and Sporting Associations 745 

Cohoes Jail 117 

Colored People of. 725 

Colonial Conferences 417 

' ' Dutch Period 2-248 

" English " 3-248 

" Military AfTairs, Wars, etc 385 

Commercial Interests of Albany 6og 

Comptroller, The 97, 443 

Congresses, State, Provincial and Continental 418 

Constitutional Commissions 442 

" Amendments 9 

Contest over a Lawyer's Bill, 95 

Contract and Apportionment Board 483 

Convention, The Provincial 418 

" " Constitutional 418 

Corporation Counsel, The 481 482 

Coroner, The 116, 119, 121 

Courts — 

Circuit 439 

District, United States 439 

First after the Revolution 129 

" at Albany under the Constitution 130 

Last Colonial at Albany 128 

Mayor's I 

Supreme, under first State Constitution 130 

County Bounty Fund 100 

Dentistry 707 

Department, Fire, The 519 

Draft, Objections to the 94 

Discovery of New York i 

" by Hudson 44 

** by Verrazano 42 

District Attorney of County, The 86, 117 

Dudley Observatory, The 682 

Dutch Colonial Period 248 

" Governors, The 46 

" West India Company 45 

Early Courts of Albany County 123 

" Legislative Acts 82 


Early Teachers in Albany County 265 

Education, History of 248 

Educational — 

Albany Academy 683 

' ' Female Academy 685 

' ' Institute 690 

Business College 688 

Christian Brothers' Academy 687 

College Graduates 261 

Dudley Observatory, The 682 

Education, Higher and Professional 260 

" Dutch and English Colonial 248 

High School 697 

Industrial School 688 

" " St. Joseph's 432 

Lancaster School 694 

Law School 680 

Libraries, Early 260 

Normal School 266, 679 

Private Education 258, 259 

Public Ed ucation 694 

" Schools 695 

Regents of the University 267 

Sacred Heart, Academy of 686 

St. Agnes' School 687 

St. Joseph's Industrial School 432 

School Commissioners 266 

Schools after the Revolution 263 

State Superintendence 268 

Teachers' Institutes 267 

Elections 82, 1 1 7 

Electors 440 

English Governors 2 

Engineer and Surveyor, The 483 

" " State 443 

Engraving 737 

Entomology of the County 30 

Excise 100 

Express Business in County 317 

Farm Animals in County 329 

Farming in County 326 

Ferries 489 

Finance, Board of 482 

" Department 519 

Fire Alarm Telegraph 521 

Fires, The Prevention of 485 

First Settlement 48 

Fishes of the County 30 

Floriculture in County 333 

France, War with 4 

Freemasons 718 

Funded Debt, The 315 

Geography of County 12 

Geology of the County 17 

Geological Hall, The 445 

" Survey of the State 267 

Governors, The English 2, 379 

'• Dutch 46 

' ' Lieutenant, The 442 

Governors' Mansions, The 443 

Health, The State Board of 116 

High School, The 697 

Hills of the County 12 

History of County, The Early 80 

Homicides in County 304 

HomcBopathy in County, Polemics of 228 

Horticulture in County 333 

Hospital, Albany 221 

" St. Peter's 221 

" Homoeopathic 229 

House of Shelter, The 431 

Hudson River, The ij 

Hudson's Discovery of New York 44 

Indians, Affairs, Commissioners of 41 

" Education and Civilization of 37 

" Fi\'e Nations i 



Indians, Iroquois, The 34 

" Lands 36 

" Trades, Treaties, etc 40 

Inspector of Steamboats 484 

" Weights and Measures 484 

Insurance Companies of Albany 526 

" Patrol 527 

Internal Improvements 9 

' ' Revenue 438 

Iroquois Indians, The 34 

Islands of County 13 

Jails of County 99, 347 

" Cohoes 

Journalists and Journalism 35^-377 

Judges, Salary of. 103 

Knights of Pythias 720 

Lieutenant-Governor 442 

Land Surface of County '. 12 

Lands of Albany County 82 

" Patents, Titles, etc 292 

Last Colonial Court at Albany 128 

Lawyers of the Colonial Period, The 128 

" in Albany in 1884, List of 152-154 

Legal — 

Albany County Bench and Bar, History of 123 

Clerks 156 

Courts, of Appeals 127 

" of Common Pleas 126, 155 

Early, The 123 

" First Under Constitution 130 

" First After Revolution 129 

" Last Colonial 128 

" Mayor's 126 

." Probate 155 

" Sessions 124, 158 

-" Supreme 126 

" " Under First State Constitution . 130 

District Attorney 156 

Judges and Other Court Officers 154 

Grand Jurors. See Jurors. 

" Oath of 127 

Jurors, Drawing of io6 

'-' Grand 77, 102 

Legislative Officers from Albany County 353 

Mansions, The Governors' 443 

Marshal, The City 484 

Manufactures — 

Agricultural Machinery 573 

Albany Saw Works 575 

" Steam Trap Company 574 

Bakers 562 

Baking Powders 563 

Beef, Mutton and Pork 563 

Beer, Lager 556 

Biscuit Works, The Larrabcc 563 

Blinds, Sashes and. Doors 593 

Boilers, Engines, etc 574 

Boots and Shoes 605 

Brass Works 594 

Brewing 556 

Brewers, List of 558 

Brick 582 

Brushes 606 

Bureau of Engineering and Surveying 512 

Butchering and Marketing 563 

Car Wheels 575 

Carriages, Sleighs and Trucks 593 

Cigars 4°3 

Coach Furnishing 581 

Coffee and Rice Mills 564 

Cooperage 594 

Cork Works 600 

Dentistry 707 

Distilling 5^1 

Doors, Blinds and Sashes 593 

Drain Tiles 5^5 

Dredges 581 

Emery Wheels 581 

Enameled Cloth 599 

Engineers 521 

Farming 430 

Files and Rasps 575 

Fur Goods 603 

Furniture and Other House Supplies 599 

Globe 600 

Harness and Saddlery Goods, Trunks and Coach 

Furnishings 581 

Hats and Fur Goods 603 

House Supplies 599 

Ice Boxes 580 

Iron Machines and Furnishings 574 

" Ware 581 

" Works 573 

Japanned Ware 582 

Labor and Laborers 722 

Lager Beer 55^ 

Larrabee Biscuit Works, The 563 

Lasts 597 

Law Book Publishers 702 

Leather and Findings 594 

Lumber 607 

Machinery, Agricultural 573 

Maltsters and Brewers 5S6~S58 

Manufacturing Interests of Albany. 555 

Marble and Monumental Works 585 

Milling 561 

Nail Works 572 

Nickel Works 582 

Oil-cloth 599 

Oils 566 

Paper-Hangings 602 

" Works 602 

Pattern " 594 

Photography 702 

Piano Manufacture 600 

Painting, Plain and Decorative 599 

Pottery 587 

Powders, Baking 563 

Pork, Butchering 563 

Printers and Printing 699 

Saddlery rgi 

Sashes and Blinds 593 

Saw-Sets 580 

" Works 575 

School Furniture egg 

Ship-building 6qo 

Shirts, Collars and Cuffs 606 

Silverware cS,2, 

Sleighs and Trucl^s cg^ 

Snuff .....'.'...;.' 603 

Soap and Candle-making c66 

Special Officers Connected with the industries of 

Albany County ^29 

Spice and Coffee ^fi. 

Spokes ......'.'.'.'.'..'.'.'.".'.'.'.'.' 594 

Stationery j jj 

Steam Dyeing and Scouring ' ' . ' 607 

" Trap Company, The Albany . . 1:74. 

Stoves \ ;•;■ • ^'^ 

Table and Enameled Oil-cloths egg 

Tobacco and Snuff .' . 60? 

Tin Plate Goods and Japanned Ware. 1582 

Townsend Furnace and Machine Shop.... C72 

Towing Lines ' ' ' ^jj 

Trucks ^^ 

Trmiks ^§^ 

Vinegar rkd 

Wire Goods ' ^g 

Wood Machinery. ^ 

" packingBoxes..:::.'.;::;:;;.;;:;:::: ^^ 

Mayors of Albany — ■''^ 

Abeel,John.. g g 

Bancker, Evert g-ig 

Banks, A, Bleecker 5^5 

Barclay, John '."■.■.;■.:::;:: eei 

Jieekman, John Jacob 552 



Bleecker, Charles E 665 

' ' Jan Jaiise 658 

" Johannes, Jr 659 

" Rutger 660 

Bloodgood, Francis 664 

Coming, Erastus 661 

Cuy ler, Abraham C 66 1 

" Cornelius 661 

" Johannes 660 

De Peyster, Johannes 660 

Dudley, Charles E 662 

Douw, VolkertD 661 

Hansen, Hans 660 

" Hendrick 658 

H^oUand, Edward 660 

Humphreys, Friend 664 

Jenkins, Elisha 662 

Judson, Edmund L 665 

Lansing, John, Jr 662 

Livingston, Robert 659 

Paige, John Keyes 664 

I'armalee, William 665 

Perry, Eh 665 

Rathbone, Jared L 664 

Ryckman, Albert 659 

Sanders, Robert 661 

Schuyler, Uavid 659 

' ' Johannes 659 

John, Jr 661 

" Myndert 659 

" Peter ' . 658 

Spencer, Ambrose 662 

Staats, Barent P 664 

Swinburne, Dr. John 666 

Taylor, John ... .' 665 

Ten Broeck, Abraham 661 

Dirck 661 

Thacher, Geo. H 665 

Townsend, Franklin 665 

" John 66"; 

Van Brugh, Peter 658 

Van Rennselaer, Philip S 662 

Van Schaick, Sybrant G 661 

Van Vechten, Teunis 664 

Wessels, Dirck 658 

Yates, Abraham 662 

Medicine in Albany County, History of 206 

Meteorology of the County, Tables of, etc 32-33 

Mexican War, the 422 

Military — 

Cadets at West Point 429 

Grand Army of the Republic 712 

Independent Companies 713 

Military Organizations 709 

The Militia of 1775-76 401 

Revolutionary War, After the 263 

.Services of Albany Physicians 215 

War Loan Bonds 105 

" Proceedings of the War of 1862 93 

Mineralogy of the County 18 

Mortgages, Re-indexing 94 

Music in Albany 742 

Mutual Aid Societies 721 

Natural History of the County 29 

" " Society, The Dana 690 

Navigation of Hudson River, Opening and Closing of, 

164s -1 885 16 

New Capitol 450 

New Netherlands, The English Claim to 44 

New York Discovery of. 1,42,44 

Newspapers in County. See Journalists and Journalism. 

'■'■ Temperance 341 

" Published in Towns 378 

Normal School, The State 266 

New York State Library 688 

Odd Fellowship 719 

Officers City 478, 482, 


Officers Connected with Industries of Albany County, 

Special. . . . ' 429 

Organization and Division of County 69 

Outline Sketches of Towns in County 72 

Overseers of the Poor. See Poor. 

Paleontology of County 19 

Papers Published in Albany 375 

" Official County, The 96,99,121 

Parks, The Public 517 

Pavements , 507 

Penitentiary ^3)352 

Physicians, Biographical Notes of 241 

" The City 483 

Pier, The 489 

Polemics of Homeopathy in County 228 

Police Force 107 

Political Clubs - 721 

Poor, Overseers of 83, 484 

' ' Temporay Relief of 83 

" House 43> 432 

Population of County 273 

Post Office, U. S 436 

Private Property Taken for Public Uses 484 

Property Assessed ^ 107 

Provincial Assemblies and Conventions 418 

Public Education 694 

' ' Officers 442 

" Schools 695 

Quadrupeds of County 29 

Railroads in County 313 

Rainfall, Table of 33 

Real Estate, Valuation of 121 

Rebellion, War of, The 423 

Receiver of Taxes 482 

Records and Books the Public 122 

Religious Institutions 749-774 

Rensselaerwyck and Beverwyck 49 

Reptiles of County 30 

Revenue Office, The U. S. Internal 438 

Revolution, Commencement of 4 

'* Events of 6 

' ' First Court after 129 

Rivers 14 

Savings Banks 533 

Schools of the State g 

Schools, the State Normal 269 

" Commissioners in County 266 

" Superintendents in County 265 

Senators, U. S., from Albany County 356 

Settlement of Albany, First 48 

Sewerage 50^ 

.Shakers in Albany County 337 

Signal Service, The U. S 439 

Sinking Fund 472 

Slavery in County 300 

Sloop and Schooner Navigation 486 

Societies — 

Adelphi 746 

Agricultural, The N. Y 335 

Albany Bicycle Club 747 

" Curling Club 746 

" Citizens' Association 121 

" Missionary and Tract 727 

" Musical Association 744 

" Philharmonic 74c 

' ' Tennis Club 746 

" Women's Exchange 734 

" Women's Suffrage Society 73c 

" Yacht Club 748 

Apollo Singing ^Ar 

Association, The Albany Musical 744 

Sporting 745 

Bands and Orchestras 748 

Boat Club, The Mutual 747 

Cascilia Singing Society, The 743 

Canoe, The Mohican 748 



Chautauqua Literary and Scientific Circle 688 

Christian Temperance Union, The Missionary . . 733 

Dana Natural History Society 690 

Dickens' Club, The 691 

Freemasons 7'^ 

Fort Orange Club 746 

Gesang-Verein Eintracht 744 

Good Templars, I O. of 345 

Independent Order of Good Templars 345 

Indian Association, The Albany Women's 734 

Island Park Racing Association 745 

Knights of Pythias 720 

Military Bands and Orchestras 74^ 

Mohican Canoe Club 74^ 

Mozart, The 745 

Musical Association, The Union 743 

Mutual Aid Society 721 

" Boat Club 747 

New Harmonia 745 

Nott, The John C, Association 747 

Odd Fellows 719 

Philharmonic, The Albany 745 

Political Clubs 721 

Racing Association, Island Park 745 

The Ridgefield Club 747 

Roller Skating Rinks 746 

Secret Orders 718 

Social Clubs 745 

Society, Christian Friend 732 

" Temperance 340-344 

' ' Musical 745 

Sons of Temperance 344 

Sporting Association 745 

St. Andrew's Society, The 726 

St. George's Benevolent Society, The 726 

St. Vincent De Paul 728 

Suffrage Society, The Albany Women's 735 

Temperance Society, The 340-344 

" Sons of 344 

' ' Secret Society of 344 

Temple of Honor 345 

Tennis Club, The Albany 746 

Union Musical Association 743 

Walnut Club, The 746 

Women's Christian Temperance Union, The. . . . 733 

Workingmen's Assembly I2i 

Women's Union Missionary Society 734 

" Exchange, The Albany 734 

" Indian Association, The Albany 734 

Suffrage ' 735 

Young Men's Association 690 

" " Christian Association 727 

The Railroad 728 

Stage, The Albany Theatrical 703 

Steamboats 487 

Superintendents in County Schools 265 

Supervisors, Board of 80-123 

State of New York — 

Agricultural Society, The. . .- 335 

Attorney-General 442 

Board of Contract and Apportionment 483 

" of Health 186 

Buildings and Public Offices in Albany 441 

Canal Commissioners 443 

Capitol, The New 449 

" " Commissioners of 449 

" The Old 446 

Comptroller 443 

" Office of 97 

Census, 1814 to 1880 276 

Constitutional Conventions 441 

" Commissions 418, 441, 442 

Contest Concerning Clerk 97 

Early Legislative Acts Relating to 82 

Elections, Change of Time for Holding 82 

Electors 440 

Engineers 443 

Geological Hall 445 

' ' Survey, The 267 

Governors' Mansions 443 


Governors, The Lieutenant 442 

Hall, The New .... 446 

" The Old 444 

" The Geological 445 

Health, State Board of 116 

Inspectors of Weights and Measures 484 

Library of 688 

Legislature 444 

State of New York 441 

Statistics of II 

Mansions of Governors 443 

Normal School, The First 266 

Officers 442 

Public Buildings 441 

Railroads of 19 

Provincial Congress of 418 

Schools of 9 

Secretary of 442 

Treasurer of 1 13, 442 

Superintendents 450 

Surveyor-General 443 

Supervisors, Board of County, 35, 80-85, 9^' 99' '°^' '°9 

Surveyor-General, The 443 

Surveyors and Engineers 443 

Streets 504 

" Commissioners of 483 

" Department of 511 

" Improvements 512 

" Lighting 515 

Taxation, Equalization of ic6 

" Percentage of 98 

" Receiver of 482 

' ' State and County 117 

Teachers, Early, in Albany County 265 

Telegraph, The Fire Alarm 521 

Temperature, Table of 33 

Temperance Work in County 340 

" Newspapers 341 

Theatre, see Stage. 

Topography of County 12 

Towns or Albany County — 

Berne, Outline Sketch of 72 

Bethlehem, " ■ ' 73 

Coeymans, " " 74,75 

Cohoes, " " 75 

Colonic, " " 76 

Guilderland, " " 76 

Knox, " " -j-j 

New Scotland, " " 77 

Rensselaerville, " " 78 

Watervliet, " " yg 

Westerlo, " " go 

Town Boundaries, Alteration of %» 

Townships, Cities, Incorporated Villages, \'illages 

and Neighborhoods in County, List of 269, 276 

Travel and Transportation — ' 309 

Basin, The Albany .nq 

Bridges across the Hudson 403 

Canal, Erie: Its Relations to Albany 523 

Docks, Wharves and Basin 406^ ^nq 

Ferries '. ; ' ' ' ^gg 

Hudson, The Navigation of 485 

Navigation, Sloops and Schooners ' " 486 

Pi'^r. The ; ^gg 

Railways, The Albany r ;„ 

' ' Albany and Vermont 315 

" Albany and Susquehanna ' ' 314 

" Boston and Albany ^jr 

" Depots -.,» 

Street i' 

West Shore '.'.'.'.'.'..'. -17 

Sloops and Schooners, Navigation . . 486 

Treasurer, County . 98, 101,10?, 105, 108, 1 13, I22,355V446,482 

■''t<'^'<= 442 

United States — 

Buiklines, Public ,^^ ,-,[- ... 

Courts, Circuit ... ''^^' '^"^^ ^41 

" District :;;; ^^^ 



Congress, Representatives from Alljany 440 

Custom House 438 

Electors, Presidential 440 

Government Bnildings, see Buildings. 

Inspectors of Steamboats 438 

Internal Revenue Ufifice 438 

Institutions in Albany County 433 

Officers in Albany County 433, 439, 440 

Post Office in Albany 436 

Presidential Electors 440 

Representatives in Congress 440 

Revenue Office, Internal 438 

Senators from Albany Comity 440 

Signal Service 439 

Steamboat Inspectors 438 

Union of City and County Affairs 82 

Valuation of Real Estate, Increased 121 

Verrazano, Discovery by 44, 438 

War with France 4 

'* with Mexico 422 

" of 1812 7,419,422 

" of the Rebellion 423, 428 

" *' Revolution 4, 391, 419 

" King George's 387 

" " William's 384 

" Queen Anne's 386 

" Old French and Indian 388, 390 

Water Supply, The City 512 


Map of Albany and Schenectady Counties front. 

Old English Church and Fort Frederick 392 

Ground Plan of old Fort 394 

(iovernment Building 435 

(Geological Hall 445 

New State Hall 446 

The New Capitol 449 

The Steamer Clermont 487 

Plan of Albany, 1676 504 

". 1695 5°5 

*' Washington Park 517 

State Street, looking East 666 

The Wendell House 667 

The Stephenson House 667 

North Pearl and State Streets 668 

" " Street, above Maiden Lane 668 

" " " first view 669 

" " " second view 670 

Market Street, near State 670 

" " first view 671 

" " second view 671 

Old Staats House 672 

" Lansing House 672 

Van Der Heyden Palace 673 

Patroon's Mansion 673 

Schuyler Mansion 674 

Robert Yates' House 674 

Lodge at Rural Cemetery 675 

First Steam Passenger Train in America 677 

City Hall 678 

Old Normal School 679 

New Normal School 680 

Dudley Observatory 682 

Albany Academy 683 

Female Academy 686 

St. Agnes' School 687 

Lancaster School 695 

Albany High School 698 

Home for Aged Men 73^ 

The Old Dutch Church 749 

St. Mary's Church 751 

Old Dutch Pulpit 770 

Colvin, J. J. Residence 838 


Appleton, William Facing page 

Ames, Ezra " 

Bancroft, Le Grand " 

Boulware, J. R 

Bacon, J. N 



Belknap, G 636 

Becker, A. W. . ..' ,. . 794 

Baker, Cornelius V 795 

Becker, Hiram 909 

Burton, William 946 

Cooper, J. S Facing page 200 

Corning, Erastus, Sr " 535 

Chase J. G '. " 644 

Colvin, J. J ■' 838 

Cornell, Latham " 948 

Crounse, Henry P 864 

Crounse, Frederick 865 

Crary, Denison 885 

Crounse, Hiram 910 

Dawson, G Facing page 360 

Davis, W. G 866 

Davenport, S. B 886 

Eaton, J. W Facing page 448 

Emmett, J. K " 706 

Edwards, Isaac 201 

Fowler, A Facing page 233 

Eraser, H.D " 626 

Fuller, Aaron " 853 

Frederick, S. V 867 

Frink, Charles G 888 

Gray, James A 601 

Griggs, H 862 

Harris, Ira Facing page 147 

Harris, Hamilton " 162 

Hale, Matthew " 173 

Hand, Samuel " 179 

Hunter, Gilbert " 608 

Harper, Robert " 627 

Hawkins, H. D " 628 

Hunter, A. R " 643 

Hinckel, F " 559 

Hawe, Matthew 595 

Helme, Thomas 868 

Kinnear, Peter Facing page 597 

Learned, W. L " 169 

Lathrop, D. S " 576 

Lefevre, Isaac " 641 

Lundergan, John " 947 

Moak, N. C " 176 

Meegan, E. J " 188 

Manning, Daniel *' 365 

Munsell, Joel facing litle page 

Mather, Joseph Facing page 491 

McCredie, T •' 560 

McGarvey, M " 569 

McCarthy, T " 585 

McKissick, Stuart " 632 

Munson, S, L ** 606 

Mead, M. N " 616 

Merchant, Lansing " 628 

Miles, N. B " 638 

Meads, John " 639 

McKown, James A 199 

McGarvey, Charles M 570 

Moore, James C 583 

Manson, William 586 

Mattoon, David 616 

Moseley, Benjamin F 625 

Nott, J. C Facing page 185 

Northrup, J. N " 234 

Osborn, J. H Facing page 629 

Oliver, Robert K 590 

Perry, Eli Facing page 545 

Pumpelly, H " 549 

Pettengill, M " 563 

Perry, J. S " 571 

Pohlman, H. N " 772 

Parker, Amasa J 157 

Paddock, William S 197 

Parker, John N 588 

Patten, James 821 

Rossman, J. B Facing page 235 

Roessle, T " 653 

Read, M. H 550 

Smith, H Facing page igi 



Swinburn, John Facing page 236 

Shattuck J. A ". . " 589 

Sumner, Alanson " 617 

Scott, W. B •' 629 

Stickney, Leantltr 5^5 

Stephens, Thomas 591 

Sawyer, William 649 

Shaver, Peter 863 • 

Schoonmakir, Peter 884 

Tremain, Lyman Facing page 181 

Tucker, L " 369 

Thatcher, Gi.-o. H " 578 

Thatcher,]. B " 580 

Treadwell, G. C " 604 

Thomson, Lemon " 617 

Thomas, J., Jr " 645 

Tower, F. U " 633 

Tweddle, John 552 

Tenney, Jonathan 692 

Van Schaick, Tobias Facing page 400 

Van Allen, A " 553 

Vosburgh, Isaac W " 638 

Ward, S. B " 238 

Winne, Walter " 492 

Whipple, Squire " 494 

Wood, D. S " 574 

Wickham, R " 592 

White, Douglass L " 618 

Whitney, W.M " 623 

Weidman, D " 630 

Winne, John L " 799 

Willard, Sylvester D 240 

Wilson, James A 630 

Watson, Simeon 646 

Woollett, William L 741 

Wiltsic, Ambrose, Jr 796 

Winne, Jurian 798 

Wood, Thomas J 822 


Abeel, John 658 

Allen, Campbell 656 

Ames, Ezra 737-739 

Appleton, WiUi'am 558 

Artcher, John 584 

Bacon, Samuel N 564 

Bailey, Francis E 656 

" William Howard 241 

Baker, Cornelius V 795 

Ball, O. D 242 

Bancker, Evert 658 

Bancroft, Le Grand 194 

Banks, A. Bleecker 666 

Barclay, John 661 

Barker, James F 242 

Bartlett, Ezra A 242 

Becker, Albertus W 794 

" Hon. Hiram gog 

Beekman, John Jacob 662 

Belknap, Zebina 635, 636 

Bendell, Herman 242 

Benedict, Lewis 150-152 

Benjamin, Samuel G. W 737 

Bigelow, John Milton 242 

Bingham, Reuben H 503 

Blake, Adam 725 

Blatner, Joseph H 242 

Bleecker, Charles E 665 

" Jan Jansc 658 

" Johannes, Jr 659 

" Kutger 660 

Bloodgood, Francis ' 664 

Boughton, George II 737 

Bouhvare, Jeptha R 23 1 -233 

Bradley, John E 698 

Bronson, Greene C 139 

Brown, Henry K 737 

" Richard J 242 

Buel, Jesse 356, 357 

Burchard, Joseph J 919 


Burton, William 946 

Butler, Benjamin F 137-139 

Cagger, Peter 146, 147 

Campbell, Hon. Geo 973 

Cantine, Moses 1 357 

Carpenter, Francis B 737 

Chase, S. G 644 

Classen, Frederick L 242 

Cole, John Orton 655 

Colvin, John J 838 

Conklin, John Bliss . . 242 

Cooper, John Tayler 200, 20[ 

Corning, Erastus, Jr 540-545 

" Sr 535-538 

Cornell, Latham 948 

Crary, Denison 885 

Croswell, Edwin 359 

" Sherman 359 

Crounse, Henry P 864 

Frederick, M.D 865 

" Hiram, M.D 910 

Culver, Charles M 242 

Curtis, Frederick C 243 

Cuyler, Abraham C 661 

" Cornelius 661 

" Johannes 660 

Davenport, S. B 886 

Davis, Willard G 866 

Dawson, George 360-364 

Dean, Amos 143, 144 

Delavan, John Savage 243 

De Peyster, Johannes 660 

De Witt, Simeon 741 

Dix, Charles T 737 

Doolittle, Edwin S 737 

Douw, Volkert P 661 

Dudley, Charles E 662 

Durand, Asher B 738 

Eaton, James W 448, 449 

Edwards, Isaac 201 

" James 142, 143 

Elliott, Charles L 738 

Emmett, Joseph K 706, 707 

Fish, Frank H 243 

Fleischman, David 243 

Fowler, Amos 233-235 

Eraser, Henry D 626 

Frederick, Stephen V 867 

Freeman, James E 738 

" Daniel H 243 

Frink, Charles G 888 

Fryer, William J 621 

Fuller, Aaron .* 853 

Gansevoort, Peter 306, 307 

Gay, Edward y-ig 

Gorham, George E 243 

Gray, James A 601 

Gregory, Matthew gcj 

Griggs, Hiram 862 

Hailes, William 243 

Hale, Matthew .. . 17-- 175 

Hand, Samuel 170-181 

Hansen, Harris ggQ 

" Hendrick grg 

Hankins, Horace D 628 

Harper, Robert 627 

Harris, Hamilton \. ... 162-164 

" Ira , ., , .0 

Hart,JamesM 7,8 

" William '^°Q 

Hartley, J.S ::::::;:::::::; It^ 

Hastings, Hugh J " ' ' ^A 

Hawe, Matthew. . . ^^ 

Hayes, William N .'^ ....'!.'."! ! ." .' .' .' ' 244 

Helme, Thomas ogo 

Henry, John V '...'..! i'.!!! .'.'.■." wi \-\a 

Hill, Nicholas. . . ^}' \\% 

Hinckel, Frederick ...'. ' ^^' TZ, 

Holland, Edward... fS^ 

Huested, Alfred B... "?° 




Humphrey, Friend 664 

Hunt, William M 738 

Hunter, Andrew R 644 

" Gilbert 607 

Hunting, Nelson 244 

Huntington, Daniel 738 

Inman, Henry 738 

Jenkins, Charles M 78 

Jenkins, Elisha 662 

Johnson, William H 726 

Judson, Edmund L 665 

Keegan, P. J 244 

Kinnear, Peter 597 

La Moure, Uriah B 244 

Lansing Family 93 1 

Lansing, John Jr 131, 132, 662 

Lathrop, Daniel S 575-578 

Learned, Billings P 533 

Learned, William L 169-172 

Lefevre, Isaac 64 1 

Lewi, Maurice J 244 

Livingston, Robert 659 

Low, William H 738 

Lundergan, John 947 

Mack, Elisha 309, 656 

Manning, Daniel 365-367 

Manson, William 586 

March, Henry 244 

Macfarlane, Robert 607 

Martin, Homer D 738 

Mather, Joseph 491, 492 

Mattoon, David 615 

McAllister, John 244 

McCarthy, Thomas 585 

McCredie, Thomas 560 

McGarvey, Charles M 569, 570 

" Michael 569 

McKissick, Stuart 632, 633 

McKown, James A 199, 200 

Mead, Melvin N 616 

Meads, John 639 

Meegan, Edward J 18S-191 

Melius, W. B 114 

Merchant, Lansing 628 

Mereness, Henry E 244 

Merrill, Cyrus S 244 

ATilbank, William E 245 

Miles, Noah B 638 

Moak, Nathaniel C 176-178 

Moore, Edward 245 

" William 583 

Morrill, Frederick D 245 

Moseley, Benjamin F 625 

Munsell, Joel . ". 367, 368 

Munson, George S 245 

" Samuel L 606 

Murray, William H 245 

Nellis, Theodore W 245 

Nolan, Michael N 666 

Northrop, Joseph N 234 

Nott, John C 185-188 

Olcott, Thomas W. . 530 

Oliver, George W 656 

Oliver, Robert K 5^9 

Osborn, James H 629 

Paddock, William S I97. 'qS 

Page, William 738 

Paige, John Keyes 664 

Palmer, Erastus D 738 

Walter S 738 

Papen, George W 245 

Parker, Amasa J 157-161 

" John N 588 

Parmalee, William 665 

Patten, James 821 

Peckham, Rufus W 148-150 

Perry, Eli 545-549. 665 

- Isaac G 456 

" John S 570.571 

" T. Kirkland 245 


Pohlman, Henry N 772-774 

Porter, Charles H 245 

Pumpelly, Harmon 549, 550 

Rathbone, Jared L 664 

Read, Matthew H 550, 551 

Reynolds, Marcus T 139, 140 

" Porter L. F 246 

Riley, Joseph W 246 

Ritzman, Otlo 246 

Roessle, Theophilus 653, 654 

Rossman, John 1! 235 

Ryckman, Albert 659 

Sanders, Robert 661 

Sawyer, William 648 

Schoonmaker, Peter 884 

Schuyler, David 659 

" Johannes '. 659 

John, Jr 658 

" Hyndert 659 

" Dr. Nicholas 205 

Peter 658 

Phihp 397 

Scotl, William B 629 

Shattuck, James A 589 

Shaver, Peter 863 

Shelvin, Dennis P 246 

Skillicorn, John H 2^6 

Smith, Henry 191-194 

" S.L 739 

Slingerland, William H 742 

Snow, Norman L. 246 

Spencer, Ambrose 662 

" John C 141-144 

Staats, Barent P 664 

Starkweather, H. R 246 

Steenburg, B. U 246 

Stephens, Thomas 591 

Stevens, Samuel 140, 141 

Stevenson, James 663 

Stickney, Leander 565 

Stonehouse, John B 246 

Stringer, Dr. Samuel 205 

Sumner, Alanson 617 

Swinburne, John 235-237, 666 

Tabor, Azor 143 

Taylor, John 665 

Ten Brocck, Dirck 661 

Tenney, Jonathan 691-694 

Thacher, George H 578, 579, 665 

JohnB 579.580 

Thomas, John, Jr 645 

Thompson, John 246 

" Letron 617,618 

Tower, Franklin D 633, 634 

Townsend, Franklin D.. Jr 247, 633-635 

" John 663 

Treadwell, George C 604 

Trego, Thomas M 247 

Tremain, Lyman 181 -185 

Tucker, Luther 36S-371 

" Willis G 247 

Tweddle, John 351-353 

Twitchell, Asa W 739 

Van Allen, Adam 553-555 

Van Buren, Martin '35-'37 

Van Broeck, Abraham 661 

Van Brugh, Peter 658 

Van der Veer, All^ert 247 

Van Olinda, Gerrit (Death of) 97 

Van Rensselaer, Philip S 662 

Van Schaick, Sybrant G , 661 

" Family of 400 

" Tobias 400 

Van Vechten, Abraham 132 

" Teunis 664 

Vosburgh, Isaac W 638 

Ward, Samuel B 238, 239 

Watson, Simeon 646 

Webster, Charles R 371, 372 

Weed, Thurlow 372-374 



Weidman, Daniel 630-632 

Wessels, Dirck 658 

Wheaton, Henry G 144 

Whipple, Squire 494, 495 

White, Douglass L 618 

" Isaac ; 622, 623 

Whitney, W. M 623 

Wickham, Richard 592 

Wiles, Lemuel M 739 

Willard, Dr. Elias 205 

" Dr. Moses 205 

" Sylvester D 240, 241 

' ' James A 630 


Wilson, John 247 

Winne, Walter 492 

Wood, Darius S 574 

Woodruff, Dr. Hunloke 206-208 

Woolett, William L 740, 741 

M 740.741 

Wiltsie, Ambrose, Jr 796 

Winne, Jurian 798 

Wood, Thomas J 822 

Whitbeck, Andrew W 931 

Yates, Abraham, Jr 662 

" John V.N 134,135 

' • Robert 131 


Inaccuracies in proof-reading, easily corrected by any in- 
telligent reader, are not noted. 

Page t. — The note at the bottom of the page, contradicting 
the text, inserted without the knowledge of the writer, 
is regarded by him as making statements not founded 
on the best authority. 
Page 2. — Omit the two last periods in Chapter II, first par- 
agraph, beginning with "The Hudson River;" also, 
the gratuitous note at the bottom of the page. 
Page 14. — Last line, first column, read "2.61 feet" instead 
of " 17^ feet; " and in the note, a little less than three 
Page 41. — Under July, 1698, read "Hendrick Hansen" in- 
stead of " House." 
Page 43. — Last line save one, in first column, "probably" 
should read "properly." 

Page 73.— Line 11, from bottom of second column, read 
"Joel" instead of "Jared L." Mayer, 1838-41. Also, 
line 20, "Colonel Philip," of revolutionary fame, and 
not "Mayor Phih'p, " had his seat at Cherry Hill. See 
page 291. 

Page 618. — Tabernacle in place Emmanuel. 

Page 675. — First hne of note, read "Barnard" instead of 

Page 679. — David P. Page was first Principal of Albany 
Normal School. The " Legislative Act " was passed 
May 7, 1844. 

Page 6gi. — Read "Academian" in place of "Academi- 

Page 697.— In line 33, second column, read 1849, and 
' ' Lod ge " in place of ' ' Lady's " 



Aarnout, 777; Abbey, 375, 701; Abbott, 77, 177, 341, 376, 
406, 416, 419, 605, 703, 758, 870, 950, 971, 988; Abee), 41, 
126, 154, 155, 254, 354, 658, 659; Abercrombie, 389; Able, 
490; Ablett, 962; Abrahamse, 272; Abrams, 295, 936, 948, 
975, 997; Abuniss, 769; Acker, 152, 721; Ackerman, 637, 
716, 831; Acres, 621; Adams, 90, 98, 100, 102, 135, 156, 
175, 2og, 211, 224, 257, 263, 344, 354, 355, 373, 395, 415, 
419, 441, 474, 475, 479. 4*3. 485, 49'. 524, 533, 562, 568, 
650, 655, 677, 690, 691, 781, 784, 788, 789, 792, 793, 810, 
860, 874, 932, 951, 954, 956, 957, 960, 967, 968, 970, 973, 988, 
996; Addington, 152; Adey, 971; Adgate, 354, 406, 413, 
418; Adriensen, 294, 295; Adkins, 924; Adler, 789, 996; 
Adsil, 612; Aernhout, 906; Aga-ssiz, 682; Agnew, 245; 
Ahem, 308; Aiken, 957, 972; Ainsworlh, 425, 710, 711; 
Aird, 959, 964; Aitken, 970, 971, 972; Albani, 744, 755; 
Albaugh, 705; Albers, 717; Albcrse, 274; Albcrtsen, 489; 
Albright, 152, 892, 899, 901, 905, 907; Alcolt, 494; Alden, 
173, 266, 679, 749, 950, 956, 957, 958; Aldridge, 828; 
Alerdice, 971; Alexander, 88, 112, 154, 211, 340, 474, 479, 
500, 530, 531, 533, 534, 621, 677, 731, 793; Aley, 91, 92^ 
355, 912, 913, 916, 920; Alford, 424; Alison, 768; Allanson, 
106, 429, 717; Allcott, 443; Allen, 5, 90, 137, 152 159, 173, 
179, 211, 212, 384, 393, 394, 396, 406, 407, 421;, 474, 475, 
477, 478, 485, 486, 521, 532, 655, 656, 671;, 680, 710, 725, 
769, 8to, 812, 870, 871, 872, 874, 875, 880, 892, 895, 904, 
907, 963, 987; Allerton, 937; Alston, 927; Alberson, 814, 
817; Alvord, 639; Amber, 772; Amernian, 834; Ames, 529, 
632, 708, 718, 737, 739, 764, 765, 772; Amherst, 389, 390, 
400, 759; Ammenheauser, 587; Amsdell, 475,. 476, 479,519, 
556, 557, 558, 550; Amsden, 987; Anable, 426, 427, 475, 
592, 637; Andes, 7lo; Anderson, 103, 118, 180, 209, 304, 

430, 639, 739, 812, 819, 881, 926, 980, 987; Andre, 7, 912- 
A'?f'"'7«; 39, 152. 158, 175, 375, 376, 562, 613, 669, 830, 987, 
9SS; Andnessen, 294; Andros, 3, 10, 272, 289, 292, 379, 
380, 381, 383; Andrus, 694; Annesley, 737; Angus', 376* 
426, 545; Anthicr, 378, 969, 970; Anthony, 243, 305, 306' 
735; Anton, 450; Antwerp, 732; Appel, 252, 273, 291;': 
Apple, 156, 841, 842, 844, 845, 851,891; Applebee, goo 
907, 910, 914; Appleton, 558, 559, 708; Archambeault, 212, 
214; Archibald, 963; Arey, 266, 679; Argou. 750, Aristotle 
135; Arkell, 377; Arkles, 419, 782; Armitage, 962; Armour! 
606; Armsby 210 211, 213, 219, 220, 221, 234, 236, 242 
243, 244, 268, 498, 518, 737, 866; Armstrong, 355, 4io 
519. 870, 871, 873, 874; Amis, 906; Arnold, 6, 7 , &, Val 
395, 397, .399. 409, 534, 574; Artcher, 152, 156, 278, 279! 
419. 583. 584. 585, 635. 732, 735, 782, 860, 895, 896, 910. 
920, 923, 928, 942; Arthur, 80, 109, 266, 7CO, q/r 04, 
985; Asbury, 765, 786, 834; Asher, 9,:; Ashley, V^- 
Ashmead, 795 ; Aspmwall, 479, 597, 753; Astor 5^6 
Atherley, 2.1; Atherton, 419; Atkins, 750, 924; Atkinson 
969; Auchempo, 872; Auchempaugh, 870, 871, 872 871 
875; Auchmuty. 261; Aud, 559; Aukus, 385; Aultman, 
789; Austm, 92, 152, 474, 475, 480, 521, 527, 611, 684, 708 

i',^,-s!V969. ' ^'' ''^= ^^'^^'"' ''^= ^^"-^'594; 

Abbey, D. & S A., 375; Abbott & Crosby, 376; Abbott & 

^62": U-i^hf'.''^';™'''- "•■ ^^ ^°- 957; Ada1^s& Sprang 
562, Albiight&Stanwix, 152; Allerton, Duicher & Moore 

delV Geo"'! T%f'''?r' 957; Ames & Co. 632rAm:: 
Annl,.S\wfJ'''°- }^- 556; Amsdell Brothers 559; 

"^^li, ^i^o^S" '' ^"■' '''-■ ^™°''- ^°""^ 


Babbington, 347; Babbitt, 613, 964;Babcock, 89, 113, 115, 
156, 210, 211, 214, 219, 355, 375, 474, 479, 535, 544, 584, 
642, 652, 699, 743, 748, 761, 777, 780, 788, 789, 790, 792, 
793. o'9. 926, 928, 960, 997; Babington, 156; Bachelder, 
693; Bachelor, 832; Backer, 295; Backus, 345, 375, 500, 
613, 650; Bacon, 168, 564, 565, 758, 936; Badclo, 785; 
Badgeley, 625, 626; Badgley, 630; Bageley, 625, 626; 
Bagley, 337, 621; Bagwell, 750; Bahler, 834; Bailey, 74, 
156, 181, 198, 211, 212, 214, 219, 221, 241, 320, 399, 429, 

438, 439. 440, 44i> 474> 629, 65s, 656, 771, 784, 788, 792, 
844, 858, 956, 961, 963, 964, 968, 969 ; Bailley, 642; Bain, 
88, 529, 637; Baird, 180; Baker, 152, 188, 212, 220, 226, 
266, 311, 334, 383, 411, 424, 433, 526, 532, 534, 558, 621, 
675, 691, 780, 793, 795, 796, 8oo, 820, 829, 879, 887, 907, 
923. 924, 925. 926, 934, 969, 970, 973; Balch, 212, 219, 220, 
221, 222, 242, 485, 711, 739, 772; Baldwin, 155, 409, 410, 
4I3> 524. 564. 723, 950, 960, 977, 994; Balentine, 371, 375, 
700, 765; Ball, 212, 219, 242, 283, 287, 304, 401, 427, 597, 
716, 801, 802, 803, 805, 808, 809, 812, 813, 815, 816, 
817, 818, 819, 820, 874, 972; Ballagh, 812, 880, 899, 900; 
Ballantine, 560; Ballard, 188; Ballentine, 601; Ballock, 973; 
Ballou, 605, 977; Balsom, 420; Bamuis, 839; Bamman, 
652; Bancker, 41, 42, 349, 354, 464, 658,660; Bancroft, 
•77, 192. 194. 195- 196, 396, 476, 478, 479. 533. 613; 
Bandorf, 648; Bangor, 944: Banker, 154, 402, 841; Banks, 
no, 151, 152, 354, 355, 426, 477, 479, 480, 485, 519, 522, 
532, 626, 666, 6go, 702, 711; Bantam, 669; Bantliam, 599; 
Banyar, 262, 523, 528, 679, 760; Baptist, 274, 288; Barber, 
355. 358, 36S, 375, 632, 639, 722, 752, 819, 870, 879, 927, 
963; Barbour, 700; Barckley, 91, 427, 840, 871, 872, 875, 
880; Barclay, 39, 261, 274, 401, 403, 404, 406, 407, 412, 
414, 415, 417, 661, 759, 760, 826,'829, 841, 845, 883; 
Bardine, 179; Barent, 214, 671 ; Barentse, 385; Barentsen, 
46; Barliydt, 476, 477, 478; Baricauiky, 907 ; Baricker, 
406; Barker, 242, 354, 634; Barkley, 92, 870; Barlow, 154, 
523,828,872; Barman, 305; Barnard, 169, 268, 354, 367, 
375. 420, 440, 441, 532, 613, 691, 712, 934; Barnes, 377, 
410, 439. 570, 592, 690, 691, 702, 705, 735, 736, 942; Barnet, 
605; Barnett, 593, 987; Barney, 210, 213, 613; Barnum, 
712; Barr, 179; Barrentse, 385; Barret, 407; Barrett, 152, 
173, 186, 307, 308, 401, 704, 845, 846, 847; Barriiiger, ggi; 
Barron, 129; Barrows, 855; Barry. 356, 620, 750, 751; 
Barstow, 625; Bartlet, 987; Bartlett, 212, 214, 219. 242, 
308, 566, 567, 734, 744, 771, 841, 963; Bartley, 102, Barton, 
702, 854,855, 869,910; Bartow, 530, 531 ; Basset, 584; Basser, 
919; Bassett, 520, 771, 996; Bassler, 89, 725, 801, 802, 804, 
809, 810, 870, 871,872, 883, 911, 939, 940; Bassor, 919; Bastia- 
ense, 273; Batclielder, 479, 527, 532, 533, 625, 711; Batchel- 
le''.355. 592, 613; Batcher,870, 871, 872, 873, 874, 88i ; Batey, 
879; Batterman, 76, 77, 88, 8g, 156, 562, 740, 816, 841, 844, 
847, 848, 852, 860; Battersby, 353, 356, 564, 639; Battershali, 
550,553, 760; Battin, 516; Bauchry, 891 ; Bauer, 7o8;Baumes, 
785, 788, 793, 828, 829; Baxter, 768, 873, 874, 875; Bay, 
129, 208, 209, 210, 213, 262, 354, 405, 406, 409, 648, 677, 
768; Bayard, 291, 424, 754; B.iyen, 279; Bayeaux, 714, 

715. 716; Bayley, 526,963; Bayn, 647; Bayo, 559; Beach, 
168, 173, 183, 191, 376, 567, 996; Beak, 835; Beal, 310, 

439, 618, 964; Beam, 402; Bean, 969; Beardslee, 6go ; 
Beardsley, 90, 139, 149, 325, 342, 640, 924, 928, 983; 
Beasley, 7,9; Beattie, g73; Beaudry, gg5; Beaver, 841; 
Beck, 75, 208, 209, 210, 213, 215, 220, 221, 268, 3 6, 480, 
513, 626, 632, 643, 665, 684, 685; Becker, 80, 93, 103, 104, 
106, 118, 119, 127, 211,252,272,305,354,355,401,405, 
678, 713. 777, 781. 784. 788, 790. 793. 794. 795. 800, 805, 
806, 818, 836, 840, 841, 843, 846, 854, 855, S73, 882, goi, 
907, 908, 909, 910, 911, gig, g23, 925, 926, 931, g6l, g87; 
Becket, 47g, 480; Beckett, 211, 214, 218; Beckey, 156; 
Beckwith, 80; Bedell, 152, 648, 83g, 982, 9g5, g74; Bedford, 
220, 694; Beebe, gi, 634, 841, 846, 847, 848, 84g, 850, 
870, 872, 977, g8g; Beeby, 410; Beechez-, 417, 5g2, 617, 

716, 750, 882 ; Beecker, 252 ; Beekley, 154, Beeckman, 
10. 75. 354, 401. 402, 403, 407. 412, 417. 46g; 
Beekman, 126, I2g, 273, 333, 376, 620, 662, 671, 673, 832, 
844, 870, 871; Beeman, 420; Been, 127; Beens, 420; Beers, 
156, 544, 761; Begs, go7; Behan, 753; Belamy, go2. 915; 
Belcher, 563; Belden, 180, 860; Belknap, 474, 635, 636, 995 ; 
Bell, 212, 427, 428, 449, 474, 637, 715, 7g3, 809, 817, 847, 
849, 850, 874, 875, 883, 969; Belle, 420; Bellctti, 743; Bel- 
lini, 743; Bellomont, 3, 10, 274, 298, 299, 382, 385, 386, 

659; Bellows, 152; Belmont, 618; Beman, 344, 914; Bemet, 
625,923. 927; Bement,328, 32g, 330, 332, 333, 334; Bemerick, 
968; Bemis, g67; Bencker, 379; Benckes, 40; Bendell, 2(i, 
214, 216, 217, 439, 6gg; Bender, 89, go, g2, g4, g5, 96, 98, 
99, 378. 474. 479. 480, 534, 613, 629, 650, 777, 789, 7g3, 
800, 904, 905; Benedict, 150, (51, 152, 156, 355, 410, 438, 
530, 613, 614, 621, 637, 675, 677, 712, 743, 962, 968; Ben- 
jamin, 212, 227, 440, 737; Benn, 420; Benner, 448; Bennet, 
694. 9^3; Bennett, 152, 307, 613, 632, 639, 787, 793, 900, 
901, 904, 905, 925, 928; Bensen, 841; Bensing, 385; 
Benscotten, 850; Benson, 91, 534, 645, 727; Bent, 566, 567; 
Benthuysen., 494; Benller, 153; Bentley, 89, gr, g2, 
96, 98, 152, 402, 438, 710, 744, 925, 928; Benton, 266, 269, 
711, 958, g5g; Berger, 402, Beringer, 406, 703-4; Ber- 
nard, 125, 575; Berrian, 257; Berry, 27g, 354; Best, 402; 
Betts, 474, g8o; Bettys, 304, 393; Beune, g8o; Bever, 846: 
Beyea, 420; Beyer, 841, 844, 848; Bichat, 707; Bicker, 
8g4; Bicknell, 613; Biddle, 331; Biegler, 222, 223; Bierl, 
754; Bigelow, 109, 210, 212, 213, 214, 220, 221, 242, 690; 
Bigler, 325; Bilhaueser, 789; Bill, 93, 354, 642; Billsen; 
945; Billson, 931; Billings, 113, 115, 116, 118, 119, 121, 
177, 225, 226, 971, Bingham, 118, 286, 461, 474, 475, 476, 
477. 478, 479. 480, 481, 485. 503. 5'2, 742, 848, 84g, 963, 
967; Bininger,i7g; Binns,g67; Biofore, 308; Birch, 156, 230, 
437, 626, 793; Bird, 923; Birdsall, 304, 558, 613, 640; 
Birdseye, 169,952; Birley, 559; Birmingham, 475; Bishop, 
43°, 743. 762, 765, 928; Bissell, 961, 982; Bissels, 50; Bis- 
sikummer, 479, 652; Bizzee, 86g; Blachley, 883; Black, 
305, 750; Blackburn, 635, 934; Blackel. 694; Blackball, 
355; Biackman, 975, 982; Blade, 817, 818; Blaine, 174, 
366, 973; Blair, iig, 5g7, 8og, 812, 848, 858, 8gg; Blais- 
dell, 74, 211, 218, 426, 828, 82g, 833, 835, 839, 840; Blake, 
620, 652, 704, 707, 717, 725, 730, 735; Blakeman, 650; 
Blanchard, 137, 155, 156, 234, 424, 531, 572, 715, 716, 964; 
Blassie, 712; Blatchtord, 996; Blatner, 212, 214, 242, 644; 
Blayney, 768; Bleecker, 41, 42, 88, 126, 128, 155, 156, 
267, 299, 401, 403, 405, 406, 408, 409, 411, 412, 
413, 420, 440, 463, 465, 466, 477, 478, 493, 500, 
524, 528, 533, 534, 568, 589, 621, 658, 659, 660, 662, 
665, 671, 690, 944; Bleeckman, 400; Bleeker, 125, 
138, 273, 341, 354, 385, 741, 974, 975; Blendell, 242; 
Blessing, 331, 355, 420, 574, 634, 779, 841, 843, 848, 849, 
851; Blinn, 964; Bliss, 229, gg5; Block, 44, 775; Block- 
sidge, 599; Blodget, go, 835; Blodgett, 120, 784, 830, 832, 
834, 83g, 8g6; Bloemaert, 50; Bloemart, 13; Bloemendall, 
841; Blood, 154; Bloodgood, 200, 261, 279, 301, 327, 375, 
376, 416, 429, 438, 486, 498, 500, 526, 528, 529, 663, 664, 
665, 667, 714, 765; Bloomer, 785; Bloomindall, 841 ; Bloom- 
ingdale, 420, 613, 621, 850, 852, 853, 859, 906; Boardless, 
170; Boardman, 60, 61, 62, gi, 534, 600, 626, 743, 761, 76g, 
g24, 946; Bochlonitz, 624; Bocking, 765; ]3ocks, 170; 
Boehm, 743, 744, 745; Boer, 771; Bogardus, 41, 73, 90, 
127, 253, 273, 295, 354, 380, 708, 809, 817, 841, 846, 847, 
858, 871, 872, 873, 875, 879, 880, goi, go2, 905, 926, 939, 
940, gg4, 995; Bogart, 204, 272, 337, 405, 406, 424, 485, 
486, 500, 517, 768; Bogert, 408, 409; Bogue, 951, 957, 971, 
972; Boice, 792, 899, 907, 924,; Bolster, 820; Bond, 627; 
Bonday, 676; Bomiey. 73, 292, 734, 777; Bonsilate, 599; 
Bonzey, 874; Boom, 420, 826; Boomhower, 843; Boork, 
305; Booth, 118, iig, 526, 686, 704, 705, 789; Borghgaert, 
124; Borghghardt, 254; Borghgherdt, 126; Borden, 568; 
Bordwell, 637, Bork, 784, 808; Borst, 708; Bortell, 964; 
Itorthwick, 911; Bortle, 102, 479; Bose, goi; Boss, 683, 
6gi; Boitick, 716, 717; Bothrick, 643; Botsford, g82; Bott, 
517, 691, 744; Bottom, 971; Bouck, 11, 158, 443, 817; Bou- 
drias, 212, 214; Boughton, 266, 634, 736, 737, 739, 916; 
Bouler, 882; Boulware, 112, 214, 218, 231, 232. 233, 476; 
Bounds, 420; Bourgeois, 305; Bouton, 632, 728, 816, 817, 
913, gi6, g28; Bouse, 892, 902; Bowditch, 567; Bowe, 112, 
113, 115, 892; Bowers, 655; Bowman, 844, 845; Bowne, 
159, 226; Boycc, 212; Boyd, 210, 212, 213, 214, 220, 221, 
222, 375, 376, 377, 413, 500, 520, 534, 556, 558, 559, 579, 
6u, 621, 640, 641, 677, 685, 688, 745, g45; Boyington, 
749; Boyle, 154, 307, 474, 587; Braat, go8, g3r; Brace, 
261, 835, g78; Brackley, 870; Bradley, 73, 78, 227, 268, 
420, 440, 691, 697, 69S, 74g, 788, 8og, 810, 817, 820, g27; 
Bradford, 3, 46, 648,683, 685, 771, 7g7, 956, 9S1; Brad- 
bhaw, 41, 272; Bradstreet, 73, 390, 717, 780; Brad t, 42, 98, 
336, 405, 420, 474, 479, 490, 525, 632, 970; Bradts, 327, 
648, 776, 777. 778, 793. 8io, 81 [, 892, 894, goi, 902, 905, 
906, 907, gio, g32; Brady, 120, 121, 183, 355, 480, 573, 


645, 906, 977, 983, 994; Brainard, 438, 675, 694, 747; Bra- 
man, 354, 355, 987, 993, 997; Brandenburg, 425, 711; 
Bradford, 997 ; Brannigan, 65 1 ; Brandon, 702 ; Brandt, 36, 
410; Branet, 973; Brant, 7, 396, 911, 917, 919; Brass, 152; 
Brat, 272, 273; Brate, 711, 817, 892, go6, 910; Bratt, 272, 
274, 413, 429, 520, 776; Brayton, 156, 474, 652, 793; Bra- 
zee, 715, Breakey, 210; Breeckman, 379; Breed, 982; Bree- 
man, 559; Brennan, 116, 152, 306, 477, 478, 485, 752; 
Brenton, 694; Bresler, 112; Bretton, 635; Brewster, 98, 
820, 936; Brice (Bries), 73, 95, 96, 273, 385, 402, 585, 814, 
815, 987; Bridge, 564; Bridges, 582; Bridgeford, 450; 
Bridgford, 517, 861, 952; Bridgeman, 731; Bridgman, 592; 
750, 881, 900; Bries (Brice), 73, 95, 96, 273, 402, 385, 585, 655 ; 
Bridgen, 155; Brigham, 355, 426, 518, 927; Briggs, 212, 308, 
828, 830, 831, 832, 835, 839; Bright, 901; Brilleman, 479, 
Brinchall, 562; Brinckerhoff, 550, 572, 611, 635, 671; 
Brindle, 793; Brink, 410, 836, 940; Brinkerhoff, 540; Brin- 
tall, 420; Brisbin, 9; Briselt, 634; Bristol, 345; Bristow, 
743; Britton, 772, 906, 907, 987; Broadhurst, 156, 272; 
Brock, 76, 420; BrockhoUes, 10, 379; Brockway, 492, 
708, 951, 957, 962, 973; Brodhead, 43; Brodt, 841, 873; 
Broeck, 855; Broecks, 583; Bromley, 304. 490, 652; Bronck, 
295, 354, 406, 425, 438, 485; Bronk, 485, 681, 711,826,827, 
829,834,839,870,871,872,939, 981; Bronson, 139, 145, 149. 
154,170,210,680,686,749; Brook, 378; Brooks, 92, 160, 
212, 225, 354, 532, 537, 642, 711, 782, 788, 793, 894, 971; 
Brooksby, 586; Brother, 828; Brouck, 274; Brougham, 161; 
Broughton, 426, Brouwer, 50, 826; Brower, 426, 468, 582; 
Brown, 8, 77, 108, 109, 152, 210, 213, 219, 242, 279, 354, 

371. 375. 394. 395. 398, 407, 412, 420, 474, 475. 498. 500. 
526, 527, 544, 611, 643, 648, 672, 682, 690, 708, 716, 736, 
737. 744. 753. 759. 760, 761, 762- 764. 782, 801, 802, 814, 
841, 844, 846, 847, 870, 879, 881, 882, 911, 918, 923, 926. 

945. 951. 9^. 9^'. 9^2, 968, 970, 977, 984, 988; Browne, 
378, 442, 478, 479, 681, 716, 735; Brownell, 209, 420, 879; 
Broyce, 911; Bruce, 91,438, 584, 613, 892, 985; Brumaghin, 
307,479,533; Brummel, 725; Brundage, 785 ; Brunow, 377, 
683; I5runysen, 295; Brust, 852, 853; Bryan, 424, 519, 529, 
7to, 715; Bryant, 225, 582, 688; IBryce, 480, 481, 587; 
Buchanan, 152, 160, 177, 192, 194, 196, 519, 559, 715, 785, 
968, 970, 971; Buchar, 906; Bucher, 902; Buchler, 562; 
Buck, 860, 879, 880, 987; Buckelew, 926; Buckingham, 216; 
Buckley, 639; Buckmaster, 76; Buel, 90, 261, 268, 286, 
323, 328, 329, 333, 335, 354, 356. 357. 370, 373. 375. 376, 
378, 533, 534, 677, 700, 752; Buffingtoi), 212; Bulger, 306, 
752, 793; Bulkley, 114, 152, 173, 268, 421, 575, 621; Bull, 
'87, 334. 420, 836; Bullions, 684, 967; Bullock, 88, 211, 
329, 532, 613, 684, 785, 788, 789, 793, 837, 866, 890, 894, 
904,905,907,935,964; Bullsmg, 931; Bumford, 79,433; 
Bumps, 911; Bundy, 873, 875, 879; Bunza, 872; Bunzer, 
420; Bunzey, 420; Burbank, 210, 817; Burch, 479, 480, 665 ; 
Burchard, 919, 926; Burdett, 442; Burdick, 377, 378, 702, 
716, 843; Burdsall, 944; Buren, 213; Burger, 835, 960; 
Burgess, 422, 637; Burgher, 924; Burgoyne, 6, 76, 80, 131, 
206, 395, 396, 397, 398, 399, 416, 662, 674, 840, 922, 979; 
Burhans, 354, 424. 425. 635, 787. 789. 792. 793. 794; Burk, 
307. 749; Burke, 120, 181, 478, 480, 704, 729, 743, 749, 756; 
Burleigh, 791; Burley, 335; Burlingame, 152,476,690,744, 
875; Burnet, 4, 10, 382; Burnett, 422, 533,919; Burns, 304, 
601, 602, 711, 743; Bumside, 234, 401, 895, 907; Burr, 132, 
141, 261, 367, 440, 441, 674, 746, 934; Burrell, 558, 708; 
Burrett, 926; Burrows, 188, 210, 974; Burst, 850; Burt, 
211, 308, 426, 531, 556, 559; Burton, 88, 89, 210, 426, 566, 

946, 947, 950, 951, 964, 967, 968, 969, 973; Bury, 760; 
Bush, 244, 593, 690, 906, 927, 964, 966, 968, 973; Busham, 
713; Bushmore, 900; Bushnell, 541; Buskins, 785; Busley, 
605; Bussell, 793; Bussing. 777, 78r ; Bussey, 420; Butcher, 
881; Butler, 36, 75, 136, 137, 138, 139, 142, 156, 219, 226, 
268, 325, 341, 354, 359, 396, 410, 420, 440. 526, 568, 599, 
691, 755, 971. 982; Butterfield, 319, 321, 322, 323, 782, 847, 
879; Buyshe, 751, 843; Buzzee, 849, 850; Byers, 825; 
Byron, 703, 728; Byrne, 92. 

Babcock & Hopkins, 652; Babcock, Shannon & Co., 642; 
Bacon & Stickney, 564, 565; Bacon, Stickney & Co., 564; 
Backus & Whiting, 375; Bailley & Brooks, 642; Bailley & 
Howard, 320; Baker & Son, C. V. , 334; Baker, Waldridge & 
Halsted, 311; Ballentine & Co., Wm., 601; Ballentine & 
Webster, 371,375; Bancroft &- Co., H. A., 613; Banks, Bros., 
702; Bantham, Bros., 599; Barter & Bennett, 632, 639; 
Barber, John & Robert, 375; Barnes & Godfrey, 377; Bart- 

lett. Bent & Co., 566; Batchelder & Sherman, 625; Bayn's 
Sons, Benj., 647; Beach, Denio & Richards, 376; Becker & 
Hilton, 854; Belcher & Larrabee, 563; Belknap &Son,Z., 636; 
Bell & Ledger, 637; Bender, Martin & Thomas, 613; Bene- 
dict & Co., Lewis, 687; Benedicts Roby, 637; Benedict 
& Son, J., 613; Bernard & Co., F. J., 575: Birch & Co., 
Geo. A., 626; Birdsall, John & Geo., 558; Blackburn & 
Jones, 635; Blair & Kinnear, 597; Bleecker, B. & J. G., 671 ; 
Bloodgood & Van Schaick, 376; Boardman & Bro., G. 
626; Boardman & Gray, 600-2; Bogart & Cuyler, 517; 
Borden & Stowe, 568; Bouton & Gear, 632; Boyd & Co., 
613; Boyd & Bro., 559; Boyd & McCulloch, 558; Boyd & 
McHinch, 621; Boyd, P. & John I., 621; Bridge & Davis, 564; 
Briggs & Son, Wm. S., 830; Brockway & Kurtl, 957; Brower 
& Son, S. D., 582; Bryant & Stratton, 688; Bull & Wilson, 
334; Bullock & Co., 613; Bullock & Many, 613; Burdick 
& Taylor, 377, 378, 702; Burton & Co., Wm., 946; Burton 
& Vine, 626; Butterfield, Wasson & Co., 319, 321. 


Cabot, 2; Cacknard, 420; Cady, 134, 140, 179, 345, 762, 
969, 982; Cagger, 141, 146, 147, 173, 179, 185, 191, 197, 
476, 477, 676, 729; Cahall, 358; Cahill, 485; Cain, 972; 
Calder, 187, 427, 923, 924; Caldwell, 76, 92, 498, 500, 528, 
603, 620, 621, 625, 684, 937; Caley, 841; Calhoun, 373, 
644; Calkins, 967, 968, 970, 973; Call, 813; Callahan, 95, 
336; Callanan, 266, 777, 780, 789, 792, 831, 837, 894; 
Callans, 406; Callender, 612, 613; Callicot, 364, 377; Calve, 
379; Calvin, 259, 613; Caly, 841; Camberling, 677; Cameron, 
152,784, 850, 896, 963; Campbell, 152, 181, 210, 213, 260, 
268, 305, 355, 415, 420, 429, 477, 583, 613, 620, 684, 685, 
686, 694, 742, 750, 768, 771, 784, 847, 850, 851, 854, 875, 
881, 935, 943, 951, 958, 959, 964, 969, 973, 984, 987; 
Campion, 476, 477; Campston, 620; Canaday, 708, 818, 
871; Canady, 870, 872; Canassatego, 38; Canier, 931; 
Cannon, 989; Cantine, 357, 359; Cantwell, 634; Canull, 
817; Capron, 118, 119, 534, 561, 666, 850, 945; Capson, 
628; Carbine, 620; Carey, 98, lOO, 378, 480, 481, 485, 
620, 626, 7go, 818, 830; Carhart, 266, 304, 420, 688, 
780, 785, 832, 836, 860, 962 ; Carknard, 906, 907; 
Carl, 926 ; Carleton, 6, 394, 395, 737 ; Carlin, 94, 306; 
Carlisle, 480, 638; Carmichael, 438, 477, 675, 708; Car- 
mody, 729, 759; Carnell, 688; Carney, 306; Carnisie, 125; 
Carpenter, 226, 341, 377, 474, 476, 477, 478, 515, 699, 737, 
741, 850, 907, 926, 968, 970; Carperse, 272; Carr, 231, 272, 
305, 420, 475, 647, 648, 710, 717, 836, 905; Carrier, 564; 
Carrigan, 958; Carroll, 94, 108, 109, 221, 226, 306, 342, 
376, 420, 521, 556, 568, 613, 635, 674, 716, 737, 752, 837, 
840, 845, 907, 960, 962; Carson, 376; Carstens, 272; Cars- 
tense, 273; Carter, 180, 210, 213, 214, 321, 323, 375, 708, 
950, 968, 969, 973; Cartier, 758; Carthy, 981; Cartwright, 
69, 828, 927; Gary, 519, 613, 625, 644, 817, 951, 987, 988; 
Case, 210, 211, 212, 213, 214, 475, 496, 534, 701, 788, 848, 
851, 906, 941; Casey, 116, 118, 119, 120, I2i, 122, 478, 
479. 635, 699, 790; Casler, 212; Caspers, 304; Casperse, 
274; Gasman, 808; Cass, 152,841; Cassidy, 232, 306, 357, 
358, 359. 365. 366, 375. 376, 377. 406, 441. 442. 474, 475, 
517, 524, 525, 527, 564, 639, 676, 685, 690, 750, 751, 752, 
757. 773. 841, 987; Castle, 813, 926; Caswell, 713, 831; 
Caulknis, 985; Cavanaugh, 479; Cavart, 879, 880; Carver, 
648; Caw, 92, 968; Celeste, 704; Center, 500, 526, 530, 
605, 611, 621. 686, 926; Chace, 873; Chad wick, 420, 943, 
950. 953. 956, 968, 969, 971, 972; Chamberlain, 95, 425, 
482, 527, 533, 603, 677, 690, 711, 906, 935, 964; Chamber- 
Im, 711; Chambers, 90, 211, 295, 304. 392, 620; Champion, 
«72, 874; Chandler, 604, 621; Chanfrau, 705; Chapin, 211 
214, 425. 53'. 602, 625, 652, 677, 684, 736; Chapman, 90, 
92, 360, 534, 603, 611, 630, 632, 726. 737, 771, 785, 870, 
871, 874, 879, 917, 975, 976, 977; Charles, 533, 574, 637, 
052. 701, 750; Chase, 152, 564, 565, 604, 613, 644, 
645, 690, 711, 841, 872, 881, 996; Chatfield, 335. 424; Chat- 
terton, 785; Cheesbro, 90, 871, 872, 873, 874, 879, 880, 883, 
907; Cheesebro, 420, 966, 967; Cheesebrough, 604, 860, 
870, 900, 901; Cheesman, 765, 944; Cheever, 129, 155- 
Cheney, 209, 318, 593; Chesbro, 972; Chesebro, 108, 109 
III, 113, 115, 116, 355, 805, 806,860, 870, 879, 902; 
Chester, 152, 198, 346, 439, 559, 686, 699, 769, 923, 947; 
Chestnutt, 307; Chickering, 600; Child, 376; Childs 716 
926; Chism, 355, 843, 845, 849, 869; Chittenden, 677^ 916 



926; Chrisler, 874; Chrittenden, gi, 156, 399, 410; Christian 
566; Christie, 210, 902, 988; Chrysler, 872; Church, 98, 
281, 307, 710, 772, 815; Churchill, 701, 703; ChoUar, 977; 
Cirill, 840; Civil, 828, 833; Claese, 519; Claesse, 272; 
Clancy, 860; Clafflin, 179; Clapp, 521, 648, 749; Clapper, 
843, 906; Clark, 4, II, 90, 91, 116, 118, 173, 176, 177, 212, 
373. 374, 375. 420, 426, 428, 442, 443, 491, 531, 568, 573, 
oil, 613, 614, 617, 642, 647, 771, 778, 805, 820, 836, 844, 
848, 901, 907, 915, 920, 926, 928, 934, 957, 960, 969, 970, 
972; Clarke, 10, 42, 91, 210, 212, 377, 379, 382, 562, 621, 
643, 700, 950, 963, 970, 971, 973; Clarkson, 385; Classen, 
119, 121, 212, 242, 559; Claw, 127; Claxton, 375; Clay, 
'3^. '7S> '92. 280, 365, 373, 715; Cleever, 757; Clement, 
210, 412, 474, 499, 647, 835; Cleminshaw, 562; Cleveland, 
II. 174. 175. 176, 178, 366, 367, 444, 457, 563, 592, 716, 
717. 735. 911". Clickman, 870, 872, 881; Clifton, 704; Clin- 
ton, 4, 6, 7, 9, 10, II, 36, 129, 131, 132, 133, 134, 137, 141, 
177, 262, 264, 266, 267, 268, 275, 291, 328, 339, 357, 373, 

379, 387. 388, 396. 400. 403. 404. 405. 419. 443. 448, 500. 
518, 523, 524, 644, 662, 663, 676, 677, 690, 704, 737, 803, 
843, 844, 918; Clove, 3, 10, 46; Clow, 791, 817, 818, 879; 
Clowe, 907; Clowes, 683, 700, 759, 760; Clough, 95; Cluet, 
931,932; Cluett, 601; Clute, 77, 152,155,420,479,521, 
522, 632, 634, 635, 639, 841, 843, 846, 869, 880, 882, 883, 

934, 935. 939, 940, 943. 944, 950. 951. 958, 959. 96°. 968, 
969, 972, 973, 984, 987, 988, 995; Clyckman, 870, 87 1; 
Clymer, 220; Coats, 870, 985; Coates, 533, 806; Cobb, 212, 
568, 997; Cobes, 156; Coburn, 819; Cockburn, 815; 
Cocheris, 180; Cochoran, 205; Cochran, 76, 152, 679; 
Cochrane, 163, 183, 266, 355, 426; Coe, 712; Coeler, 879; 
Coeyman, 74. 292, 327, 824; Coffee, 613; Coffin, 154, 780, 
814, 958; Coggswell, 2ig, 236; Cogswell, 210, 213, 533, 
592, 748; Cohn, 152; Coit, i6g; Coke, 765; Colburn, 307, 
376, 420, 613, 743, 771, 995; Colden, 4, 5, 10, 156, 293, 37g, 
382, 392, 918; Cole (Koole), 160, 183, 194, 268. 307, 309, 
375, 376, 402, 420, 421, 438, 474, 476, 477, 558, 601, 602, 
655. 656, 657, 697, 699, 712, 714, 716, 719, 735, 736, 834, 
835, 839, go6, 914, 926, 936, 995; Coleman, 102, 103, 355, 
522, 527, 559. 995; Coles, 637; Coley, 677, 736, 749, 843; 
Coligan, 987; Collier, 140, 212, 274, 601, 635, 704, 743, 744, 
834, Colling, 329; Collins, 42, 124, 126, 127, 354, 355, 426, 
429, 832, 914, 948, 951, 977, 980, 987, 988, 991; Colliton, 
887; Columbus, 448; Colvard, 156, 354, 556, 913, 920; 
Colve, 380; Colvin, 74, 75, 92, 152, 156, 265, 277,286,287, 
291. 354, 742, 828, 830, 834, 838. 839, 840, 958; Colwell, 987; 
Combs, 478, 716, 717; Comings, 164; Compton, 880. 898; 
Comstock, 90, 175, 309, 359, 365, 375, 377, 438, 521, 655, 
657; Conant, 700, 846; Conboy, 973; Conden, 817; Condict, 
895; Condon, 104; Cone, 742; Coney, 93; Conger, 93, 94, 
96, no, 112, 113, 115, 116, 355, 420, 802,817, 819, 892, 934; 
Congdon, 781, 782; Connie, 354; Conklin, 242, 304, 526, 
814, 913, 916; Conkling, 143, 362, 440, 621, 813; Conley, 
152, 717; Conerogatchie, 300; Connell, gii; Connelly, 558, 
996, gg7; Conner, 278, 425; Connick, 596; Connolly, 305; 
Connor, 88, 8g, 120, 152, 705, g2o; Connors, 307; Conrad, 
38; Conroy, 676, 686, 72g, 730, 753, 754, 755, 756, g6s; 
Consaul, 940; Consaloe, 931; Converse, 832; Conyes, 920; 
Conway, 116, 118, 152; Cook, 118, 142, 152, 170, 212, 214, 
308, 373. 375. 477, 53°. 559. 594. 599. 625, 627, 684, 685, 
716, 717, 727, 736, 744, 748, 817, 906, 915, 963, 98g, 995; 
Cooke, 426, 619, 690; Cookingham, 226; Coole, gi i ; Cooley, 
613. 736 748, 906. 982: Coon, 345, 713, 849, 919, 996; 
Cooney, 860; Coonley, 635, 834; Coonleys, 832; Coons, 
gio, 911; Cooper, 127, 129, 134, 152, 155, 156, 180, 185, 
200, 201, 209, 442, 446, 500, 526, 567, 613, 699, 701, 732, 
735. 760, 777, 781, 785, 799, 827, 841, goi, 911, 914, 942; 
Coorn, 14; Coote, 379; Coper, 777; Copeland, 708, 832; 
Copp. 319; Copper, 681; Corbitt, 962; Corcoran, 485; 
Cordell, 307, 812, 941; Corlear, 385, 556; Corliss, 712, 713; 
Combury, 4, 10, 254, 292, 382; Cornelisse, 273, 274, 385; 
Cornelissen, 295, 6fi, 825; Cornell, n, 355, 361, 444, 450, 
489, 519, 564, 793, 814, 817, 834, 926, 948; Corning, 2g, 74, 
n6, 161, 268, 328, 329, 330, 331, 334, 342, 440, 441, 473, 
474, 475, 476. 477, 480, 491, 514, 515, 519, 526, 527, 531, 
532, 534, 535, 536, 537. 538, 539, S40, 54i. 542. 543, 544, 
545, 567, 572, 591, 611, 636, 637, 643, 662, 664, 677, 678, 
687, 690, 713,718, 729. 738. 745. 751. 761, 779. 79'. 934; 
Cornwall, 184, 914; Cornwell, 42; Corry, 127, 128, 129, 
g83, 990; Corstiaenssen, 2, 13, 44, 45; Corstiacnsen, 611, 
775; Cortell, 91; Corwin, 926, 963; Cory, 210, 943, 997; 
Cosby, 4, 10, 37g; Cosford, 765; Coss, 843, 86g; Costello, 

307. 343. 491; Coster, 273, 519, 659; Costigan, 525; Cott, 
gi2; Cotrell, 526, 533, 604, 634; Couchman, 813, 814, 915, 
gi6, 919, 921; Coughtry. 785, 894, 902, 903; Coulson, 427, 
766; Coup, 593; Countermine, 735, 770; Countryman, 114, 
152, 153, 160; Courcelles,382; Couse, 785, 788, 793 ; Courtney, 
156, 163, 164, 342, 343, 490, 570, 744, 877, 905; Courtright, 
344; Covel, 406, 749; Covelens, 252; Covenhoven, 841; 
Coveny, 971, 972; Covert, 437, 877, 9g2; Covill, 74; Cowan, 
170; Cowell, 475; Cowen, 145. 149; Cower, 958; Cowper- 
thwaite, 257; Cox, 222, 225, 226, 229, 329, 474, 475, 839, 977; 
Coy, 210; Coyendell, 489; Coyle, 355, 756; Crab, 592; 
Crabbe, 669; Craft, 477, 642; Cragiers, 935; Craig, 211, 
213, 214, 218, 221, 425, 438, 439, 474, 477. 613, 614, 834, 
861,970; Cram, 841; Cramer, 623, 940, 941, 989; Gramme, 
843, 869; Crampton, 813; Crandall, 156, 227, 402, 420, 519, 
928; Crane, 613, 620, 621, 640. 652, 690, 951; Crannell, 
152, 637, 714, 735; Crary, 420, 817,870,871,872,873,874, 
875,879,880,882,883,885,887; Cranse, 970; Cranston, 
971; Crantz (Crounse), 401, 402; Craven, 102, 103, no, 
113, 115, 116, 117, 119, 120; Craver, 788, 977; Craw, 744, 
834; Crawford, 74, 154, 174, 213, 319, 355, 373, 553, 635, 
786, 820, 894, 961, 973, 977, 980, 995; Crawley, 307; 
Creble, 355, 792, 893, 902, 904. 90;, 910; Crehan, 527; 
Cregier, 273, 931; Crippen, 266, 814; Cristtle, 971; Critten- 
den" 268, 561, 686; Crocker, 91, 613, 789, 820, 911, 914, 
926, 927, 996; Crofts, 622; Croysant, 580; Crol, 204, 271; 
Crombie, 821; Cromwell, 226; Cronk, 828; Crook, 564, 633; 
Crooke, 127; Crooks, 906, 987; Croorn, 54, 55; Cropsey, 
739; Crosby, 90, 200, 210, 354, 376, 440, 594, 820, 982, 
984; Crost, 972; Croswell, 358, 359, 374, 375, 531, 701; 
Crothers, 212; Crounse, 90, 93. 210, 211. 212, 420, 425, 426, 
811, 812, 840, 841, 843, 844. 846. 847, 848, 850, 851, 854, 
855, 856, 857, 865, 869, 871, 872, 873 877, 879, 881, 882, 
883, 887, 894, 900, 904, 905, 906, 907, 908, 910; Crousler, 
899, 901; Crowe, 854; Cruikshank, 652; Crukshank, 376; 
Crumb, 833; Crummy. 562; Cruttenden, 652; Cucchiarini, 
756; Cuddy, 119, 120, 121; Cull, 521, 749; Cullen, 230, 613, 
839, 997; Cullinan, 984; CuUings, 613, 895; Culvard, 804, 
805; Culver, 213, 242, 804, 911, 916. 943, 997; Cumming, 
632; Cummings, 306,605,769,777,781,817,977; Cunning- 
ham, 474, 713, 983, 987; Curley, 747; Curran, 355, 802; 
Curtis, 139, 203, 212, 214, 2ig, 221, 222, 243, 345, 378, 402, 
604, 618, 8[ 1, 95g, 973,974, 980, g84; Curtin, 753; Curtius, 
25i;Cu3hing,342;Cushman,5i9, 651, 705, 706, 971;; Cutchen, 
8g5; Cutler, 98, 152, 324, 355, 593, 624, 725; Cutter, 744; 
Cuyler, 41, 42, 90, III, 134, 156, 210, 261, 273, 342, 354, 
364. 377- 385. 401. 403. 405, 406, 407, 409, 412, 413, 416, 
418, 446, 467, 468, 477, 478, 480, 517, 521, 526, 527, 528, 
620, 621. 658, 660, 661, 664, 67g, 708, 716, 744, 760, 934; 
Cagger & Hand, 173, 179; Cagger, Porter & Hand, 179, 
185; Cagger & Porter, 179; Calder & Son, W. D., 924; 
Caldwell. Frasier & Co., 937; Calvin, Cooley & Co., 613; 
Campbell & C'u-)e, 959, 960; Carlisle & Hill, 638; Carwell 
& Carhart, 688; Carr & Clark, 647; Carro'l, J. H. & 
Colburn, W. M., 376; Carroll, J. K. & McDonald. 
D-, S57; Carrier, J. T., 564; Cary & Salisbury, 613; 
Capron & Woolverton. 561; Chadwick & Cor, 956; 
Chandler & Starr, 604, 621; Chapin & Co., D., 602; Charles 
& Co., 574; Chase & Co., L. A., 564, 565; Chase & Co., 
S. G., 645; Chase & Delehanty, 152; C'hri-tlan & Bros., J. 
M., 566; Churchill & Abbey, 700; Clark, Decker & Gardner, 
805; Clark & Hale, 173; Clark & Holsapple, 957; Clark & 
Van Alstyne, 4gi ; Clarke, Geo. W. & Thomas J. J., 377; 
Claxton SBabcock, 375; Clement & Grose, 647; Cleminshaw 
& Son, J. B , 562; Cleveland Bros, 563; Cluett & Sons, 
601. 634; Coats & Smith, 806; Coffee, Biuce & Co., 613; 
Coffin&Co., Wni. E., 958; Coleman &Bro., 557, 559; Coles 
& Woodruff, 637; Collender & Mason, 613; Collin & Jones, 
951; Conkling & Herring, 621; Cook & Son, Adam, 594; 
Cook&Meutch, 559; Cook & Co., Wm., 625; Coolidge' 
Pratt & Co., 556, 55g; Coonley & Waldron, 635; Corning & 
Co., 637; CominiT, Horner & Winslow, 540; Corning & 
Latham, 33 1 ; Corning & Norton, 567, 572; Corning & Walker, 
(>i,6\ Cornini; & Winslow, 541 ; Cottrell & Leonard, 604, 634- 
Cowen & Hill, 145; Crab& Doig, 5g2; Craft, Wilson & Co.,' 
642; Cranston & Belden, gg?; Crawford & Livingston, 635; 
Croswell & Co., H., 375; Croswell & Frany, 375; Croissant 
&Bro.,58o; Crook& Co., Thos. P., 564; Crounce& Hilton, 
854; Cullen & Jones, 613; Curtis & Co., 957, 959; Curtis, 
Beals & Fearing, 618; Cushman & Co., P., 651 ; Cuyler, 
Gansevoort & Co., 620; Cuyler & Henley, 377. 




Dailey, 907, 964, 987; Dalchen, 743; Dale, 694, 695; 
Daley, 701; Daliba, 433; Dalton, 476, 612; Daly, 103, 104, 
109, no. III, 112, 476, 478, 983; Damon, 814, 877; Damp, 
307; Dana, 690, 691; Danaher, 738; Dane, 870, 879; Dan- 
forth, 173, 179,920; Dane, 100; Dangler, 125; Danhauser, 
439; Daniels, 567, 571, 881; Dankers, 297, 298, 327, 844; 
Danks, 425; Dann, 985; Dans, 855; Dantz, 848; Dare, 918; 
Daretha, 295; Darling, 769; Daucliy, 945; Davenport, 762, 
870, 871, 873, 874, 884, 886, 887, 914; David, 417; David- 
son, 91, 212, 334, 355, 489, 530, 533, 534, 537, 637, 65s, 
788; Davis, 90, 92, 183, 184, 195, 212, 257, 308, 340, 354, 
415, 425, 438, 494, 564, 600, 602, 613, 621, 628, 632, 642, 
646, 648, 690, 711, 744, 769, 771, 780, 784, 787, 803, 812, 
816, 817, 818, 830, 831, 832, 834, 839, 841, 843, 846, 851, 
853, 858, 859, 860, 866, 869, 875, 920, 922, 973, 995; Daw, 
967;' Dawson, 358, 360, 361, 362, 363, 364, 377, 392, 413, 
426, 438, 480, 517, 519, 701, 702, 713, 960; Dawyer, 826; 
Day, 152, 750, 788, 865, 907, go8; Dayton, 83, 89, 104, 106, 
108, 109, no, III, 112, 210, 354, 527, 818, 844, 908, 913, 
916, 920, 962, 991, 995, 997; Deacon, 989; Dean, 143, 144, 
160, 169, 202, 220, 230, 341, 344, 376, 417, 438, 486, 675, 
680, 681, 690, 762, 769, 972; Dearstyne, 485, 491; Dear- 
born, 8; De Bakker, 295; De Baum, 940, 941; De Bow, 
300; De Brouwer, 273; Ue Callieres, 383, 505; De Camp, 
945; de Chaslellux, 674; De Chaumont, 335; Decker, 
757, 805, 814, 854, go6; Derkerman, 744; De Decker, 
46, 65, 301; Dederick, 573, 589, 728; De Forest, 90, 91, 
273, 402, 420, 540, 613, 690, 841, 846, 893; De Freest, 
401, 402, 407, 785, 843, 869; De Freist, 932; De Freisto, 412; 
D'Foreest, 273; Degan, 479; Degarno, 621; De Graff, 211, 
568, 677, 788, 849, 852, 855; De Grove, 639; De Haas, 932, 
934, 939; De Heyden, 794; De Hinse, 205; De Hooges, 294; 
De Hulter, 582; Deilz, 354, 801, 802, 804, 806, 808, 809, 
812, 814, 815, 817, 8ig, 820, 822, 853, 855, 872, 917; 
De la Barre, 3; de la Court, 288; De Laet, 13, 50; De La- 
fayette, 797; Delahanty, 355, 638, 699, 973, 974; De Lain- 
court, 497; De La Mater, 266; De Lamater, 209, 211, 
907; Delamater, 219, 788, 915; De Lancey, 4, 155, 261, 
379, 382, 388, 405, 413; De Lancy, 10, 128, 156, 392, 541; 
Delaney, 968; Delano, 980; Delavan, 216, 225, 226, 243, 
335. 341, 342, 375. 376. 439. 459. 500. 531. 652, 684, 729, 
752; De La Vergne, 928; Delehanly, 98, 152, 474, 475, 
476, 478, 479, 515, 519, 597; Delevan, 690; Dellius, 41, 272, 
466, 659, 771; De Long, 96, 793, 830, 892, 893, 903, go6, 
910; Delong, 98, 354, 852, 894; Delve, 996; De Maiollo, 
I; De Marguerites, 705; Demarest, 809, 926, 939, 940; De 
Marks, g35; Demerest, 899; De Meyer, 253; De Milt, 951; 
Demgen, 789; Doming, 152; Dempsey, igo; Demers, 361; 
Denaher, 152; Denbergh, 934; Denio, 159, 281, 282, 286, 
287, 367, 375, 376, 934; Denison, 7 1 1, 801, 814, 8lg, 823, 
870, 879; Dennian, 267; Dennick, 210, 788, 902, 907, 908; 
Denier, 705; Dennison, 103, 104; Denniston, 525, 529, 620; 
Denny, 704; Dcnonville, 3; De Norman, 73; Dent, 553; 
Depew, 450; De Peyster, 42, 155, 379, 661; de Peysler, 
660; Derboos, 926; Derby, 613; De Reamess, 8g2; de Rens, 
51; de Rham, 445; De Ridder, 7g4; de Rochambeau, 674; 
De Roseers, 973; Dermott, 982; Derveer, 214; De Sales, 
752; De Salle, 729; Desmond, 308; DestiUator, 763; De 
Tiere, 587; Develin, 983; Devendorf, 629; Devereaux, 526; 
Devereux, 104, 106, 108, 914, 915, gi8, 919, 920; Devine, 
igi; Devoe, 90, 92, 93, 401, 766, 809, 817, 820, 826, 841, 
843, 847, 849, 906; Devol, 211, 235, 295, 86i; De Vries, 13, 
53; Devyr, 376; De Wever, 273; Dewey, 176; De Witt, 44, 
-152, 171, 26r, 267, 336, 440, 443, 446, 447, 523, 526, 527, 
529. 531. 534, 613, 635, 735, 741. 761. 771, 772, 919; De 
Wolf, 234, 450; Deyermand, 47g; Dexter, 89, 640, 647, 648, 
667; Deyo, 726; De Zeng, 76; De Zouche, 212; Dibble, 
gri; Dick, 42, 127; Dicker, 987; Dickey, 568, 571; Dicker- 
man, 479, 481, 521, 706, 710, 717; Dickerson, 179; Dickin- 
son, 163, g25, g75; Dickson, 210, 436, 517, 632, 716, 726, 
740, 771, 788, 893, 904, go7, 924; Diedrick, 936; Diefen- 
dorf, 811; Dieskau, 389; Dietz, 73, 401, 441, 55g, 597, 598, 
723, 844; Dillenbeck, 613; Dillius, 39; Dillon, 47g; Ding- 
man, 274, go6, go7; Dings, g4i, g45; Dingwell, 335; Din- 
neford, 704; Dircks, 125; Dirkse, 272, 273; Disbroe, g7i; 
Disbrow, g2, g3, 354, g23, g26, g28; Dix, 11, 178, 268, 26g, 
354. 375. 376. 440. 442, 444. 448. 675, 6g2, 715, 737, 760, 
g64; Dixon, 441, 585, 586, 587, g67, g68, 971,972,973; 
Doane, 544, 687, 759, 760, 761, 762, 960, g6i; Dobler, 55g; 

Dockstader, g68; Dodds, 425, 711; Dodge, 102, 103, 104, 
605, 619, 937, 960, 962, 971; Dodworth, 744; Doelker, 731; 
Doerscher, 934; Doherty, 626; Doig, 592, 800, 810; Dolan, 
92, g87; Dollar, 841, 901, 903; Dom, 987; Domery, 655; 
Domke, 789; Donahoe, 474, 479, 480; Doncaster, 521, 
594, 972; Dongan, 10, 12, 69, 71, 72, 272, 289, 298, 379, 
383. 458, 461. 463. 657. 987; Donge, 726; Dongon, 3; Don- 
Ion, 968; Donlop, 556, 752; Donnelly, 147, 307; Donohue, 
476, 987, g88; Donovan, 716; Doody, 98; Dooley, 98; 
Doolittle, 197, 737, 915; Doran, 677, 729, 753, 756; Dore- 
mus, 734; l^orman, 354, 831, 923, 928, 989; Dornett, 637; 
Dorr, 155, 210, 440, 529, 603, 934; Dotey, 971; Dotter, 
102, 103, 108; Doty, 354, 800, 806, 809, 820, 886, 951, 964; 
Doubleday, 700; Dougherty, 656; Douglas, 841; Douglass, 
230, 526, 532, 571, 611, 620, 637, 708; Douw, 40, 42, 128, 
129, 155, 261, 273, 274, 337, 353, 385, 391, 399, 401, 405, 
407, 411, 412, 413, 418, 469, 494, 528, 534, 572, 611, 620, 
621, 632, 642, 660, 661, 679, 731, g45; Dover, 848; Dowd, 
91; Dowdney, 761; Dowling, 565; Downey, 308; Downing, 
152, 245, 333, 375, 747; Dows, 558, 644; Dox, 156, 340, 
401, 438, 442; Doyle, 154, 568, 957, 968, 971, g73; Draeyer, 
156, 380; Drake, 424, 550, 704, 752, gi2, 914; Draper, 152, 
198, 346, 355, 6g"g; Drew, 48g, 705; Dreyer, 152; d'Rid- 
der, 385; Drisius, 251; Drum, 924; Drumm, 843, 869; 
Drummond, 789; Duane, 42, 130, 131, 354, 410, 523, 622; 
Dubois, 413, 420, 940, 926, 988; Du Bois, 212, 230; Du- 
buque, 620; Ducharne, 427; Dudley, 173, 354, 440, 524, 
526, 529, 611, 662, 663, 677, 682, 732, 738, 751, 752; Duel, 
817; Duell, 877; Duer, 131, 138, 142, 154, 267, 354, 359, 
373, 760; Duff, igo; Duffan, 752; Duffy, 304, 376, 704,705, 
750. 751. 970. 973. 977. 988; Dugan, 308, 638, 763; Dugas, 
756, 757, 758; Dugast, 966; Dulin, 343; Dummer, 621, 637; 
Dumont, 103, 8gg; Dunbar, 305, 760; Duncan, 354, g62, 
g63, g64; Dunham, 613, 616, g77; Dunison, 402; Dunkel- 
meyer, 2ii; Dunlap, 558, 703, g42, g45, 962; Dunlop, 
go, 91, 260, 355, 559, 560, 694, 752, 977, 982, 991; 
Dunmore, 5, 10; JJunn, 328, 332, 334, 621, 647, 651, 
671, 686, 687; Dunnigan, 164, 306, 307; Dunphy, iig; 
Dunsbach, 308, g35, g^S; Dunscomb, 613; Dupany, 305; 
Durand, 58g, 737, 738; Duran, 738; Durant, 78, g2, 500, 
526, 534, 611, 621, 632, 633, 63g, 650, 699, 744, 770, 913, 
987, 997; Durfee, 850; Durfy, 820; Duryee, 27g; Dusen- 
bury, 210, 613; Dutcher, 147, 613, 74g, 870, 871, g37, g84; 
Duyster, 4g; Duyvepagh, 931; D'Wandeluer, 272; Dwight, 
194, 266, 268, 321, 375, 376, 377, 430, 606, 639, 679, 716, 
743, 803; Dwyer, 108, 109, 481, 485, 651, 717, 963, 997; 
Dyckman, 46, 61, 62, 65, 297; Dyer, 92, 152, 266, 308, 
817, 819, 820, 926, 977; Dyne, 406; Dyness, 306. 

Dalton & Kihbe, 612; Davenport & Crowe, 854; Dav- 
enport & Fredericks, 854; Davis & Bancroft, 195; Davis 
& Center, 438; Davis & Co., R. C, 642; Davis & Craft, 
642; Davis, Craft & Wilson, 642; Davis & Son, J. A., 600; 
Davis & Van Vecliten, 195; Dawson & Co., 377; Dawson & 
Lennox, 960; Dayton, Ball & Co., 597; Dederick Bros., 
589; Dederick & Co., P. K., 573; De Forrest, Patlen & 
Co., 613; De Graff & Co., O. D., 568; Delehanty & Son, 
M., 638; Denio, John & Richards, Seth, 375; De Witt & 
Nephew, 613; De Witt & Spoor, 152; Dey, Wm., 646; 
Dickson & Son, V. A., g24; Douw & Co., V. P., 642; 
Dows & Gary, 644; Draper & Chester, 152, ig8; Drum & 
Possom, g24; Duffy & Forrest, 704; Duffy, McCuUoch & 
Angus, 376; Dunham & Co., J. W., 613; Dunn & Co., R. 
G.,641, 671; Durant & Co., 632, 63g; Durant & Elmore, 
63g; Durant & McKissick, 632; Durant, W. & C, 632. 

Eadie, g23; Earl, 881, 882, 901, 905, 974; Earle, 159; 
Earls, 841, 849; Earley, 91, g2, g3. 834; Early, 94; Easterly, 
420,646; Eastman, 113, 115, 430, 643, 937; Easton, 16, 268, 
394. 613, 614, 678, 690, 699, 861, 993; Eastwood, 963, 971, 
972; Eaton, 152, 261, 267, 448, 449, 450, 498, 587, 613, 614, 
728, 743, 800, 882, 9g5, gg6; Ebel, 562; Eberling, 763; 
Ebert, 562; Eccles, g7i, 972; Ecclesine, 168; Eckhart, 907; 
Ecker, 128, 152, 872, 875, 876, 923, 927; Ecob, 733, 769; 
Eddington, 906; Eddy, 173, 523,960; Edgar, 9g6; Edgerton, 
420, 740, g96; Edie, 896; Edmeston, 98, gg, 100, 211, 218, 
613; Edmonds, 157, 158, 211, 281, 344, 708; Edson, 559, 
690; Edward, 42, 78; Edwards, 141, 142, 143, 152, 170, 
189, 201, 202, 203, 342, 533, 680, 681, 6gg, 834, gii, 912, 
960; Egan, 951, g7o, g73; Egberts, 8g, 132, g5o, g56, 957', 



961, 967, 968, 969; Egerton, 518, 519; Eggleston, 559; 
Ehle, 621; Ehler, 573; Eidlitz, 450; Eights, 209, 213, 214, 
267, 401, 407, 498, 620,669, 725, 946; Elbertsen, 295; Eld- 
ridge, 567, 814; Elias, 621; Eliot, 39; Elis, 911; Elkins 13, 
45, 458, 648, 706, 725, 775; Ellicott, 524; Elliott, 379, 
429, 524. 737. 738; Ellis, 119, 372, 617, 650; Ellison, 249, 
267, 759, 760, 765; Ellmaker, 950; Ellsworth, 425, 736, 
Elmendorf, 73, 212, 420, 648, 669, 731, 771, 835; Elmore, 
639; Elsass, 854; Ely, 835: Embury, 761; Emerich, 919; 
Emerson, 752, 961; Emery, 474, 832, 903; Emmet, 132, 
134, 135, 141, 592, 945; Emmelt, 706, 707; Emmons, 
t8o, 220, 267, 333, 375; Emmott, 844; Emory, 218; 
Emrick, 911; Enders, 034; Enearl, 950; Eneral, 971, 
Engel; 652, 743, 805, 811, 818, 817, 820, 870; Engle- 
hart, 91; English, 918; Ennis, 770, 941 ; Enos, 420; En- 
sign, 951; Erdmann, 748, Ericsson, 541; Ermand, 77, 
646, 690; Erskine, 193; Ertle, 754; Ertzberger, 420; Erwin, 
305, 781,892, 901, 903, 905, 906,910, 911; Esleeck, 525; 
Esselslyn, 406; Estes, 377; Estway, 7Si,'789; Evans, 237, 
410, 427, 477, 526, 592, 645, 940, 967, 977, 982; Evart, 940; 
Evarts, 148, 161, 175, 180, 191, 212, 287; Everett, 168, 
682, 685, 750; Evers, 355, 474, 477, 478, 559; Everts, 948; 
Evertse, 10, 379, 519; Everisen, 535, 633, 722; Evertson, 
5'9. 535.980; Ewen, 190; Ewings, 190; Emrigs, 818; Ey- 
tinge, 705. 

Earing Bros., 562; Easton & Co., C. P , 613; Eaton & 
Kirchney, 448; Kdson & Co., Cyrus, 559; Edwards & 
Meads, 201; Edwards & Sturtevant, 189; Egberts & Bailey, 
956; Eggleston & Mix, 559; Eidlilz, Richardson & Co., 450; 
Ellis & Co., Edwin, 650; Elsacs & Phillev, 854; Ermaiid & 
Co., 646; Evans & Bro., J. R., 645. 


Fabritius, 764; Faby, 479, 480; Fair, 450, 517; Fairbank, 
235;Fairchild,i79,443; Fairman, 718; Fairlee, 804, 813,843, 
854,873,874,877,940; Fakle, 716; Falardean, 973 ; Fal- 
ardo, 154; Fales, 575; Falke, 632, 906; Fanner, 367; Fargo, 
319, 321; Farguchee, 817; Fanning, 829; Farley, 419, 478, 
479; Farlin, 677; Farmer, 448; Farnham, 420, 704, 752; 
Farnsworth, 422, 480, 519, 709, 711; Farr, 343, 785; Far- 
rell, 337, 477, 519, 639, 980; Farren, 152; Farrington, 911; 
Fasoldt, 641; Fassett, 93, 613, 614, 685, 744; Faulk, 154, 
914, 917, 918, 920; Faulke, 911; Faulkner, 704, 784, 960; 
Faxton, 322, 323; Fay, 90, 210, 341, 713; Fayerweather, 
605; Fayles, 476, 519, 712; Fearey, 605, 644; Fearing, 618; 
Featherby, 639; Featherstonhaugh, 152, 153, 212, 214, 221, 
973; Federick,92; Fegan, 212; Fellows, 92, 212, 399, 940, 972; 
Felter, 92; Felthousen, 426; Feltman, 98, 99, loo, 102, 474, 
641, 750; Fenn, 157; Fennelly, 212, 983, 997; Fenner, 278; 
Fenton, 11, i6i, 216, 219,306,444, 753, 813; Fer, 426; Fergu- 
son, 211, 739, 882, 906, 926, 971,972; Fero,94o; Feros, 935; 
Ferrell, 972; Ferris, 616, 685, 686, 771, 914; Fessenden, 
692, 744; Fetherly, 564, 841, 846, 847, 851; Fetter, 920; 
Ffrance, 273; Fiddler, 558; Fidler, 556, 566; Field, 173, 
558, 715, 996; Filkin, 802; Filkins, 171, 172, 230, 266,355, 
361, 420, 425, 438, 712, 804, 808, 818, 819, 820, 823, 863; 
Fillmore, 674, 715, 996; Finch, 230, 820, 854, 870, 871, 
872, 873, 980; Fink, 91, 235, 518; Finley, 749; Finn, 106, 
154, 521; Finneran, 755; Firman, 785; Fish, 11, 150, 210, 
278, 420, 443, 603, 712, 728, 785, 925, 947; Fischer, 804, 
809; Fisher, gr, 154, 301, 302, 584, 677, 704, 763,769,817, 
835, 841, 900, 928, 960, 988; Fisk, 173, 213, 243; Fitch, 30, 
156, 226, 410, 436, 448, 479, 711, 712, 788, 841, 853, 893, 
900, 902, 906, 907, 910,911; Fitchett, 491,988,997; Fitts,i54; 
Finney, 971; Fitzgerald, 100, 106, 638; Fitzpatrick, 109, 616, 
754, 755, 973; Fitzsimmons, 478, 983; Flagen, 793; Flagg, 
134,269,438,443,677, 708; Flagler, 103, 112, 113, 115, 
210, 354, 742, 743, 781, 785, 892, 900, 905, 928; Flanagin, 
987; Flanegan, 103; Fleischman, 213, 243, 740; Flems- 
burgh, 817, 870, 871, 905, 906, 907; Fleming, 518; Fletcher, 
3, 10, 253, 274, 379, 381, 385, 386, 410, 638, 906, 950, 963, 
971, 972; Flinn, 632, 699; Flint, 406, 817, 964; Flodden, 
825; Flood, 478; Floyd, 410, 424; Flud, 624; Flynn, 109, 
no. III, 307, 479; Fodder, 972; Fogg, 613; Foland, 106, 
478; Foley, 877; Folger, 175, 713; Foljamb, 75o;'Folsom, 
613,688; Folts, 592; Fonda, 76, 209, 2ii, 354, 401, 402, 
403, 406, 412, 413, 415, 523, 533, 534, 620, 647, 699, 855, 
931, 932, 934, 935, 939, 940, 95°, 97°, 973, 985; Fonday, 
931; Fondey, 479, 592, 637; Foot, 261, 265, 268, 685, 980; 
Foote, 137, 143, 153; Forbes, 262; Forby, 420; Ford, 92, 

216, 354, 437, 526, 621, 631, 646, 671, 749, 853, 897, 920, 
922, 923, 924, 925, 926, 928, 975, 977; Forman, 987; For- 
rest, 704, 705; Forsyth, 355, 421, 526, 544, 621, 761, 888, 
981, 997; Forsythe, 500; Fort, 643, 812, 834,893,899,920, 
935, 984, 989; Forth, 624; Foster, 158, 355, 430, 522, 527, 
677, 749, 850, 945, 948, 967, 969, 980; Fotens, 605; Fowler, 
88, 89, 211, 213, 233, 234, 526, 529, 531, 546,621,634, 
681, 686, 687, 817, 850, 906, 956; Fox, 962, 989; Foy, 91, 
116, 176; Fradenburgh, 765; Fradgley, 620; Fraley, 935; 
Fraleigh, 935 ; Fraligh, 420; Francis, 306, 411; Frank, 562, 
644; Franks, 474; Franklin, 38, 343, 392, 412, 436, 479, 
674, 699, 718; Franquinet, 753; Frary, 375; Fraser, 626, 
627, 647, 712, 977, 989, 992; Frasier, 785, 792; Frazer, 858, 
98S; Frazier, 789, 937; Fredenburg, 210; Fredenburgh, 
213, S32, 835; Fredenhall, 424; Fredenrich, 474, 521, 564; 
Frederick, 93, 94, 95, 96, 100, 101, 102, 356, 362, ^64, 420, 
425, 841, 843, 846, 848, 852, 855, 867, 869, 906; Fredericks, 
840, 854; Fredericlcse, 272, 301, 463; Free, 519; Freeligh, 
354; Freeman, 39, 209, 210, 213, 219, 221, 243, 439, 587, 
605, 738, 880; Freemont, 217; PVeer, 932; Fredendall, 710, 
850, 854; Freidenrich, 639; Freighley, 872; Freleigh, 80, 
945; Freligh, 210, 934, 948; Frelinghuysen, 771; FreUie, 
931; Fremont, 174; French, 91, 354, 500, 567, 599, 647, 
788,838, 852, 855, 975; Frey, 763; Freydendall, 846, 847, 
849, 851; Freylinghausen, 703; Friday, 785, 789, 792, 854; 
Friedendall, 845; Friedlander, 424, 710; Friedmann, 763; 
Friednichte, 748; Frisbee, 558; Frisbie, 354, 420, 422, 790; 
Frisby, 354, 428, 700, 715, 916, 971; Frink, 91, 119, 120, 
817, 870, 871, 872, 874, 881, 887, 888, 956, 957, 958, 976; 
Froment, 564; Frontenac, 3, 390; Frosser, 788; Frothing- 
ham, 74, 92, 103, 152, 425, 439, 648, 681, 748, 860; Frost, 
613. 632, 941, 942, 964; fry, 76, 375, 611, 700, 722; Fryer, 
90, 91, 367, 425, 526, 613, 614, 621, 840, 841, 843, 849, 859, 
902; Fuhr, 420; Furbeck, 841, 892, 893, 906, 924; Fuller, 
78, 90, 116, 118, 119, 120, 122, 354, 355, 420,438,450, 
585, 729, 740, 838, 843, 848, 850, 853, 869, 892, 899, 901, 
QIC, 912, 913, 916, 950, 951, 961, 968, 969, 973; Fullington, 
872; Fulton, 15, 312, 363, 487, 749; Furman, 376; Futhier, 
973; Fyne, 272. 

Fairlie & Elsars, 854; Fassett <& Co., 613; Fassett, Son 
& Co., 613; Fassett & Washburn, 613; Fearey & Son, J., 
644; Fearey & Sons, T., 605; Ferris & Armour, 606; 
Fiddler & Taylor, 558, 566; Fish & Bro., J., 603; Fisher, 
J. & G., 960; Fitchett & Smith, 49l;Fitzgerald & Son, E., 
638; Flud & Bochlowitz, 624; Fogg, Patten & Co., 613; 
Fonda & Co., D. H., 647; Ford & Son, T. W., 631; Fort 
& Son, P. v., 437, 643; Forth & Co., T. W., 624; Fraser, 
Lockwood &Co., 647; Friel & Cosgro, 960; Frost & Dillen- 
beck. A., 613; Friday & Sharp, 854; Fuller & Wheeler, 740; 
Frink & Weston, 956. 


Gable, 467; Gafifers, 997; Gafney, 438; Gaffney, 685 
971; Gage. 89, 90, 106, 613, 832, 836, 846, 870, 871, 872, 
873. 874, 881, 882, 883; Gaige, 874; Gaines, 461, 759; Gale, 
652, 924, 925, 928, 947, 973, 975, 989, 991; Gallager, 935; 
Gallez, 100; Gallop, 910; Gallup, 73, 92, 120, 122, 152, 
156, 354, 355, 420, 438, 441, 476, 477, 480, 485, 531' 
613, 643, 788, 801, 804, 805, 814, 817, 818, 819, 820, 844 
870, 871, 872, 874, 876, 879, 880, 888, 902, 937; Galpin, 375 
376, 377; Gambell, 681;. Gamble, 718, 860, 896; Gan- 
non, 93, 210, 651, 705; Gansevoort, 73, 126, 128, 129, 
155, '56. 206, 210, 267 272, 292, 302, 391, 393, 396, 
397> 399, 407, 409, 412, 414, 415, 416, 418, 421, 441, 
471, 490, 513. 520, 523, 524, 526, 528, 556, 620, 652, 
670, 675, 685, 844; Gansvoort, 6, 353, 354; Gansvort, 
127. 129; Garbutt, 212; Gardenier, 273, 429; Gardiner, 
88, 145, 544, 761, 834, 879, 920, 996; Gardineer, 742; Gar! 
dinier, 402, 593; Gardner, 89, 140, 159, 273, 281, 294, 
331, 354, 406, 420, 558, 621, 780, 805, 817, 845, 851, 869, 
900, 901, 904, gio, 920, 995, 996; Garfield, 102, 167, 531, 
963; Garitt, 854; Garner, 938, 952, 954, 955; Garnsey, 621; 
Garrahan, 980; Garrett, 322, 626, 643, 750; Garretson, 74, 
764, 833; Garrison, 786, 900; Garrity, 651; Gasbeck,' 92^ 
191; Gates, 6, 80, 268, 304, 394, 395, 397, 398, 399, 400, 
414, 416, 650, 684, 744, 922, 979, 995; Gauff, 20S, 209; 
Gaus, 108, 109, 147, 711, 712; Gavin, 861; Gavit, 739, 742, 
744; Gavitt, 91; Gay, 604, 639, 738; Gaylor, I13, 115; 
Gaylord, 333, 378, 720; Gazeley, 585; Geary, 92; Gebhard, 
17; Gedney, 828, 832, 834, 839; Gee, 603; Geer, 116, 117, 


Ii8, 119, 120, 611, 632; Gemp, 188; Genge, 995; Genore' 
968; Geoghan, 212; Geoghegan, no, 210; George, 721; 
Geough, 752; Gerling, 428; Gerome, 738; Gerritse, 42, 
155, 252, 272, 273, 463; Gerritse, 385; Gerritsen, 49, 71, 
73, 294, 295, 380, 460, 462, 465, 611, 779, 825; Gerritzey, 
273; Gesler, 907; Getman, 997; Getty, 154, 980, 987, 989; 
Gibbs, 234, 355; Gibbons, 209, 354, 355, 434, 435, 492, 524, 
525, 635, 639, 677, 780, 832, 923, 924, 925, 926, 927, 928, 
937. 974, 975. 976. 981, 992, 997; Gibson, 137, 306, 417, 
544, 613, 647, 740, 761, 960; Gick, 587; Gifford, 8(7, 870, 
871, 874, 883, 926; Gilbert, 129, 273, 378, 422, 474, 533, 
631, 782, 812, 958, 980, 995, 996, 997; Giles, 964; Gil- 
christ, 530, 598; Gildea, 973; Gilfret, 704; Gill, 53^, 556, 

567, 621, 635, 964; Gillespie, 91, 476, 612, 618; Gillet, 420, 
940; Gillice, 643; Gilligan, 211; Gilliland, 417; Gilman, 
968, 971, 972, 987; Gilmartin, 307; Gilmore, 97[, 972; Gil- 
mour, 618, 726: Gingrich, 988; Gips, 624; Giraty, 479; 
Given, 156; Gladding, 509, 727; Glandorf, 254; Glass, 988, 
995, 996; Glazier, 479; Gleason, 154, 420, 988; Glen, 42, 61, 
29S. 354, 385, 410, 412, 418, 440, 523, 528. 661, 933, 936; 
Glenn, 273, 407; Glick, 785; Gloeckner, 335, 599, 639; 
Goddard, 665; Goddell, 995; Godfrey, 179, 377, 424, 531, 704, 
710, 782. 935, 996; Godkin, 180; Godwin, 477; Godyn, 13, 
50; Goelet, 132; Goeway, 521; Goewey, 226, 230, 231,557, 
641; Goetz, 119, 120, 121; GofiF, 920, 063, 964, 971, 972; 
GofFe, 647, 972; Goheen, 694; Golden, 108, 109, 474, 475, 
476; Golding,2i2; Goldsmidt, 743; Goldwaite, 420; Gomph, 
601, 635, 744; Gonsalus, 100, loi; Gooch, 961; Goodell, 
963; Goodenough, 879; Goodhue, 787; Goodfellow, 84r, 
844, 846, 852; Goodrich, 582,686; Goodwin, 152,371,477, 

568, 575, 602; Goodyear, 441; Goold, 500, 531, 534, 593, 
665, 676; Gorden, 237, 440; Gordon, 307, 354, 613, 749, 
790, 901, 970; Gore, 936, 997; Gorham, 227, 243; Gorman, 
355. 479, 480, 987; Gornay, 936; Gorsline, 688; Gorton, 
934, 984; Gosman, 920; Colt, 354; Gouche, 305; Gough, 
603; Gould, 120, 152, 150, 160, 164, 165, 169, 170, 177, 212, 
476, 480, 493, 5S6, 532, '567, 621, 683, 698, 702, 758, 828, 
928, 961, 972; Gourlay, 356, 6ig, 729, 730, 941; Gowey, 
152, 636; Graef, 585; Grace, 958; Graham, 129, 134, 
155, 226, 227, 289, 354, 677, 699, 8io, 935; Grandjean, 
113, 115; Grant, 80, gi, no, 112, 113, 115, 210, 258, 
302, 356, 390. 396, 460, 506, 533, 703, 715, 716, 717, 
721, 778, 850, 907, 923, 962, 968, 972, 973; Grange, 
401; Granger, 361, 559, 640; Grass, 876; Grathen, 817; 
Gratwick, 613; Graveline, 112, 212; Graveret, 826; Graves, 
562, 597, 716, 7'7; Gray, 74, 77, 220, 335, 424, 594, 
600, 601, 602, 620, 650, 6go, 710, 7i8, 731, 733, 
743. 749, 846, 850, 961, 964; Greeley, 375, 376, 686; 
Green, 78, 210, 213, 214, 215, 337,. 420, 531, 785, 830, 831, 
832. 834, 835, 836, 911, 914, 923, 926, g28, 975, 977; Greene, 
89, 213, 394, 477, 491, 508, 532, 737, 972; Greenman, 322, 
323, 562, 989; Greennay, 780; Greenwood, 727; Greer, 355, 
603; Gregg, 99,995; Gregory, 152, 153, 210, 211, 429, 
477. 530, 557. 558. 613, 637, 640, 651, 652, 714, 766, 832, 
95'. 957. 961, 963. 968, gSr, 982, 983, 987; Gresser, 308; 
Grey, 543, 727, 841, 844; Gridley, 281; GrifTen, 607, 702, 
840, 928; Griffin, go, g2, 102, 1 16, 118, ng, 120, 210, 364, 
377, 378, 424, 477, 521, 522, 708, 833, 834, 928, 952, g6o, 
962, 969, 971, 973, 997; Griffing, 153; Griffith, 227, 341, 
596, 754; Griggs, 77, 98, 100, 102, 103, 104, 106, 108, 109, 
154, 173, 283, 355, 849, 850, 854, 863, gr2, gi3, 973; Grin- 
nell, 493; Grismer, 86i; Griswold, 540, 541, 613, 615, 647; 
Groat, 844, 849, 879, 880, 931, 994; Groats, 840; Groenen- 
dyke, 42, 156; Groesbeck, 969; Groosbeck, 793; Grosbeck, 
42, 125, 213, 273, 289, 420, 526, 531, 620, 636, 669, 906, 931, 
934. 935. 977; Grosbeek, 210, 526; Grogan, 106, 477, 997; 
Grote, 846, 848, 906, 935; Groom, 477; Groot, 295, 
401; Gros, 693; Grose, 647; Gross, 642; Grosvenor, 136; 
Grounds, 941; Grover, 141; Groves, 113, 115, 116, ii8- 
Grovesteen, 743; Grundhoeffer, 745; Grundy, 138; Grune- 
wald, 172; Guest, 526; Guinan, n6, 638; Gulicli, 898; 
Gulrick, 899; Gunnison, 835, 927, 989; Gurdon, 879; Gurr| 
963; Guthrie, 153; Gutman, 153, 568, 655; Guy, 396, 587; 
Gwynne, 961, 970; Gysberse, 272; Gysbertse, 273. 

Galpin & Cole, 375; Galpin & Sturtevant, 376; Garner 
& Co., 952, 954; Garrett & Beck, 626, 643; Gay & Quimby, 
639; Gaylord & Tucker, 378; Gee & Van Slyke, 603; Gib- 
bons & Burhans, 635; Gill & Campbell, 621; Gill, Cooper 
& Co., 567; Gillespie, White & Co., 612, 618; Gilmour & 
Co., 618; Gips & Co., E., 624; Goold & Co., James, 593; 
Gott & Palmer, 554; Gould & Banks, 702; Gould & Co.' 

Wm., 702; Gould, J. & T., 621; Gould & Olin, 170; Gour- 
lay & Co., J., 6ig; Grace & Co., Horace, 958; Gratwick & 
Fryer, 613; Gray & Sprague, 650; Graves, Ball & Co., 597; 
Gregory & Heller, 957; Greene & Mather, 491; Greer & 
Sons, 603; Gregory & Bain, 637; Gregory & Co., 637; 
Griffin, M. & E., 377, 378, 702; Griffin & Co., R. M., 377, 
378; Griswold, Mattoon & Co., 6f5; Groesbeck & Belknap, 
635; Groesbeck, W. & C. W., 621. 

Hackett, 704, 705, 748; Haden, 498; Hadley, 172, 197, 
308, 629; Hagadorn, 103, 655, 731, 782, 911, 919; Haga- 
man, 420, 643; Hagedorn,i2i; Hageman, 928; Hagen, 
920; Hague, 750; Hahnemann, 223; Haight, 573, 901, 
902, 903; Hailes, 212, 214, 220, 221, 243, 594, 727; Haines, 
467, 601, 635, 923, 927, 928; Hair, 427; Hakes, 785, 964; 
Hale, 6, 121, 153, 170, 173, 174, 175, 179, 212, 214, 318, 
354, 399, 441, 442. 444, 446, 485, 486, 523, 528, 556, 558, 
620, 680, 682, 685, 791; Halcott, 740; Halenbeck, 415,509, 
834; Haliday, 812; Hall, 10, 18, 19, 21, 141, 153, 212, 267, 
301, 310, 354, 442, 641, 648, 664, 676, 691, 712, 742, 785, 
823, 848, 849, 881, 915, 944, 971, 977, 984, 991, 997; Hal- 
lam, 703; Hallen, 154, Hallenbake, 305; Hallenbeck, 90, 91, 
210, 213, 293, 532, 788, 818, 841, 843, 844, 848, 851, 853, 859, 
869, 877, 887, 892, 8g9, 900, 905, 906, 907, 910, 920, 931; Hal- 
lers, 902; Halley, 619, 732, 744, 769. 774, 941, 942; Halpen, 
102,103; Halpin, 104, 153, 755; Halpine, 171, 172; Hals, 272; 
Halsey, 874; Halstead, 832; Halsted, 3n; Ham, 153, 832, 
877; Hamil, 977; Hamilton, 7, 8, 76, 88, 92, 131, 132, 133, 
141. H7. '53, 207, 262, 277, 286, 304, 324, 354, 440, 527, 
554, 602, 632, 674, 708, 851, g27, 963; Hamley, 686; Ham- 
lin, 581; Hammer, 718; Hammersley, 239; Hammond, 143, 
156, 2[o, 236, 237, 268, 375, 402, 613, 677, 729, 770, 785, 
817, 8S0, 984; Hancock, 366, 616; Hand, 103, 153, 155, 
173, 176, 179, 180, 181, 185, 210, 476, 613, 690, 835, 870, 
871, 915; Handel, 743; Handl, 681; Handy, 897, 952; 
Hane, 870, 871, 872; Haner, 304; Hanes, 832, 876, 881, 
923, 924; Hanks, 976, 992; Hanlon, 585; Hanna, 307, 768; 
Hannah, 155, 987; Hannan, 212: Hannay, 80, 102, 103, 
104, 820, 922, 926, 927, g28; Hanney, 872; Hannum, 977; 
Hansbrough, 231; Hanse, 272, 273, 385; Hansen, 4:, 42, 
261, 410, 412, 490, 658, 660, 704, 750; Hanson, 38, 660; 
Hanton, 970; Harbeck, 630; Harcourt, 96, 354, 475, 479, 
677, 710, 7'6; Harden, 304; Hardenburgh, 858; Hardie,' 
967; Hardin, '87,273,331,378, 990, 9g6, g97; Hardy, 4, 
379, 389, 686, 687, g8o; Harens, 713; Harflinger, 562; 
Hargrave, 557; Haring, 131; Harkley, 857, 874; Harlow, 
2". 474. 565; Harmense, 272, 273, 462; Harmesen, 655; 
Harmon, g5i, 962; gg7; Harmons, 466; Harmony, 952, 
953; Harnden, 318, 319, 320, 321; Harney, 306; Harnett, 
475; Harper, 153, 156, 355, 605, 627, 628; Harrigan, 479, 
647. 7'3. 983; Harrington, 186, 187, 772, 847, 848, 993, 
997; Harris, 103, 114, 147, 148, 153, 154, 155, 156, 160, 
161, 162, 163, 164, 165, 166, 167, 168, 169, 197, igg, 209 
217, 220, 234, 254, 268, 280, 342, 355, 364, 425, 429, 440, 
t^'' J^°' \V" f°' 481, 485, 52', 534, 592, 595, 635, 646, 
675, 680, 681, 697, 7", 745. 788, 828, 881; Harrison, i\i 
137. '38, 142, 292, 554, 718, 950, 971; narrower, 340, 785- 
Hart, 89, 212, 474, 501, 502, 526, 536, 620, 737, 758, T\a 

^s«' ??^'.^°' ^^'' ^^5 *79, 906, 934, 977, 982, 974, 975! 
988; Hartdegen, 744; Harte, 440; Hartgers, 295 ; Hartley, 
738, 987; Hartline, g6; Hartman, 854; Hartnell, 639, 904- 
Harlnett, 475, 564, 574; Hartsen, 520; Hartt, 626; Har- 
tung, 164, 182, 187, 306; Hartwell, 343, 772, 926; Harvey, 
926, gSo; Hascy, 477, 521, 613, 614; Hasely, 407, 717, 740- 
Haskell, xoo, 108, 109, 212 337, 480, 564, 573, 7'6; Has! 
key, »53; Haskins, 102, 108, 211, 214, 218, 480, 717- Hast 
ings, 183, 364, 365, 376, 420, 475, 519, 521, 530, 531, 701 
934, 964; Haswell, 156, 268, 354, 699, 777, 789, 792, 793, 
794, 795, 870, 871, 872, 873, 876, 880, 989, 997; Hatch, 78 
319, 911, 912; Hater, 385; Hathaway, 758, 813, 980, 982! 
987; Hatt, 153 728; Haverley, n2, 870, 873, 874, 880' 
Haverly, n8, 8^, 817, 8.8, 872, 883; liaven 962; iS-' 
vens, 211, 244, 587, 716, 872, 877,996; Haverland; 80 92V 
Hawe, 594, 595, 596, 597; Hawes, 328, 332, 632, 752' 
Hawkins, 342, 628; Hawley, 153, 211, 243, 268, 376, 420 
500, 516, 526, 614, 675, 679, 906, 928; Hawthorne, 179 
749; Hay, 415, 802, 951, 964, 972, 973; Hayden, 113, u6, 
118, 119, 120,512, 973, 987; Haydn, 743; Hayes, 153, 179 
243, 287, egg, 734, 752, gog, 920; Haynes, 80, 212, 355, 420 


787, 914, 926, 973; Hays, 212, 244, 677, 810, 814, 817, 906; 
Hayward, 968, 988; Hazelius, 148, 772; Hazen, 341, 343, 
375. 376. 439; Hazleton, 361, 420, 688, 829, 836; Headlam, 
343, 685; Headlum, 613; Healey, 121, 212; Heamstreet, 
950; Heath, 394 399, 850, 861, 957, 962, 972, 995, 
Heck, 843, 857, 869; Heckendon, 934; Heathcote, 255; 
Heckman, 770; Hecock, 987; Hedges, 712; Hedrick, iio; 
Hedstrom, 925; Heemstraat, 940; Heeley, 729; Heenan, 
187, 266; Hegemaii, 209; Hein, 850, 869; Heinmiller, 378; 
Heller, 899; Hellenbeck, 892; Hellicar, 872; Helligus, 420; 
Helme, 211, 217, 266, 848, 850, 853, 855, 868, 869; Helmer, 
416, 620; Helmrick, 971; Helno, 77; Hemon, 877; Hemp- 
stead, 156, 210, 213; Hemstrat, 931; Hemstreet, 770, 961; 
Hetnstraat, 304; Hench, 602; Henderson, 306, 754, 840, 
845, 846, 851, 895; Hendrick, 77, 334, 335, 533, 726, 777, 
791; Hendricks, 366; Hendrikse, 272, 273, 658; Hendrick- 
sen, 295; Hendrickson, 163, 322, 349, 665, 899, goi; Hen- 
ley, 376, 377; Henly, 105, 377, 701; Hennessy, 764; Hen- 
ningway, 643; Henratty, 687; Henrick, loi; Henry, 15, 
90. 133. 134, 138, 200, 261, 262, 286, 3r9, 322, 354, 365, 
399, 441, 443, 554, 620, 640, 650, 679, 683, 684, 686, 704, 
742; Hepinsall, 526; Herb, 377; Herbert, 474; Herbertsen, 
294; Herkimer, 6, 397; Hermance, 354, 567, 907; Hermans, 
526, 567; Heron, 376, 705, 784, 911, 996; Herrick, 98, 117, 
IS3- 156, 172. 353. 355. 477. 605, 634, 835, 880; Her- 
ring, 526, 621; Herrmgton, 212; Hersberg, 153, 789; 
Hertill, 764; Hertz, 599, 639; Hervey, 438; Hess, 153,438, 
757, 780, 905, 911, 917, 921; Hessberg, 485; Heth, 705; 
Heugh, 273; Heusted, 647; Hevenor, 153; Hewetson, 
413 ; Hewitt, 850 ; Hewson, 307 ; Heyden, 115 272 ; 
Heyliger, 673; Heywood, 153; Hickey, 747; Hickox, 335, 
744; Hicks, 265, 599, 639, 789, 902, 980; Hidley, 601, 635, 
743; Hifford, 308; Higgins, 113, 115, ir6, 156, 480, 676, 
738, 906, 972, 989; Hilderbrant, 792; Hildreth, 139, 257; 
Hill, ir, 140, 145, 146, 147, 153, 193, 197, 276, 287, 444, 
478, 581, 613, 638, 651, 704, 736, 919, 970, 987, 988; Hiller, 
967, 972, 973; Hillebrant, 274; Hillhouse, 80, 90, 97, 328, 
332, 429, 675, 686, 936, 945, 948; Hilligas, 620; Hillis, 
'53. 154. 980; Hills, 476, 477, 479, 480, 481, 4S5, 526, 
935. 951. 957. 963. 969. 973. 987. 997; Hilson, 858; 
Hilton, 92, 95, 127, 306, 330, 336, 337, 346, 582, 590, 592, 
593, 714, 784, 790, 810, 811, 820, 840, 841, 843, 844, 848, 
849, 850, 854, 867, 869, 873, 879, 880, 890, 904, 906; Hinck- 
el, 557, 559, 560; Hinckle, 782; Hinckley, 80, 210, 213, 
420, 817, 830, 831, 835, 923; Hinckcliff, 971; Hindman, 
697; Hine, 708; Hines, 964, 995; Hinman, 74, 394, 914, 
997; Hinley, 751; Hiscock, 160, 183, 307; Hitchcock, 89, 
420, 813, 814, 840, 928, 951, 967, 968, 972, 980, 989; Hitt, 
153, 485, 632, 716; Hoag, 278, 744; Hoagkirk, 401; Hoar, 
161; Hobbs, 427; Hobart, 130, 131, 261; Hockridge, 987; 
Hockwell, 338; Hockstrasser, 621, 670, 801, 802, 805, 810, 
817, 818, 820, 876; Hodge, 562, 749; Hodgeman, 943; 
Hodgsett, 716; Hodgson, 882, 968; Hoes, 902; Hoesem, 
385; Hoey, 306; Hoff, 211, 217, 424; Hoffendahl, 223; Hoff- 
man, II, 113, 115, 133, 140, 141, 170, 216, 358, 373, 376, 
441, 442, 444, 450, 557, 567, 628, 641, 650, 681, 708, 
■ 709, 717, 740, 760, 763, 938, 987; Hogan, 88, 272, 
354, 401, 407, 478. 519. 655, 687, 716, 717, 742, 752, 
792, 793, 799, 832, 833, 934; Hogeboom, 273, 286, 
354; Hogel, 708; Hoghkerks, 582; Hoit, 212, 688, 997; 
Holbrook, 188, 651, 728, 833, 972, 987; Holcomb, 354; 
Holderness, 392; Holding, 748; Holdridge, 420, 819, 988; 
Holie, 272; Holland, 41, 42, 156, 321, 348, 657, 660, 705, 
760, 840, 997; Hollands, 154, 378, 983, 990; Hollenbeck, 
355,921; Holler, 120; Holley, 524, 541; Holliday, 793, 
§90,900,902, 904; Hollister, 913, 950; Holloway, 771; 
Holly, 443; Holmes, 208, 340, 420", 585, 587, 669, 728, 770, 
771. 785, 788, 828, 832, 834, 835, 836, 840, 843, 869, 900, 
926, 927, 935, 964,988; Holsapple, 957, 963; Holstein, 376, 
628; Holt 597; Home, 845, 846; Homer, 675, 982; Homes, 
153,440; Hone, 677; Hood, 641; Hooftyling, 273 ; Hoofty- 
lingh, 274; Hoogabome, 903 ; Hooges, 51; Hooghtind, 190; 
Hoogkirk, 407 ; Hoogtaling, 777, 892; Hook, 964; Hooker, 
376, 529, 604, 704, 740, 759, 764; Hooper, 712; Hoosett, 49; 
Hooster, 903; Hoskins, 105, 607, 632, 648, 652, 690, 729, 
977. 985; Horan, 480,987; Horer, 919; Home, 697; Hor- 
nell, 665; Horner, 343, 537, 567, 637; Horrobin, 959; Hor- 
rocks, 956, 971, 972; Horsey, 619; Horsford, 650; Horth, 
642, 934; Horton, 226, 603, 703, 851; Hosford, 341, 376, 
700; Hosmer, 638; Hotaling, no, 113, 114, 116, 118, 153, 
156, 198, 306, 355, 428, 647, 785, 788, 789, 793, 800, 828, 

829, 832, 849, 892, 894, 900, 902, 905, 907; Hotan, 841; 
Hotchkiss, 550, 613; Hotchstrassee, 354; Houck, 100, 156, 
652, 798, 872, 873, 892, 893, 894, 899, 901, 904, 906, 900; 
Houghtaling, 210, 354, 415, 420, 702, 800, 827, 894, 910; 
Houghton, 841, 873, 906, 952; Houlehan, 973; Hourigan, 
153; Houce, 987; Mouse, 41, 154. 926, 968, 970, 973; 
Houten, 46; Houseman, 593; Howard, 193, 320, 558, 560, 
567, 726, 813, 841, 842, 972; Howarth, 971; Howe, 6, 205, 
226, 375, 390, 429, 525, 581, 621, 697, 728, 841, 846, 900, 
911, 960, 967, 973; Howell, 635, 736, 963, 964; Hewlett, 
750; Hoxie, 478, 559, 566; Hoy, 582, 605; Uoystradt, 710; 
Hoyt, 102, 103, 430, 478, 501, 502, 635, 699, 787, 861, 901, 
963; Hoxie, 717; Hubbard, 154, 373, 527, 914, 918, 950, 
968, 973, 980; Huberdeault, 757, 758; Hubbell, 613, 614, 
801, 804, 838; Ilubbert, 764; Huber, 424, 477, 478, 574, 
710, 716; Huddle=ton, 213, 256; Hudson, i, 29, 43, 44, 48, 
154, 310, 371, 450, 458, 944; Huested, 211, 221, 244; Hufe- 
land, 223; Huggins, 694; Hughes, 305, 308, 568, 571, 704, 
748, 750, 754, 755, 788; Hughson, 613, 936; Hulbert, 74, 
•53. '55. 424, 426, 429, 562, 769; Hull, 212, 399, 828, 829, 
832,834, 835; Hulsapple, 977, 983; Hume, 963; Humphrey, 
89, 209, 210, 213, 268, 354, 474, 524, 526, 531, 534, 637, 

638, 664, 716, 750, 841, 960, 970; Hun, 116, 121, 153, 164, 

209, 210, 211, 213, 215, 219, 220, 221, 222, 235, 247, 354, 
401, 403, 429, 469, 671, 678, 6S0, 687, 790, 843; Hund, 968; 
Hunderman, 781; Huner, 841; Hungerford, 100, 102, 153, 

210, 355, 420, 615, 801, 812, 817, 819, 820, 841, 870, 871, 
873; Hunt, II, 112, 113, 115, 319, 443, 541, 542, 613, 737, 
738, 746, 832, 838; Hunter, 4, 37, 103, 206, 253, 274, 376, 
379, 382, 387, 485, 531, 532, 584, 587, 607, 608, 613, 643, 
644, 707, 728, 911; Hunting, 226, 244, 874, 879, 88i; 
Huntingdon, 739, 769; Hurcombe, 377, 517; Hurdis, 90, 
91, 599; Hurley, 751, 834; Hurlburt, 654, 664; Hurst, 329, 
336, 474, 782, 793, 870, 871, 905; Husen, 869; Hussey, 632, 

639, 716; Husted, 924, 996; Hmtes, 402; Hutman, 647; 
Hutchings, 153; Hutchins, 375, 377; Hutchinson, 103, 231, 
495. 589, 844, 846, 918, 920; Hutt, 320, 785; Hutton, 529, 
621, 722, 940, 983; Huybertz, 273; Huyck, 420, 791, 829, 
831. 832, 833, 839, 914, 916, 919, 928, 931; Hyatt, 474, 476, 
477.498. 567. 597. 598- 599. 6'3. 704. 7"; Hyde, 109, 209, 
213, 308, 379, 916, 927, 928, 995; Hydeman, 624; Hyed- 
man, 928; Huylancl, 213; Hynes, 997; Hyndman, 88, 89, 

Hagaman & Co., W., 643; Hallenbeck & Bloomindale, 
853; Haines & Bro., 601; Haines & Co., 635; Hale & 
Bulkley, 173; Hale & Smith, 173; Hand & Babbitt, 
613; Hand & Hale, 173, 179; Hand, Hale & Buckley, 
173; Hand, Hale & Swartz, 173, 179; Hand, Hale, 
Swartz & Fairchild, 173, 179; Hawer & Baker, 946; 
Harris Brothers, 960; Harnden & Co., 319, 320, 321; 
Hart & Hoyt, 501; Hart & Smith. 536; Hatch ;& Co., 
Geo., 319; Hawley & McNamara, 153; Hazen & Carson, 
376; Hazen & Son, J. T., 340; Headlum & Son, W., 613; 
Heermans, Rathbone & Co., 567; Hemingway & Co., H. 
F., 643; Henry & Co., 319; Henry, McClallen & Henry, 
620; Henry, Palmer & Newton, 554; Heron, Furmen & 
Thornton, 376; Herrick & Freeman, 605; Herrick & Os- 
borne, 634; Hickey, Downing & Curley, 747; Hill & Co., 
Thomas, 613; Hill, Cagger & Porter, 147, 173; Hill & San- 
ford, 613; Higbie, Hammond & Co., 613; Hoffman & Potts, 
567; Holbrook & Taylor, 987; Holt, J. & C. B., 597; Hor- 
ner & Sparhawk, 637; Horrocks & Van Benthuysen, 956; 
Hosford, E. & E., 650, 700; Hosford & Wait, 376; Hotal- 
ing & Saxton, 647; Houck & Trenhard, 831; Howard & 
Ryckman, 558, 560; Hubbell & Hill, 613; Hubbell & Keith, 
838; Huber & Hartnett, 574; Hudson & Godwin, 371; 
Hughson & Co., 613; Humphrey & Co., 637, 638; Hum- 
phrey & Lansing, 638; Hunter & Hoffman, 376; Hunter & 
Son, G., 613; Hutton, I. & G., 621; Huyck & Co., J. C, 
791; Huyck & Dorman, 831; Huyck & Son, 831; Huyck 
& Morris, 831; Huyck & Morris, J. L., 613; Hyatt & Co., 

We, 745. 749 ; Ilishan, 562, 736, 763; Ilpendam, 295, 
582; Ilsley, 743; Imbrie, 91, 788, 793; Imrie, 153, 562; In- 
galls, 923, 924, 927, 928; Ingersoll, 934; Ingham, 212; In- 
glis, 657; Ingoldsby, 4, lo, 41, 379, 385, 386, 387; Ingra- 
ham, 211, 420, 647, 892, 894, 901, 908; Inman, 738; Irland, 
936; Irons, 817; Isbell, 86i; Irvin, 307, 841; Irving, 673; 
Ives, 629, 952; Izard, 8. 


Jackson, 78, 137, 138, 174, 305, 373, 376, 413, 419. 426, 
442, 443. 572, 585. 6(6, 715, 717, 725, 844, 849, 892, 895, 
900, 906, 907, 972; Jacobs, 193, 319, 320, 326, 466, 654, 
706; Jacobse, 272, 273, 462, 519; Jacobsen, 294, 295, 582; 
Jacobson, 841, 844, 846, 847; Jacques, 330; Jaeger, 750; 
Jagger, 780, 791 ; Jaques, 66, 327 ; James, 209, 214, 345, 375> 
376, 430, 500,524,525,533, 534, 566,601, 602, 611, 620, 640, 
686, 726, 737, 769, 770, 948; Janes, 354, 740, 780, 793, 825; 
Jans, 658; Janse, 272, 273, 274, 385; Jansen, 51, 294, 295, 
650, 825; Jardine, 712; Jarvis, 606, 792, 921; Jay, li, 130, 
131, 133, 302, 420. 443, 444; Jaycox, 925; Jeffers, 120; Jeffer- 
son, 135, 599, 703, 707, 835,987; Jeffrey, 744, 749; jencks, 
657, 924, 928; Jenkins, 78, 133, 153, 267, 286, 287, 354, 355, 
500, 525, 526, 528, 530, 621, 622, 662, 716, 790, 912, 913, 
916, 968; Jenks, 88, 210, 305, 924, 928; Jennings, 186; 
Jennison, 624; Jenny, 424; Jermain, 80, 116, 376, 519, 526, 

534, 621, 632, 728, 732, 936, 942, 983; Jermein, 153; Jer- 
vis, 677; Jessop, 467; Jessup, 416, 613; Jewell, 648; Jewett, 
281, 843; Job, 621; Jochimse, 273; Jacobi, 763; Jogues, 
750; Johnson, 4, 36, 39, 40, 41, 43, 75, 91, 92, 93, 118, 120, 
135) i37> '53' '55' '59' '6°, 184, 209, 211, 230, 257, 261, 
262, 268, 281, 305, 320, 321, 323, 345, 354, 359, 362, 375, 
376, 388, 389. 392' 396, 399, 407, 410, 411, 414, 420, 443, 
444, 474. 475' 476. 48°. 495. 5 '9. 53'. 57°. 601, 650, 655, 
689, 690, 726, 743, 759, 761, 765, 771, 795, 828, 832, 835, 
838, 839, 848, 855, 879, 882, 907, QIC, Q17, 942, 949, 938, 
95'. 952, 955, 963. 964, 97'. 973. 9^4. 9^5; Johnston, 319, 
324, 621, 951, 953, 956, 959, 961, 967, 968, 969, 971; Joice, 
841; Jolly, 75, 780, 785, 789, 833, 839; Jolley, 336, 832, 
834; Jones, 90, gl, 132, 182, 212, 226, 261, 262, 324, 427, 

535. 572, 603, 613, 635, 647, 687, 699, 735, 749, 752, 780, 
817, 882, 879, 899, 923, 924, 951, 958, 984, 987, 977; 
Jordan, 160; Joris, 10; Jorise, 40; Joshlin, 420, 8u, 914; 
Jost, 853; Joy, 341, 526; Joyce, 845; Judd, 78, 790, 895; 
Judge, 474, 475, 476, 477, 485, 626; Judson, 89, 90, 156, 
173, 180, 190, 474, 476, 477, 478, 479, 521, 526, 527, 532, 
534. 546. 564. 613, 621, 665, 666, 675, 690, 912; Jump, 
688, 733; June, 847; Jury, 273. 

Jacobs & Procter, 654 ; James & Vail, 620 ; Johnston & 
Reilly, 621, 624 ; Jones & Colvin, 838, 839 ; Jones & Co., 613; 
Jones & Goynes, 960 ; Jones & Ryan, 958 ; Jones & Sons, 
J. M., 992 ; Judson, Parsons & Haskell, 564. 

Kahl, 562 ; Kaley, 843, S69 ; Kalm, 37, 300, 485, 496, 506, 
512, 513, 611 ; Kampfer, 153, 557 ; Kanary, 102 ; Kane, 8g, 
119, 120, 210, 309, 326, 509, 524, 621 ; Kane, 655, 657, 769, 
929 ; Karslake, 613 ; Kash, 934 ; Kautz, 699 ; Kaut, goo ; 
Kavanaugh, 98 ; Kay, 106, 108, 308 ; Kays, 906 ; Kian, 
103, 476, 704, 996 ; Kearnan, 756 ; Kearney, 93, 279, 355, 
356, 474. 476, S'9. 521, 557. 676; Keating, 717, ^5 ; Keay, 
212 ; Keays, 109 ; Kee, 308 ; Keeble, 705 ; Keefer, 74, 94, 
832, 839, 840; Keegan, 113, 115, 116, 118, 221, 244; 
Keeler, 74, 89, 156, 189, 190,365, 438, 474, 479, 480, 611, 
643, 651 ; Keenan, 970, 983, 987 ; Keenholts, 881, 901 ; 
Keenholtz, 92, 94, 841, 847, 848, 849,870, 872, 873, 940; 
Xeeley, 755 ; Keely, 754 ; Keep, 324 ; Keese, 760 ; Keeven, 
426; Keiser, 716; Keith, 255, 642, 839; Kelchar, 635; 
Kelcher, 699 ; Kelder, 841 ; Kelderhouse, 850 ; Keller, 828, 
834. 839 ; Kelley, 103, 153, 355, 420, 439, 613, 614, 834, 
987 ; Kellogg, 173, 493. 567. 744. 876, 959 ; Kelly, 98, 113, 
305. 343. 344. 356, 587. 620, 626, 635, 699, 753, 754, 755, 
812, 848, 849, 877, 969, 970, 987, 988 ; Kelsey, 589, 749, 
914, 918, 985,989 ; Kelso, 92, 93 ; Kemble, 704; Kemmey, 
797; Kemp, 601, 936; Kendall, 322; Kendrick, 92, 528, 
530, 969 ; Kennard, 750 ; Kenneally, 102, 103, 424 ; Ken- 
near, ic8 ; Kennedy, loi, iig, 120, 227, 305, 346, 356, 427, 
475. 476, 477. 533. 567, 688, 771, 784, 973 ; Kenney, 963 ; 
Kenny, 582 ; Kent, 136, 138, 154, 261, 267, 441, 686 ; 
Kenyon, 613, 646, 761 ; Kernan, 175 ; Kershow, 899 ; 
Kerslake, 993 ; Ketcham, 765, 854, 876 ; Ketchum, 558, 
613, 873, 874, 940 ; Ketelheyn, 272, 273 ; Keltelhuyn, 295 ; 
Kettletas, 768 ; Keveny, 964, 965, 973 ; Keyes, 269, 377, 
699 ; Keys, 694 ; Kial, 750 ; Kibbe, 612 ; Kibbee, 480, 614 ; 
Kidd, 14, 232, 356, 382, 438, 476, 477, 519, 550, 624, 731 ; 
Kidney, 414, 417 ; Kieft, 2, 3, 10, 46, 47, 49, 54, 55, 67, 68, 
271 ; Kiegan, 212 ; Kielyey, 92, 485 ; Kiernan, 491 ; Kier- 
stede, 295 ; Kilboume, 212 ; Kilby, 989 ; Kilderhouse, 789 ; 

Kilgour, 993 ; Killan, 3CT4 ; Kilmer, 179, 211, 792; Kim- 
ball, 91, 153, 163, 424, 425, 480, 515, 744, 945 ; Kimberly, 
977. 985. 986 ; Kimmey, 95, 96, 97, 336, 354, 777, 780, 785, 
788, 790, 793,800, 837; King, II, 91, 123, 136, 142, 152, 
153, 160, 261, 266, 267, 302, 306, 344, 410, 443, 444, 518, 
519, 526, 527, 529, 546, 592, 603, 613, 621, 640. 675, 690, 
715.716,750. 758. 817, 934, 972, 980; Kingsbury, 527, 
593. 546, 691 ; Kingsley, 412, 424, 450, 479, 710, 715, 716 ; 
Kinnear, 474, 594, 597, 598, 599, 726; Kmney, 310, 790, 
985; Kip, 125, 153, 273, 735, 760, 870; Kipp, 871: 
Kirchner, 108 ; Kirchney, 153, 448 ; Kirk, 556, 557, 558, 
559, 632, 733, 769, 896, 947, 987 ; Kirkland, 36, 39, 77, 261, 
384, 408, 892 ; Kirkpalrick, 106, ic8, IC9, 559 ; Kirtland, 
479 ; Kissam, 784, 834, 894 ; Kisselburg, 364 ; Kitchner, 
124 ; Klem, 756 ; Klien, 748 ; Kline, 962 ; Kloett, 932 ; 
Klomp, 295 ; Kloek, 385, 854, 881 ; Knap, 402 ; 
Knapp, 245, 320, 426, 556, 650, 730, 750, 928, 
941; Knauff, 208, 209, 213; Kneeland, 764; Knell, 
895 ; Knickerbacker, 406, 469, 989 ; Knickerbocker, 200, 
213, 642, 645, 685 ; Kniffen, 926, 968 ; Knight, 589, 931 ; 
Knights, 170 ; Knieskem, 801, 802, 809, 810, 812, 873, 880 ; 
Kniskem, 817, 876 ; Knower, 440, 442, 500, 529, 531, 534, 
621, 854, 952. 991, 997; Knowles, no, in, 112, 355, 868, 
927, 928; Knowhon, 997; Knowlton, 211, 559, 623, 848 ; 
Knott, 116, 957 ; Knox, 77,425 ; Koch, 745 ; Koecher, 708; 
Koen, 777 ; Koeterer, 756; Koeymans, 611, 825,826, 827; 
Konnings, 274 ; Koonz, 91, 92, 94, 95, 96, IC9, 474, 624 ; 
Koonze, 108 ; Kosciusko, 15 ; Koyman, 385 ; Koymans, 825 ; 
Kossuth, 546, 547 ; Krank, 153, 427, 479, 716, 748 ; Kreis- 
kem, 874 ; Kresser, 94, 95, 756 ; Kirchner, 559 ; Kriechke- 
beeck, 46 ; Krien, 562 ; Krol, 46, 49 ; Krum, 862 ; Krumb- 
holz, 153 ; Krutz, 613, 646 ; Kshinka, 103, 104, 153, 355 ; 
Kuehn, 763 ; Kunholtz, 841 ; Kyte, 632, 753, 983, 984. 

Kane Bros., 671 ; Kane, J. & A., 621 ; Kearney & 
McQuade, 557 ; Kelchar & Wood, 635 ; Kelley & Co., J. B., 
613 ; Kellogg & Hale, 173 ; Ketchum, Scott & Simpson, 
613 ; Ketchum & Sons, R., 613 ; Kenyon & Winne, 613 ; 
King & Co., R. H., 621 ; Kingsbury & Whitehead, 593. 

Labadie, 46, 295 ; Labagh, 809 ; Lacey, 210, 747, 759, 
760 ; Lackey, 304 ; Lacy, 149, 534, 633, 726, 727 ; Ladd, 
651 ; Ladu, 997 ; Ladue, 988 ; La Fayette, 751, 979 ; La- 
fayette, 644, 652, 714; La Grand, 869; Lagrange, 212, 

272, 894 ; La Grange, 403, 777, 841, 842, 843, 844, 845, 
846, 847, 848, 849, 850, 859, 891, 905, 906, 907, 910 ; Lain- 
court, 609, 612 ; Lainhart, 869, 843 ; Laird, 834 ; La Jeun- 
esse, 744, 755 ; Lake, 430, 857, 872, 926 ; Lamb, 91, 92, 
100, 102, 103, 153, 211, 394, 907, 923, 924, 925, 938, 956, 
968, 980 ; Lambert, 273, 498, 928, 973 ; La Montague, 46, 
69 ; La Monte, 624 ; L'Amoreaux, 129, 155, 526, 831, 832, 
834. 839 ; Lamoreux, 420 ; La Mountain, 973 ; Lamoure, 
212; La Moure, 91, 116, 119, 120, 214, 244; Lamphere, 
892, 903 ; Lampman, 420 ; Lamprey, 140 ; Lanahan, 478, ' 
479. 5 '2, 596; Lancaster, 694; Landers, 188; Landolt, 
242; Landon, 950, 968, 971, 972, 987; Landrum, 872; 
Lane, 306, 977, 980 ; Lanehart, 841, 848, 849, 851, 997 ; 
Lang, 371 ; Langdon, 490, 979 ; Lansing, 7, 42, 88, 89, 
no, in, 112, 125, 129, 131, 132, 133, 134, 143, 153, 154, 
155, 187, 207, 211, 212, 219, 220, 234, 236, 267, 268, 272, 

273, 278, 283, 343, 354, 357, 401, 402, 403, 405, 406, 
408, 409, 412, 413, 415, 416, 417, 418, 439, 441, 442, 447, 
463, 465. 469. 479. 490, 498, 499. 520, 521, 523, 526, 527, 
528, 531, 533. 534. 573. 575. 589. 624, 626, 638, 640, 661, 
662, 664, 669, 671, 672, 683, 685, 690, 699, 710, 712, 728, 
734. 735. 739. 784. 79'. 841, 879, 899, 900, 901, 905, 910, 
93'. 932. 934' 935. 937. 938. 940, 943, 944, 945, 948, 950, 
95'. 957. 961. 963. 967. 968, 969, 972, 973, 976, 983, 988, 
996, 997 ; Lansingh, 155, 212, 354 ; Lanson, 832 ; Lapaugh 
921, 925, 926, 928 ; Lapham, 613 ; La Porte, 756, 757, 
758 ; Larabee, 331, 425, 563 ; Laraway, 93, 94, 95, 96, 98 ; 
Larcora, 977 ; Larrison, 309 ; Lark, 632 ; Larkin, 156, 
973 ; La Rose, 593 ; La Salle, 965, 966 ; Lasell, 968 ; 
Lasch, 106, 108, 118, 119, 121, 651 ; Lascher, 212, 788, 792, 
796, 800, 832, 834, 835, 840, 849 ; Latham, 331, 450, 476, 
477, 521, 634, 923, 935 ; Lathrop, 208, 209, 438, 526, 527, 
575. 576. 577. 578. 593. 630, 652, 690, 729, 901 ; Latta, 
420, 903, 904, 906 ; Lattimer, 341 ; Lattimore, 725 ; Lau- 
der, 573 ; LaiKr, 853 ; Laughlin, 478 ; Lause, 272, 274 ; 



Lautman, 402 ; Lauton, 829 ; La Velenure, 751 ; Laven- 
tall, 624, 676; Law, 169; Lawders, 308; l.awlcr, 603, 
647 ; Lawlor, 705 ; Lawless, 91, 118 ; Lawrence, 261, 324, 
726, 744, 820, 907, 955, 956, 977, 984, 989, 992, 997 ; Law- 
renssen, 611; Lawson, 80, 153, 180, 685, 6qi, 765, 817, 
819, 834, 903, 927 ; Lawton, 156, 828, 832, 839 ; Lawyer, 
2IO, 420, 621, 860 ; Lay, 210, 854, 925, 927, 928 ; Layman, 
920; Leach, 176; Leadings, 305; Leake, 357, 359, 406, 
568, 641, 704, 745, 872 ; Learned, 103, 114, 153, 155, 169, 
170, 171, 172, 181, 532, 533, 568, 680, 682, 685, 686, 68g, 
699. 735. 976. 977 ; Leavy, 307 ; Le Boeuf, 736, 910, 969 ; 
Le Breton, 625 ; Le Bron, 952 ; Leckey, 971 ; Le Coul- 
teaux, 750, 751 ; Leddy, 305, 607; Lederer, 92; Ledger, 
637 ; Leduce, 986 ; Lee, 6, 79, 176, 188, 337, 338, 339, 394, 
411, 423.426, 532, 533, 543, 573, 690, 731, 818, 870, 871, 
^73> 875, 911, 941, 973 ; Leenderse, 273 ; Lefevre, 641, 642 ; 
Lefferts, 957, 960,972 ; Leffers, 971 ; Lefler, 8ii ; Le Galley, 
716 ; LeGallez, 595, 717 ; Legget, 334, 793, 811, 820, 960 ; 
I-e Grange, 199 ; Leh, 870, 871 ; Leik, 873 ; Leisler, 3, 10, 
379. 381, 385. 448 ; Leland, 652, 654, 705, 716 ; Lehe, 
877 ; Leiiiley, 861 ; Le Mair, 708 ; Ledrum, 887 ; Lenne- 
backer, 354; Lennenbacker, 934; Lennox, 711, 892, 960, 
973 ; Lent, 558 ; Leonard, 98, 210, 213, 526, 604, 634, 635, 
640, 749. 772, 861, 910, 933, 962; LeRoy, 355, 951, 956, 
967, 968, 969 ; Lesage, 756, 757, 758 ; Leslie, 93, 305, 376, 
521, 8^0; Lester, 912, 913; Lervens, 272; Levy, 603; 
Lewi, 118,211, 214, 244; Lewis, ti, 136, 179, 201, 212, 
261, 372, 377, 395, 399, 420, 443, 447, 651, 699, 737, 739, 
792, 943, 996 ; L' Hommedieu, 261, 336 ; Liddle, 355 ; 
Liesler, 658 ; Lieverse, 950 ; Liew, 853 ; Lightbody, 641 ; 
Lighlfoot, 476 ; Lighihall, 961 ; Liewis, 385 ; Lilentlial, 
624 ; L-ncoln, 9, 78, 148, 210, 216, 239, 284, 374, 399, 423, 
530. 541. SW. fSO. 715. 736, 737. 9". 912, 9'8.977 ; Lind, 
546, 743 ; Lindon, 743 ; L'ndsay, 156, 345 ; Lindsley, 835, 
895 ; Link, 967 ; Linn, 261, 771 ; Linter, 267, 881 ; Lipman, 
624, 699 ; Liscomb, 566 ; Lisk, S32, 835 ; Lister, 928 ; Listen, 
230 ; Litchfield, 153, 156, 354 ; Lilner, 30, 31, 32, 691, 731; ; 
Litschoe, 62 ; Little, 80, 366, 557, 592, 702 ; I.ittlefield, 568, 
690, 900, 997 ; Littlejohn, 742, 743 ; Littleton, 196 ; Liverse, 
931 ; Livingston, 15, 42, 88, 89, 124, 125, 130, 131, 132, 
136, 155, 156, 235, 261, 262, 273, 290, 312, 319, 320, 321, 

323, 327. 335. 336, 354. 381. 385. 389. 394, 398, 399. 4o6, 
407, 410, 411, 412, 416, 418, 420, 447, 463, 488, 523, 529, 
574, 622, 635, 640, 643, 651, 659, 668, 677, 679, 738, 771, 
808, 840, 841, 843, 846, 847, 848, 849, 851, 852, 861, 864, 
890. 995 ; Lloyd, 5S1, 584, 593, 743, 744, 893, 894, 904, 
907 ; Loam, 987; Loatwall, 420; Lobdell, 805, 923, 924,925, 
975, 980, 982, 984, 989, 991, 993 ; Lochner, 643 ; Locke, 
135 ; Lockhart, 205 ; Lockhead, g6i ; Lockley, 710; Lock- 
row, 427,941 ; Lockwood, 212, 599, 647, 749, 769, 854, 879, 

923, 924, 926, 991 ; Lideman, 829; Lodewick, 402 ; Lodge, 
425, 715, 744; Loese, 272 ; Loew, 440; Loeteridge, 467 ; 
Lomas, 79, 338, 378; Lomax, 763, 764; Lombard, 648 ; 
Long, no, 153, 395,481, 4S5, 793, 820, 841, 892, 902, 906 ; 
Longley, 961, 971 ; Loockermans, 295 ; Look (Luke), 401 ; 
Lookermans, 54, 272, 273 ; Loomis, 158, 179, 526, 527, 700, 

924, 987, 995 : Lord, 98, 103, IC4, 234, 613, 626, 650, 688, 
710, 766, 772 ; Lorimer, 749 ; Lorman, 987 ; Losce, 212, 406, 
613; Lossing, 92, 312; Lotridge, 490; Lott, 180; Loucks, 
153, 632, 777, 785, 832, 892, 904, 9-6, 910, 927 ; Loudon, 
389, 700, 936 ; Loughlin, 952 ; Loughran, 601 ; Louns- 
bury, 819, 912 ; Lourenzen, 295 ; Love, 750 ; Lovelace, 3, 
4, 10, 74, 252, 379, 380, 393, 825, 891 ; LovelancI, 612, 618; 
Lovell, 640, 926 ; Loveridge, 309, 376, 655, 657 ; Lovett, 
156, 421, 441, 526, 532, 534 ; Low, 104, 106, ic8, 209, 210, 
213, 420, 507, 568, 737, 738, 848 ; Lowe, 354, 635, 848, 
855; Lowenstein, 171, 172, 177, 308; Lowrey, 966, 973 ; 
Lowenthal, 960; Lowry, 179; Loyd, 788; Lozier, 677; 
Luby, 438, 479, 600 ; Lucas, 970 ; Lucase, 272, 273 ; Luce, 
880 ; Luckey, 810, 987 ; Ludden, 378, 596, 754, 811, 817, 
843, 854, 857, 86g, 876, 881 ; Luddy, 969 ; Ludington, 691; 
Ludlow, 686, 768, 771 ; Ludrum, 873 ; Ludwic;, 712 ; Luke, 
554. 777. 9°5. 9°6 ; Lundergan, 947, 997 ; Luscom, 344 ; 
Lush, 91, 129, 155, 156, 353, 354, 413, 469, 513, 525, 526, 
528, 6^0, 671, 672, 709, 752, 844, 944 ; Luther, 420, 474 ; 
Luyck, 251 ; Lydius, 39, 154, 508, 673, 771 ; Lyell, 13 ; 
Lyman, 98, 4'7, 522, 606, 686, 717, 740; Lynch, 90, 523, 
635, 699; Lynd, 102, 567; Lynom, 116; Lyon, 136, 212, 
213. 35&, 581, 599. 634. 639, 817, 879, 880, 970, 997 ; Lyons, 
104, 109, 308, 480, 485. 

Lansing & Co., J. T., 574 ; Lansing, A. & W., 153; La 

Rose Man. Co., 593 ; Larrabee & Co., E. J., 563 ; Lawler 
& Son, D.A., 603, 647 ; Lawson, L & J. M., 153 ; Lawton 
& Willis, 839 ; Learned & Thacher, 568 ; Learned, Wilson 
& Cook, 170 ; Le Gallez, A. & W., 595 ; Leonard & Young- 
man, 635 ; Le Roy & Lamb, 956 ; Levy & Bro., S., 603 ; 
Lipman & Co., H. W., 624; Litlle & Co., W. C, 702 ; 
Livingston & Co., J. S., 643 ; Livingston, Crawford, Wells 
& Co., 319 ; Livingston, Fargo & Co., 319, 321 ; Living- 
ston & Shelvin, 574 ; Livingston, Wells & Co., 319, 321 ; 
Lloyd & Co., S. H , 593 ; Lobdell & Sons, J. D., 993 ; 
Loomis & Co., G. J., 700 ; Loser & Co., S., 613 ; Loucks & 
Beck, 632 ; Louden, S. & J., 7C0 ; Low & Leake. 568 ; 
Luther & Sons, G.W., 635. 

Mabee, 928 ; Mabey, 923 ; Macaulay, 738 ; Mace, 813, 
814; Maciarlane, 104, ic6, 108, 378, 607, 717, 718, 726; 
MacGuire, 971 ; MacGregor, 212 ; Machin, 944 ; Mack, 304, 
309, 345, 6c6, 656, 657 ; Mackay, 15 ; Mackessy, 153 ; 
Mackey, 90, 92, 93, 914, 920, 928 ; MacNiven, 972 ; 
Ma^omber, 648 ; MacNaughton, 664, 691 ; Madden, no, 
996 ; Madison, 418 ; Maeder, 705 ; Magee, 402, 406, 764, 
774 ; Magill, 850 ; Magoon, 650, 749 ; Magivny, 98, 100, 
102, 920; Maguire, 212, 343, ,757; Mahan, 521, 621; 
Maher, IC9, no, iii, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, n8, 119. 147, 
355. 48c, 517, 534, 626, 637, 639, 678, 752, 784, 817 : 
Mahoney, 751 ; Main, 521, 793, 850, 869; Maise, 613: 
Major, 940 ; Malay, 305 ; Malcolm, 257 ; Malendy, 972 ; 
Maley, 528, 671 ; Malindy, 971 ; Mallison, 925 ; Mallon, 
308 ; Malone, 210; Maloy, 479, 657 ; Mallory, 414, 984 ; 
Manaham, 137 ; Mancius, 156, 203, 207, 2c8, 2C9, 
437. 438, 625, 626, 648, 667, 671 ; Mandeville, 268, 
769; Mangael, 125; Mangan, 115, 116; Marshall, 
562 ; Manier, 995 ; Manse, 125 ; Mansion, 981 ; Man- 
son, 153. 479, 585, 586, 587 ; Maney, 567 ; Many, 879 ; 
Mann, 213, 533, 621, 624, 677, 841, 846, 849,852, 857, 899, 
900, 901, 004, 906 ; Manning, 69, 93, 156, 358, 365, 366, 
367. 375. 377. 380. 480, 519, 531, 592, 907", 951 ; Many, 
571,613; Marcella, 771; Marcelis, 273, 295, 498, 584; 
Marcellus, 109; March, 164, 2c8, 210, 211, 213, 214, 215, 
219, 220. 243, 244, 268, 726, 728, 866 ; Marcy, 11, 134, 149, 
262, 268, 421, 440, 443, 686, 714, 715, 995 ; Marechal, 
966; Mark, 979, 997 ; Markay, 210; Markes, 899 ; Markey, 
305 ; Markle, 13, 21, 334, 343, 775, 824, 889, 890, 892, 899, 
900, 901, 905, 906, 9 8, 921, 99, 935, 941 ; Marks, 490, 
621 ; Markoe, 247 ; Marryatt, 618 ; Marselis, 413, 464, 485, 
486, 512, 823, 873, 874 ; Marschalk, 659 ; Marsh, 156, 211, 
641, 744, 747, 991 ; Marshall, 94, 95, 402, 412, 424, 559, 
601, 710, 720, 761, 882, 962, 968, 979, 989 ; Marsham, 905, 
906 ; Marston, 171 ; Martense, 273 ; Martin, go, 91, 102, 209, 
210, 420, 476, 477, 480, 515, 516, 526, 527, 531, 532, 533, 
534, 549, 574. 607, 632, 663, 666, 682, 6go, 716, 738, 76g, 
770, 820, 83g, 852, 853, 890, 8g2, goo, 911, 924, 925, 928, 
9S3 ; Martineau, 624 ; Martinse, 272 ; Martyn, g25 ; Maivin, 
158, i6t, 171, 340, 500, 526, 530, 531, 532, 541, 544, 613, 
621, 625, 687, 761 ; Mascraft, 752 ; Masselis, 272, 401, 405, 
406 ; Mason, 520, 613, 684, 885, g32, g82 ; Maslen, 378, 
410, 963. 967. 969, 970, 973 ; Masterson, ii6, 118 ; Mastin, 
306 ; Mather, 76, 267, 416, 427, 4gi, 492, 526, 528, 575, 
621, 626, 632, 937, 977, 98g, 997 ; Mathews, 42, 139, 153, 
345, 424. 677, 686, 725, 760, 839; Mathias, 90, 91, 
881, 893, 894, goi, go6, gii ; Mattice, 153, 613, 
830, 817, 8i8, 820, gig ; Mattier, 613 ; Mattimore, 
153, 211, 2i8, 474, 479, 635, 647, 676, 729 ; Mattise, 892 ; 
Maltison, 981; Mattoon, 615, 616; Maude, 15, 513; 
Maxled, 305 ; Maxstadt, 562 ; Maxwell, 640, 816, 973 ; May, 
!0 ; Mayell, 88, 603, 620 ; Mayer, 438, 562, 742, 743, 772, 
856 ; Mayham, 441 ; Mayhew, 188, 903 ; Maynard, 361, 
9'53, 970 ; Mayo, 772 ; McAllister, 212, 244, 708, 988 ; Mc- 
Alpine, 416, 443, 450, 514 ; McAneniy, 94 ; McAidle, 730, 
753 ; McBain, 934 ; McBride, 91, 477, 626, 663, 890, 892 ; 
McCabe, 587, 639, 713, 725, 764 ; McCaffery, 91 ; McCaf- 
frey, 91, 669; McCall, 95. no, n2, 113, n5, 118, ng, 153, 
266, 268, 475, 582, 584, 681, 699 ; McCallion, 983 ; Mc- 
Cammen, 526, 527 ; McCammon, 601, 602, 635, 713 ; Mc- 
Cann, 118, ng, 121, 163, 164, 306, 477, 47g. 480, 485, 
587,717; McCardle, 424,676; McCarley, 74; McCarthy, 
>2g, 235, 415, 42g, 562, 584, 585 ; McCarty, 75, 155, 306, 
307, 354, 475. 476. 772, 817 ; McCauley, 173 ; McChesney, 
667, 906 ; McClallen, 76, 442, 620 ; McClary, 102 ; Mc- 



Clellan, 192, 207, 20a, 215, 236, 427, 547, 669, 713, 988 ; 
McClelland, 209, 213, 235, 585, 736; McCloskey, 686, 729, 
752. 753. 754, 755. 756, 9^4 ; McCluUen, 406 ; McClung, 
406; McClure, 341, 526, 602, 647, 681, 731, 732, 735, 772, 
891, 897, 941, 942 ; McClusky, 93 ; McCoUum, 476 ; Mc- 
Comb, 523 ; McConnell, 708 ; McCoimick, 96, 98, 106, 109, 
480, 592, 712, 777, 782, 800, 987 ; McCotter, 116, 307 ; Mc- 
Coubry, 996 ; McCoughtry, 892, 895 ; McCoy, 340, 341, 343, 
377. 568, 680 ; McCracken, 410, 787 ; McCreary, 960, 967, 
972 ; McCredie, 556, 557, 560, 561, 726 ; McCrossin, 
306 ; McCroy, 90 ; McCuUoch, 77, 266, 376, 427, 556, 558, 
559, 892, 893, 894, 900, 902, 903, 906, 907, 910 ; McCul- 
lough, 963, 971, 972 ; McCuUom, 940 ; MclJermoit, 96, 97, 
424, 426, 710, 968, 973 ; McDonald, loi, no, 112, 
165, 211, 266, 267, 308, 356, 375, 556, 614, 683, 699, 
7CX3, 703, 712, 726, 768, 770, 789, 849, 874, 890 ; McDongal, 
841, 971 ; McDonough, 8, 153, 355, 650, 754, 764 ; Mc- 
DufEe, 156, 582, 607 ; McDuffle, 8g ; McDougai, 375, 393, 
737 ; McDowell, 957 ; McEaton, 448 ; McElroy, 96, 334, 343, 
364, 473, 519,526, 527,611, 685, 834, 903, 907 ; McEnroe, 
306 ; McEvoy, 91, 490, 585 ; McEvers, 750 ; McEwan, 427, 
480, 563, 564, 63s, 645, 710, 726, 744, 973 ; McEwen, 91, 156, 
331, 352, 480, 522 , 648, 893, 894, 906 ; McFarland, 77, 425, 
713 ; McFarlane, 377,711 ; McFalls, 911, 918; McGaghen, 
920 ; McGangen,j6i3 ; McGarth, ic8, 983 ; McGarrah, 744; 
McGarvey, 568, 69, 57o;'McGee, 972; McGeorge, 694; 
McGeough, 756 McGill, 420, 793, 950 ; McGinn, 756 ; 
McGinnes, 647 ; McGlashan, 376, 701 : McGowan, 120, 
643 ; McGowen, 119, 343, 613 ; McGown, 305, 422 ; Mc- 
Graw, 521, 643, 710, 755 ; McGregor, 76, 879 ; McGae, 9S, 
477. ^37 ; McGuire, 92, 94, 305, 427, 428 ; McGuirk, 103, 
104 ; McHaffie, 103, 104, 624 ; McHarg, 90, 95, 96, 153, 
2IO, 474. 500. 526. 534, 611, 621, 699, 722, 777, 7S4, 785, 
789, 793, 800, 904 ; McHugh, 596 ; Mclnnerney, 307 ; Mc- 
intosh, 420, 637, 674, 817, 819, 967, 972 ; Mclntyre, 92, 93, 
329, 440, 443, 472, 476, 480, 524, 675, 683, 716, 725, 726, 
770, 987, 98S, ; Mcjimpsey, 683 ; McKean, 712 ; McKee, 
75, 261, 378, 835, 836, 837, 841 ; McKelway, 239, 268, 364, 
377; McKenna, 102, 153, 351, 480, 481, 485, 699; Mc- 
Kenzie, 785, 905 ; McKeon, 640 ; McKeown, 640 ; Mc- 
Kercher, 333, 376, 636 ; McKesson, 261 ; McKim, 592 ; 
McKinley, 819 ; McKinney, 479 ; McKinny, 573 ; Mc- 
Knight, 92, 474, 534, 556, 559, 560, 685, 690 ; McKissick, 
632, 633, 699 ; McKoUock, 897 ; McKoun, 526 ; Mc- 
Kown, 77, 88, 97, 103, 156, 199, 200, 211, 226, 268, 342, 
354, 358. 425. 473. 501. 526, 546, 843, 846, 847, 848, 849, 
86i, 869; McLachlan, 210, 220; iMcLaren, 192, 631 ; Mc- 
Laughlin, 901, 905, 980; McLean, 154, 188, 211, 345, 640, 
973. 977. 980, 997 ; McLure, 637 ; McLush, 558 ; Mc- 
Loughlin, 559 ; McLuckey, 971 ; McMahon, 90, 91, 343 ; Mc- 
Manenry, 996 ; McMichael, 179, 829, 839 ; McMickin, 92, 420; 
McMillan, 266, 621 ; McMillan, 843, 892,900,902,903,987; 
McMuUen, 90; McMuliin, 77; McMurdy, 211, 648; Mc- 
Murray, 103, 586, 700, 726 ; McNab, 906 ; McNamara, 80, 
153, 519, 559, 603, 628, 734, 835 ; McNary, 788, 836 ; Mc- 
Naughton, 153, 210, 211, 213, 214, 220, 532, 534, 581, 592, 
726, 731, 735, 758 ; McNeal, 308 ; McNierney, 596, 597, 
754. 756, 757. 965, 966; McNiren, 970; McOmber, 594, 
712 ; McOnly, 613 ; McPherson, 376, 626 ; McQuade, 476, 
477. 479. 521, 522, 557. 564. 639. 7 12, 752 ; McRoberts, 
708, 728 ; McSorley, 585 ; McTamany, 973 ; McWilliams, 
902, 903; Meacham, 339, 601, 743; Mead, 90, 91, 153,211, 
214, 480, 481, 613, 616, 617, 500, 544, 716, 784, 788, 793, 
800, 832, 834, S49, 850, 892, 894, 900, 901, 904, 910, 980; 
Meads, 639, 640, 671, 680, 685, 760, 761 ; Mee, 108, 522,' 
716; Meech, 89, 90, 349, 705 ; Meed, 106, 116; Mergan, 
121, 153, 188, 189, 190, 191, 478 ; Meeker, 962 ; Meersen, 
295 ; Mees, 295 ; Megapolensis, 38, 203, 204, 205, 251, 750, 
770, 771, 938, 949 ; Meigs, 677 ; Melcher, 320 ; Meley, 211 ; 
Melgertse, 273 ; Melick, 527, 573, 581 ; Meline, 752 ; 
Melius, 113, 115, 122, 736, 843; Menand, 334, 936; 
Meneely, 522, 705, 734, 975, 977, 987, 991, 992 ; Mendels- 
sohn, 743, 744 ; Menlsch, 559 ; Mercelis, 872 ; Merchanl, 
155, 262, 529, 616, 628, 629, 667, 679, 683 ; Meredith, 962, 
995; Mereness, 112, 212, 214, 244, 716; Merkel, 811 ; 
Merket. S56 ; Merns, 755 ; Merriam, 997 ; Merrick, 743, 
841 ; Merrifield, 630, 690, 782; Merriliew, 744, 817, 877 ; 
Merrill, 212, 220, 221. 222, 244; Merriman, 425, 428, 711 ; 
Merrington, 212 ; Menit, 834; Merrilt, 179, 450, 712, 975 ; 
Merselis, 91, 809, 871 ; Merwin, 683, 765 ; Mesick, 420, 
844, 848 ; Messenger, 337 ; Messer, ic6, 186, 306 ; Metcalf, 

212, 433. 563 ; Metz, 647 ; Mey, 44, 45, 775, 776 ; Meyer, 
102, 179, 345, 683 ; Meyers, 93, 341, 725 ; Michaelis, 221, 
433 ; Mezick, 841 ; Michell, 524, 599 ; Michelsen, 294 ; 
Michielse, 273 ; Middleman, goo ; Middlemas, 812, 8gg ; 
Miggael, 364, 377, 378 ; Milbank, 226, 245, 793 ; Milbanks, 
91 ; Milborne, 381 ; Miles, 179, 613, 637, 638 ; Milhau,236 ; 
MiUens, 427 ; Miller, 8, 89, 91, 153, 156, 174, 213, 235, 
373. 378, 4'32, 413- 416, 425. 430. 504. 505. 522, 526, 
584, 602, 621, 625, 684, 736, 750, 764, 771, 772, 773, 778, 
790, 797, 809, 812, 814, 817, 818, 837, 865, 881, 901, 906, 
911, 928, 962, 964, 967, 969, 970, 972, 995, 996, 997 ; Mil- 
liman, 988 ; Millington, 260 ; Millmon, 420 ; Mills, 153, 
421, 477, 613, 728, 740, 985 ; Millspaugh, 890, 899, goo, 
905 ; Miln, 25b, 759, 760 ; Milroy, 726; Milton, 915; Milwain, 
C2, g3 ; Mincher, 962, 972 ; Miner, 153, 900 ; Mingeel, 273 ; 
Mink, 521, 522, 907 ; Minne, 385 ; Minor, 690 ; Mintz, 763 ; 
Minuit, 2, 10, 46, 47, 611; Mitchel, 683, 894, 900; 
Mitchell, 154, 169, 213, 336, 354, 375, 420, 424, 
524, 625, 744, 750, 973, 989; Mix, 156, 474, 519,521, 
559, 592, 641 ; Moak, 153, 156, 172, 176, 177, 178, 192, 
194, ig6, 681, 682, 788, 813, 814, 853, 892, 897, 899, 
902, 905, 906, 907, 926 ; Moe, 934, 989 ; Moeller, 77, 811, 
856, 881 ; Moench, 562 ; Moffat, 356, 477 ; Moffatt, 744 ; 
Moir, 544, 6i2, 613, 618, 761; Molinard, 429; MoUoy, 
655 ; Monckton, 4, 10, 379 ; Monell, 493 ; Money, 153 ; 
Monier, 413 ; Monisette, 187 ; Monk, 969, 970 ; Monroe, 
212, 664, 708, 744 ; Montagne, 204, 205 ; Montcalm, 4, 
389 ; Monteath, 626, 630, 735, 745 ; Montignani, 153, 635, 
726 ; Montgomerie, 4, 260, 379 ; Montgomery, 5, 394, 395, 
396, 400, 412, 656 ; Montross, 835 ; Moon, 643 ; Mooney, 
603 ; Moore, 5, 78, 90, 98, 109, no, 112, 113, 115, 119, 129, 
15s, 211, 213, 214, 216, 219, 245, 262, 265, 306, 375, 382, 
424, 427, 478, 479, 485, 490, 521, 582, 583, 584, 605, 612, 
703, 717, 750. 758, 759. 814, 846, 912, 920, 923, 927, 937, 
946, 949. 969, 972, 973. 982 ; Morange, 153, 341, 517, 597, 
647, 729, 750, 752, ggo ; Mordecai, 433 ; More, 790, 913 ; 
Morehead, 958, 959 ; Moreness, 8og ; Morey, 987 ; Morgan, 
II, 113, 151, 160, 212, 236, 266, 269, 324, 325, 374, 399, 
427, 444. 477. 612,. 613, 616, 655, 656, 697, 699, 715, 725, 
738, 812, 851, 882, 932, 934, 945 ; Morgridge, 345 ; Moris, 
973; Morrill, 213, 245, 699; Morris, I18, 119, 130, 131, 
261, 330, 331, 412, 426, 427, 478, 494, 523, 575, 625, 636, 
677. 699, 713. 925. 93'. 935 ; Morrison, 306, 307, 708, 834, 

914, 921, 925, 950, 958, 959, 977, 994; Morrow, 212, 221, 
322, 699, 770; Morse, 15, 322, 513, 738, 749, 924; Morton, 
725 ; Mosely, 308, 624, 625 ; Moser, 214, 216 ; Mosher, 211. 
220, 304, 355, 474, 690, 699, 777, 780, 785, 788, 789, 828, 
832, 835, 843, 900, 906, 977, 980, 991 ; Moshier, 814; 
Mosier, 813 : Moss, 427 ; Mott, 342, 735, g20, 927 ; Moul- 
throp, 972 ; Moulton, 602, 657 ; Mounsey, 558 ; Mount, 
427: Moussart, 50;. Mowers, 420; Mowry, 179, 533, 980; 
Mozart, 743 ; Muckle, 266 ; Mudge, 911, 926, 961 ; Muhlen- 
berg, 856; Muir, 420,937, 811; Mukle, 881 ; Mulcahy, 475, 
476, 951 ; Mullord, 89, 640, 641, 675, 850, 913, 916, 920 ; 
Mulhall, 476, 477, 478, 479 ; Mulholland, 424, 710; Mull, 
305, 521, 522, 594, 736, 788, 800, 832, 836; Mullen, 676; Mul- 
ligan, 477, 716, 717 ; Mullock, 755 ; MuUon, 485 ; Munger, 
425 ; Munders, 869; Munro, 413, 759, 760; Munsell, 180, 
207, 293, 342, 367, 368, 376, 377, 439, 547, 700, 701, 851 ; 
Munson, 212, 221, 245, 602, 605, 606, 607, 747 ; Murdock, 
704 ; Murphey, 566 ; Murphy, 90, 104, 109, i to, 1 18, 1 19, 
153, 210, 211, 218, 307, 343, 355, 427, 458, 477, 480, 566, 
589, 613, 648, 781, 834, 893, 894, 899, 901, 906, 907, 914, 

915, 919, 921, 971, 972 ; Murray, no, 113, 115, 116, 117, 
121, 153, 161, 192, 212, 214, 245, 246, 305, 307, 392, 480, 
481, 666, 684, 685, 735, 744, 841, 844, 962 ; Mussey, 971 ; 
Myers, 80, 153, 182, 211, 223, 420, 439, 474, 567, 613, 621, 
784, 789, 809, 922, 923, 928, 961 ; Mygatt, 344, 928 ; 
Myhan, 754 ; Mynders, 843 ; Mynderse, 221, 353, 354, 841, 
843, 844, 845, 846, 849, 852, 854, 855 ; Mynderstsen, 49 ; 
Mack & Co., 606 ; Mahar, J. & J., 621 ; Mancius & Le 
Breton, 625. 

Maney & Ward, 567 ; Mann, Waldman &Co.,62i ; Mann 
& Witherwax, 852 ; Manson & True, 153 ; Many & Co., 
W. C, 571, 613 ; Marse & Bicknell, 613 ; Maree & Hoflman, 
641 ; Marshall, James & Traver, 601, 602; Marshall & 
Traver, 601 ; Marshall & Rapp, 559 : Marshall & Wendell, 
601, 602 ; Martin & Frost, 632 ; Marvin & Co., A., 625 ; 
Marvin & Co., R.,621 ; MatherBros,, 626, 632 ; Mather, E. 
& W., 621 ; Mather& Co., Thos., 76 ; Mattice & Simons, 613; 
Mattier & Simons, 613 ; Mattimore & Son, 635 ; Mattoon & 


Robinson, 613, 615 ; McBride, John & VV. M., 626 ; McCaf- 
frey & Holmes, 66g ; McCammon & Co., Wm., 602 ; 
McClalland & Graef, 585 ; McClallen & McGregor, 76 ; 
McClure&Co., 647 ; McClure & Co., 637 ; McCoy & Clark, 
568 ; McCoy, Clark & Co., 568 ; McCoy & Quackenbcss, 
568 ; McDonald & Sterry, 703 ; Mc Evoy & Moore, 490 ; Mc- 
Gangan & McOnly, 613; McGowen & Co., M., 613; McGur & 
O'Brien, 637; McHaffee & Co., L., 624; Mcintosh, E.G. 
& W., 637 ; McKee & Springstead, 378, 837 ; McKinney & 
Son, J., 573 ; McKnight & Son, J., 559 ; SicKown, J. V. H. 
&J., 200; Mcl^ish & Birrell, 558; McMurray & Brooksby, 
586 ; McMillan & Bagley, 621 ; McNamara & Mclaughlin, 
559 ; McPherson & McKercher, 376 ; Mead, J. H. & F. A., 
639 ; Mead, Dunham & Co., 616 ; Mead, Myers & Bennett, 
613; Meacham, J. & H., 601 ; Menand & Sons, L., 334; 
Meneely & Co., 992; Meneely & Oothout, 992; Meneely, 
E. A. & G. R., 992 ; Meneely & Son, Andrew, 992 ; Mer- 
chant, L. & W., 629 ; Metz & Son, J., 647 ; Miller & Sherman, 
837 ; Miles & Co., 613 ; Mills & Tower, 634; Moore & Callen- 
der, 612 ; Moore & Hiller, 946 ; Moore & Zimmerman, 583 ; 
Moore & Zimmerman, R. H. & J., 612 ; Morgan & Lapham, 
616 ; Monteath, Bageley cS: Co., 626 ; Morris & Hilligas, 
620 ; Morrison, Colwell & Page, 958 ; Moseley, J. E., 625 ; 
Moseley & Van Gaasbeck, 624, 625 ; Moulton & Goodman, 
602 ; Mulford & Wendell, 641 ; Mulford, Wendell & Co., 
641 ; Mullon & Sons, J., 647 ; Munsell & Co., 377 ; Mun- 
sell & Sons, J., 700 ; Munson & Co., 605 ; Munson, Richard- 
son & Co., 606 ; Murphey & Liscomb, 566 ; Mynduse & 
Pangbum, 854. 

Nack, 273; Nadeau, 116, 118, 119, 120; Nan, 125; Nanfan, 
3, 5, 10, 299, 379 ; Nary, 973 ; Nash, 492 ; Naughton, 306; 
Naugle, 613 ; Nasholds, 818, 873, 874 ; Nason, 897 ; Neef, 
230, 771 ; Needer, 790 ; Neeper, 906 ; Neil, 635, 699, 768, 
769, 957 ; Nellegar, 648, 741 ; Nelligan, 103 ; Nellis, 212, 
245, 967 ; Nelson, 139, 145, 521, 613, 708, 787, 817, 926; 
Nephews, 613 ; Ness, 272, 586 ; Neubauer, 756 ; Neuw- 
komm, 743 ; Newbury, 420, 817 ; Newcomb, 100, loi, 

153, 192, 210, 211, 214, 217, 427, 535, 708 ; Newdorf, 424 ; 
Newland, 671, 743; Newman, 424, 519, 638, 641, 956; 
Newsham, 520 ; Newton, 79, 89, 532, 554, 584, 632, 727, 
935, 941 ; Nicholas, 768; Nichols, 73, 153, 613, 614, 
633> 637> 7°5> 735> 74°> 753> 7^'' 9' 2. 913, 966 ; 
Nicholson, 3, 10, 376, 379, 381, 387, 788 ; Nickerson, 321 ; 
Nicol, 301, 412 ; Nicoll, 155, 261, 353, 354, 401, 407, 418, 
777. 793 ; Nicolls, 3, 10, 68, 69, 252, 293, 379, 391, 661, 
911, 918; Niell, 683, 684; Nienenhuysen, 758; Niew- 
enhuysen, 771 ; Nihell, 706 ; Niles, 75, 78, 91, 155, 
402, 708, 832, 835, 839, 916, 920, 938, 961 ; Niver, 153, 

154, 346, 650, 744, 728, 784, 789, 793, 800, 839 ; Nixon, 
399 ; Noble, 210, 343 ; Nodine, S29, 832, 834, 839 ; 
Norethen, 756 ,757 ; Nolan, 110, 112, 116, 119, 120, 121, 
190, 23S, 245, 355, 441, 476, 478, 479, 480, 557, 559, 626, 
666, 678 : Noonan, 534, 753 ; Norman, 102 ; Norris, 42, 
535> 831, '834, 931 ; North, 354, 523, 944, 951, 957, 960, 
967; Northrop, 211, 234, 235, 420, 817, 819; Northrup, 
169, 214, 475 ; Norton, 109, 153, 479, 485, 500, 526, 531, 
534, 537. 539. 540. 567. 568, 571. 572. 604, 613, 637, 7^6, 
762 ; Norwood, I20, 920, 921 ; Notrander, 765 ; Nott, 74, 
78,95, 141, 153, 155, 185, 186, 187, 188, 198, 200, 262, 266, 
268, 334, 335, 342, 355, 472, 479. 567, 655, 679, 716, 721, 
747, 768, 793, 848, 879; Nouck, 911, 918, 919; Noxon, 
210, 213, 256, 533, 788, 835, 936; Noyes, 245, 532,800, 948; 
Nugent, 153,474, 476, 477, 694; Nutlall, 963; Numpler, 
613 ; Nussbaum, 153, 655 ; Nuttall, 956 ; Nye, 644. 

Neil & Harris, 635 ; Neil & McDowell, 959 ; Newbury & 
Chapman, 855 ; Newman & Adams, 956 ; Newton & Co., 
584 ; Newton, Wm. & John, 632 ; Nichols & Mills, 613 ; 
Norris & Bro., 837 ; Norton & Bentler, 153 ; North & 
Doyle, 957 ; Norton & Co., 613 ; Norton & Corning, 540 ; 
Nott & Co., 567 ; Nye & Blatner, 644. 

983 ; O'Dea, ic6, 108 ; O'Donald, 877 ; G'Donnell, 210 ; 
Ogden, 354, 436, 679. 698, 727, 740, 879 ; Ogilvie, 759, 760 ; 
O'Gorman, 751 ; Ogsbury, 94, 840, 841, 843, 844, 846, 
847, 848, 8.^9, 850 853, 854, 869 ; O'Halloran, 307 ; 
O'Hara, 485, 512 ; O'Haire, 993, 997 ; O'Heany, 343 ; 
O'Kane, 376 ; O'Keefe, 477 ; Olcott, 153, 188, 337, 
376, 480, 516, 5:7, 519, 526, 529, 530, 531, 534, 
S92, 640, 662, 669, 675, 680, 681, 803, 942, 989 ; 
()'Leai-y, 106, 108, 211, 214, 218, 221, 424, 438, 479, 481, 
485, 699 ; Olin, 169 ; O'Liiida, 154, 210, 213, 471 ; OHver, 

127, 305. 464, 479. 534, 558, 567. 587, 589, 590. 655, 656, 
690, 710, 711, 745, 74S, 785, 871, 900, 907, 908, 925 ; 
Olmstead, 90, 91, 621,742,938, 950,951,952, 957,968; 
Olmsted, 450 ; O'Malley, 153 ; Onderdonk, 88, 257, 760, 
784, 800, 814, 870, 871, 872, 928, 931, 940, 950, 960, 969, 
982 ; Onderkerck, 273 ; O'Neal, 906 ; O'Neil, 307, 967 ; 
O'Neill, 753 ; Oothoudt, 155, 353, 354, 401, 418 ; Oothout, 
•"72. 354. 412. 945. 974, 987. 99'. 993 ; Oppenheiro, 153 ; 
Opply, 840 ; Orcutt, 587 ; Ordway, 612 ; Orelup, 870, 871, 
962, 968, 971, 972 ; Orlop, 973 ; Orlops, 935 ; O'Kielly, 
323 ; O'Rorke, 687 ; Orr, 98, 427, 475, 597, 790 ; Orton, 
655 ; Oiborn, 306, 307, 333, 374, 375, 377, 378, 601, 629, 
716, 719, 834, 854, 861 ; Osborne, 4, 10, 379, 474, 477, 562, 
634, 714, 728, 996 ; Osgood, 581, 636 ; Osnam, 728 ; Ost, 
987 ; Osterhout, 420, 806,811, 834, 835, F4g, 874, 888, 9C0, 
940,950,971, 972; Ostrander, 354, 373,406, 408, 420, 785, 
841, 844,846, 847, 848, 850, 854, 873, 874 ; Ostrom, 401, 
686, 817, 935, 941, 943, 945 ; O'SuUivan, 154, 559 ; Otten- 
haus, 756, 789; Oswald, 355, 977, 987, 991 ; Ouimet, 708 ; 
Oulhout, 273, 931 ; Overbagh, 834 ; Owen, 104,624, 708, 
763, 764, 956, 961, 962, 970, 973 ; Otis, 418 ; Ott, 573. 

O'Bnen & Maher, 637 ; Ogden & Wright, 679, 740 ; 
Ogsbury & Vanderpool, 854 ; Orr & Blair, 597 ; Osborn & 
Taber, 854. 

Pabst, 605, 789 ; Packard, 376, 377. 568, 650, 700, 701, 
742, 743, 814, 934; Packer, 880; Paddock, 98, 112, 186, 
197, 198, 420, 474, 476, 477, 479, 562, 604, 665, 675, 914, 

961 ; Paff, 716; Page, 140, 266, 573, 621, 679, 728, 737, 
738, 749, 860, 951, 958, 959 ; Paige, IC2, 153, 158, 179, 
268, 440, 474, 475, 477, 478, 513, 531, 538, 664, 665, 809, 
988 ; Pain, 975 ; Paine, 213, 222, 224, 225, 226 ; Pallat, 
562 ; Palm, 856 ; Palmateer, 831 ; Palmer, 74, 78, 115, 116, 
289, 307, 354, 408, 420, 532, 533, 534, 544, 554, 582, 599, 
627, 6S7, 712, 737, 738, 758, 760, 761, 791, 797, 834, 835, 
839, 914, 915, 919, 920, 972 ; Palneeter, 849 ; Pangborn, 
420, 849, 910 ; Pangbutn, 621, 841, 843, 845, 854, 869, 
892 ; Panhart, 817 ; Papen, 212, 245 ; Pardoe, 753 ; Paris, 
844 ; Park, 187 ; Parke, 603 ; Parker, 93, 103, 106, 153, 
154. 155. 157, 158, 159, 160, i6i, 173, 175, 176, 194, 26S, 
272, 355, 420, 441, 463, 476, 477, 478, 532, 538, 545, 588, 
589, 621, 6S0, 681, 686, 690, 701, 711, 712, 727, 753, 813, 
861, 879, 918, 995 ; Parkhurst, 744 ; Parkman, I, 2 ; Parks, 

962 ; Parmalee, 665 ; Parmele, 211 ; Parmelee, 155 ; Parr, 
90, 116, 119, 153, 156, 355, 378, 521 ; Parrish, 819 ; Parrot, 
4r6 ; Parsons, 377, 378, 424, 425, 474, 476, 477, 479, 563, 
564, 589, 621, 645, 655, 657, 686, 701, 702, 715, 785, 956 ; 
Partington, 338; Patchin, 529; Patin, i6t ; Patrick, 490, 

963 ; Patridge, 980 ; Patten, 78, 89, 155, 265, 420, 613, 
675, 731, 735. 803, 805, 806, 817, 818, 820, 821, 822 ; 
Pattengill, 964; Patterson, 77, 91, 290, 291, 376, 625, 677, 
750, 777, 785, 792, 793, 800, 881, 891, 892, 893, 903, 906 ; 
Pattison, 345, 975 ; Pattkammer, 750 ; Patton, 98, 613, 
879, 892, 894, 904, 910, 911 ; Paul, 560, 725, 750, 957 ; 
Paulding, 7, 188 ; Payn, 91, 603, 748, 946 ; Payne, 210, 
703, 762 ; Peabody, 535 ; Peacock, 687 ; Peale, 737 ; Peak, 
977, 985; Pearce,' 210; Pearl, 849, 850, 852, 860, 906; 
Pearse, 100, 102, 103, 104, 106, 108, 119, 402, 766, 784, 

789, 800, 899, 900, 931, 934, 935, 941, 945, 964, 969 ; 

Pearson, 367, 638, 667, 843 ; Peaslee, 220 ; Peasly, 256 ; 
Peck, 21, 212, 267, 373, 691, 694, 903, 913, 923, 958, 961, 
964, 971, 972 ; Peckham, 78, III, 114, 115, 148, 149, 152, 
153, 155, 156, 163, 164, 170, 172, 175, 181, 183, 184, 193, 
197, 226, 232, 429, 441, 480, 513, 517, 912, 927 ; Peddle, 
750; Peel. 562 ; Peelan (Pylen), 13 ; Peelen, 51 ; Peers, 
88, 752, 928 ; Peloubet, 926 ; Pelton, 906 ; Peltz, 153, 735, 
834 ; Pemberton, 621, 625, 626 ; Penn, 70 ; Peimie, 153, 
559, 595, 613 ; Penio, 944 ; Penniman, 566, 650, 951 ; 
Pennock, 960, 964 ; Penrey, 749 : Penton, 827 ; Peoples, 



635 ; Pepper, 89 ; Pepson, 587 ; Perkins, 220, 266, 268, 
572, 679, 691, 708 ; Perrigo, 997 ; Perry, 8, 78, 198, 210, 

212, 214, 221, 245, 331, 340, 355, 421, 426, 440> 441. 457. 
470. 474, 475. 476. 519. 526, 531. 532. 545. 546, 547. 548, 
549, 550, 559, 564, 567, 568. 569, 570, 571. 572, 652, 665, 720, 
75°. 779, 942. 992 ; Pester, 562 ; Peter, 621 ; Peters, 169, 

213. 971. 973, 974; Petras, 940; Pettengill, 562, 563; 
Pettier, 212, 973 ; Petlinger, 850 ; Pettis, 971 ; Pettit, 427, 
477 ; Pfordt, 335 ; Phelps, 177, 190, 191, 306, 343, 445, 
47«. 65s, 706, 739, 911, 918, 950 ; Philips, 742 ; PhiUips, 
213, 307. 413. 425, 475, 526, 613, 629, 699, 817, 948, 981 ; 
Phillipse, 272 ; Phillipsen, 295 ; Philley, 854 ; Phinner, 
944 ; Phipps, 613 ; Phisterer, 710 ; Phoebus, 765 ; Pickett, 
307; Pickney, 870; Pier, 420, 873, 874; Pierce, 149,279,356, 
637, 9". 923. 957 ; Pierson, 268, 325, 335,35;, 424, 623; 
Pieterse, 274, 659, 825, 891 ; Pielersen, 295, 658 ; Pike, 850; 
Pilsbury, 352; Pinkerton 997; Pinney, 613, 925; Piston, 682; 
Pitcher, 872, 873, 874, 926, 939, 940 ; Pitkin, 605, 759, 760; 
Pitman, 784, 860; Pitt, 4; Pittinyer, 852 ; Pitts, 193, 948, 
997 ; Pixley, 914; Place, 364, 420; Pladwell, 737, 906; 
Planck, 51 ; Plank, 911, 919, 920 ; Plantz, 971 ; Plase, 127 ; 
Piatt, 304, 310, 336, 341, 354, 420, 442, 526, 529, 533, 651, 
732, 743. 844 ; Platto, 841 ; Platz, 972, 973 ; Plunket, 952 ; 
Plympton, 686 ; Pohlman, 341, 764, 772, 773, 774 ; Poincel, 
973 ; Poinier, 558 ; Polhemus, 301 ; Polk, 138, 158, 280 ; 
Polland, 342 ; Polliuer, 378 ; Pomeroy, 227, 319, 321, 
394, go6, 962 ; Fomfret, 211, 214, 216, 220, 426, 772, 788 ; 
Pond, 378, 836 ; Pool, 785 ; Poole, 234 ; Poor, 399, 785 ; 
Pope, 926 ; Porter, 90, 102, 146, 152, 155, 163, 179, 180, 
185, 199, 211, 214, 217, 220, 232, 245, 439, 519, 523, 529, 
531, 640, 642, 720, 772, 787, 987, 992, 995 ; Forth, 94 ; 
Possing, 813 ; Pos.on, 8i8, 870, 871, 872, 873, 874, 880, 
924 ; Post, 804, 817, 917 ; Potter, 154, 268, 355, 635, 675, 
679, 681, 682, 759, 760, 761, 843, 915, 920, 961, 962, 982, 
984, 985, 996 ; Foits, 533, 567, 568 ; Powell, 91, 100, 109, 
266, 267, 376, 828, 831, 832, 834, 835, 839, 860, 887, 896, 
903, 928; Powers, 104, 106, 108, no, 112, 113, 115, n8, 
"9, 354. 378, 475. 476, 5'2, 704; Prseside, 753 ; Pratt, 
100, 153, 188, 225, 226, 238, 261, 268, 355, 371, 410, 494, 
500, 526, 534, 556, 559, 568, 621, 632, 691, 700, 715, 841, 
847, 848, 851 ; Preisser, 757 ; Prentice, 73, 321, 328, 329, 
333. 334, 341, 519, 531. 603, 604, 675, 681, 780, 782, 985 ; 
Prentiss, 321 ; Frescott, 324, 513, 646, 691, 757 ; Frest, 95, 
96, 97, 764 ; Preston, 226, 265, 676, 704, 705, 914, 915, 
919, 924, 927 ; Pretty, 70, 156, 463 ; Prettyman, 740 ; 
Prevost, 8 ; Price, 129, 354, 401, 403, 406, 407, 626, 642, 
643, 701, 760, 877, 901; Priest, 210; Prime, 103, 106, 441 ; 
Prince, 104, 333, 354, 573 ; Pringle, 923 ; Procter, 123 ; 
Proctor, 328, 334, 654, 706 ; Proinst, 947 ; Prosser, 80, 
645, 923, 927, 928 ; Prosseu?, 632 ; Proudfil, 262 ; Front, 
850, 854, 855 ; Prouty, 702 ; Provoost, 156 ; Pruyn, 83, 89, 
90. 91, 93. "6, 161, 179, 268, 273, 354, 355, 366, 401, 
420, 426, 427, 430, 440, 442, 443, 450, 477, 479, 493, 519, 
526, 527, 531, 534, 558, 573, 575, 589, 590, 599, 637, 638, 
678, 690, 731, 732, 736, 760, 790, 931 ; Pryce, 892 ; Puffs, 
625 ; PuUen, 319 ; Fulling, 532, 553 ; Pullman, 920 ; 
Pulver, 829 ; Fumpelly, 443, 526, 534, 549, 550, 760, 968, 
969 ; Puiington, 917 ; Purple, 212 ; Purvis, 677 ; Putnam, 
89. 394, 635, 728, 740, 753, 759, 813, 829, 926, 931 ; 
Pye, 304; Pynes, 113, 115, u6 ; Packard & Co., IS. O., 
376. 377 ; Packard & Conant, 700 ; Packard, Hoffman & 
White, 650 ; Packard & Van Benthuysen, 701 ; Packer, 
Prentice & Co., 604; Paddock, Draper & Chester, 198; 
Paddock, S.& W.S., 198 ; Page & Son, Isaiah, 573 ; Page 
& Sons, E., 958 ; Page & Sill, 573 ; Palmer & Co., L.M., 
627 ; Parker & Baker, 621 ; Parker & Countryman, 153, 160 ; 
Parsons & Co., J. H., 956 ; Parsons & Griffin, 377 ; Patten, 
M. & J., 821 ; Payn's Sons, Benj., 603 ; Peckham & Tre- 
main, 164 ; Feele & Co., A. G., 958 ; Pemberton Bros., 626 ; 
Pemberton & Mitchell, 625 ; Pennie & Wolfinger, 613 ; Perry 
& Co., 571 ; Ferry, Treadwell & Norton. 568 ; Pettengill & 
Metcalf, 563 ; Phillips & Dunscomb, 613 ; Phillips & Elsacs 
& Warner, 854 ; Pistor & Marlins, 682 ; PoUiner C. G. & A., 
378 ; Pomeroy & Co., 319, 320, 321 ; Porter & Frazee, 992 • 
Powell & Co., C. F., 376 ; Pratt & Doubleday, 700 ; Pratt & 
Durant, 621 ; Pratt & Treadwell, 568 ; Prentice, Finn & Co., 
603 ; Prentice, Packer & Co., 603 ; Price & Knickerbocker, 
642 ; Price & Weatherhead, 626 ; Proseus & Rowley, 632 ; 
Pruyn & Gadner, 621 ; Pruyn & Hvatt, 599 ; Pruyn & 1 .an- 
sing. 373, 589 ; Pruyn & 01mstead,'62I ; Pniyn & Son, L., 
637 ; Pruyn, Wilson & Vosbur-h, 636, 638 ; Pull?n & Co., 

320 ; Pullen & Copp, 319 ; PuUen.Virgil & Co., 320, 321 ; 
Putnam & Hoyt, 635. 

Quackenbos, 523, 639, 931 ; Quackenbosh, 220; Quack- 
enboss, 128, 129, 273, 354, 406, 440, 568 ; Quackebosse, 
272 ; Quackenbush, 88, 89, 91, 155, 198, 210, 213, 215, 
333, 344. 378. 4°'. 4°6. 409. 412, 446, 447, 613, 662, 

665, 652, 690, 725, 841, 8.13, 844, 845, 848, 849, 851, 
869, 964 ; Quay, 266, 428, 872, 873, 874, 876, 879, 
887, 888 ; Quayle, 739 ; Queen, 304 ; Quimby, 639 ; Quincy, 
877 ; Quin, 474, 478 ; Quinn, 441, 475, 478, 557.559, ^47. 

666, 699, 717, 751, 983 ; Quinton, 734 ; Quirk, ic6 ; Quit- 
man, 772. 

Quay B. & M., 559 ; Quinn & Nolan, 559. 

Raby, 92 ; Radcliff, 91, 92, 210, 261 ; Radcliffe, 94 ; Rad- 
ley, 582, 893, 894, 902 ; Radliff, 892 ; Rafferty, 635, 980 , 
Rahill, log; Rain, 971, 972, 973 ; Raleigh, 729; Kalyea, 
848 ; Rambant, 749 ; Ramier, 91 1 ; Ramsay, 337, 777, 845, 
846, 925 ; Ramsey, 77, 153, 177, 412, 429, 474, 628, 841, 
892, 906, 911 ; Randall, 195, 266, 269, 780, 914; Randel, 
225, 226 ; Randolph, 136, 137 ; Rankin, 153, 717, 956 ; 
Ranney, 934, 976; Raimy, 977; Ransom, 474,517,5^3, 
567, 568, 574, 615, 671, 791 ; Rapine, 603 ; Rapp, 559 ; 
Rapson, 987; Rascone, 911; Ratcliffe, 273; Ratecliffe, 
464 ; Rath, 975, 983 ; Rathbone, 73, 153, 171, 236, 334, 421, 
426, 443, 516, 521, 526, 531, 567, 568, 571, 589, 592, 621, 
625, 613, 614, 632, 641, 664, 686, 687, 710, 713, 720, 782 ; 
Rausier, 918: Rawdon, 739; Rawle, 850; Rawls, 551; 
Ray, 132, 9:6, 967; Raymond, 940; Raynsford, JOg, 626, 
662, 841, 892, 893, 897, go2, 903, 904, 905 ; Rayensford, 
109, no, 112, 113, 115, 337, 354; Reab, 620; Read, 80, 
427,440, 533, 550,551; Reagles, 860; Reamer, 98, gg, 
817, 853, 854, 872, 874, g40, 973 ; Reardon, 153 ; Reary, 
no ; Rearey, 951 ; Rector, 91, 305 ; Redell, 782 ; Redden, 
92, 987 ; Redfield, 474 ; Redinbergh, 127 ; Redmond, 968 ; 
Redway, 624 ; Reed, 153, 226, 424, 601, 635, 664, 717, 
743, 761, 855, 964; Reedy, 120; Reely, 877 ; Ree.=e, 220, 
555. 761 ; Reeves, 749 ; Regna, g28 ; Rehan, 705 ; Reid, 
77, 78, 89, 345, 355, 521, 819, 867, 89Z, 893, 894, 902, 
905,906,910,920; Reiley, 113, 115, 116, 118, 119, 153, 
353. 443. 587, 621, 624,632, 991; Reily, 286,980; Rei- 
mann, 164; Reinhart, Ic6, 108, 211, 8c8, 817, 849, 850, 
877 ; Reis, 744 ; Reiss, 789 ; Relyea, 420, 642, 785, 841, 
843, 844, 845, 847, 850, 859, 894, 906 ; Remer, 640 ; Rem- 
ington, 995, 996; Remmert, 744; Remsen, 938, 951, 952; 
Reneault, 757 ; Renehan, 755 ; Rennick, 961 ; Reno, 717 ; 
Rennselaer, 42, 126, 257, 7C9, 890; Requa, 113, 115, 116, 
118, 119, 120; Retelheyen, 273; Reusior, 912; Revere, 
425 ; Reyckersen, 295 ; Reynolds, 91, 94, 95, 101, 
112, no, 120, 139, 140, 141, 144, 145, 146, 147, 149, 
15°. 153. 163, 197, 211, 214, 218, 226, 246, 287, 342, 
378. 441. 475. 476, 533, 699, 7". 782, 923, 924, 928, 
941 ; Rhaligan, 113, 115 ; Rhein, 708, 709 ; Rhein- 
hart, 810 ; Rheinmann, 306 ; Rhinehart, 420, 818 ; 
Rhoade.s, 147 ; Rhoda, gii ; Rhodes, 961, g8o ; Rice, \o,ti 
91.92. 93. 266, 268, 311, 320, 324, 425, 426, 428, 450, 474, 
475. 4;8, 499, 519. 527, 531. 647, 690, 696, 704, 747, 765, 
942, g78 ; Richards, 375, 376, 613, 645, 768, g77, 991 ; 
Richardson, 154, 232,450, 606, 635, 677, g34, 975, 989, 995; 
Richie, 750 ; Richies, 931 ; Richmond, 120, 235, 366, 973 ; 
Richter, 872; Richtmeyer, 641 ; Rickerson, 915 ; Rickett, 
907; Rider, 88, 89, 254, 919, 920, 932; Ridgway, 638; 
Ried, 904 ; Riedesel, 397 ; Rietz, 743 ; Riggles, 841 ; 
Riley, 32, 154, 213, 246, 304, 476, 655, 977, 997 ; Rimmey, 
780 ; Rmg, 494 ; Ripley, 882 ; Riter, 870 ; Kitrmann, 212, 
246 ; Rivets, 831,835 ; Rivinburg, 914 ; Roach, 873, 876 ; 
Roark, 118, 119 ; Robb, 624, 835, 837, 840, 967 ; Robbins, 
861, 972, 976 ; Robert's, 161, 376, 420, 532, 604, 613, 641, 
708 ; Robertson II, 211, 214, 216, 355, 356, 375, 379, 558, 
613, 690, 699, 880, 894, 926 ; Robichaux, 750 ; Robison, 
528; Robins, 634, 831, 923, 928; Robinson, ii, 77, 155, 
177, 180, 188, 227, 305, 358, 420, 444, 528, 535, 556, 615, 
620, 703, 712, 725, 742, 839, 846, 852, 853, 883, 977, 980, 
989, 994, 997 ; Roby, 637 ; Rochefort, 359; Rochester, 373; 
Rock, 480, 635 ; Rockefeller, 897, 920 ; Rockenstire, 934 ; 
Rockman, 714; Rockwell, 118, 210, 213, 975 ; Rockwood, 


880 ; Rodgers, 153, 211, 267, 426, 475, 476, 477, 478, 7C0, 
879, 996 ; Roe, 850, 983 ; Roelantsen, 249 ; Roessle, 592, 
652, 653, 654 ; RofF, 304, 620, 943, 94t ; Rofts 935 ; 
Rogers, 156, 169, 231, 413, 424, 427, 475, 476, 613, 626, 
652, 664, 691, 712, 771, 862, 901, 958, 961, 977, 987 ; Rolls, 
648 ; Roman, 854 ; Romain, 375 ; Romame, 376, 613 ; 
Romeyn, 240, 262, 267, 594, 669, 700, 768, 898, 899; 
Rommey, 701 ; Ronan, 153, 355, 522, 647, 713 ; Roof, 
983 ; Rooker, 364, 378 ; Rooney, 108, 481, 485, 643 ; Roor- 
bach, 408 ; Roosa, 207 ; Roosevelt, 165 ; Root, 138, 234, 
373. 53'. 538, 558, 613, 956, 957, 967, 968, 973; Rose, 96, 335, 
345, 735, 964, 995; Rosecrantz (Rosenkranz, Ruskrantz, 
Rosekranz, Rosenkrans), 90, 103, 282, 354, 617, 784, 820, 
928 ; Roseboom, 41, 126, 273, 302, 385, 403, 408, 410, 416, 
661, 777, 931 ; Rosendale, 103, 153, 179,477,478,479, 519, 
599 ; Rosensiein, 223 ; Rosenlhal, 480 ; Rosie, 272 ; Ross, 
118, 613, 614, 973 ; Rossini, 743 ; Rossiter, 805, 811 ; Ross- 
mann, 210, 213, 235, 648 ; Roswell, 919 ; Rouchel, 
213, 231 ; Rounce, 963 ; Round, 963 ; Rouker, 837 ; 
Rouse, 492 ; Rousseau, 993 ; Row, 833; Rowe, 92, 112, 
"3. 556, 708, 712, 792, 893, 894, 9C6 ; Rowland, 541, 
641, 726 ; Rowan, 716 ; Rowley, 410, 632 ; Roy, 538, 988, 
989, 991, 997 ; Rube, 846 ; Ruby, 934, 936 ; Rudd, 114, 
153, 163, 690 ; Ruddee, 726, 761 ; Ruger, 186 ; Rugtr, 324, 
708, 746 ; Ruggles, 280, 281 ; Ruleson, 212 ; Rundejl, 926, 
928, 935 ; Rushmore, 902, 905, Q07 ; Runkle, 153, 943 ; 
Rusk, 210 ; Ruland, 928 ; Ruso, 153, 699 ; Russel, 526, 621, 
870, 879, 894, 903 ; Russell, 153, 213, 221, 268, 471, 474, 
500, 531, 527, 533, 534, 546, 564, 601, 6u, 621, 632, 646, 
647, 648, 677, 686, 713, 714, 740, 742, 743, 762, 769. 788, 
821, 880, 945 ; Russ, 638 ; Rust, 273 ; Rutger, 262, 413 ; 
Rutgers, 659 ; Rutgersen, 73 ; Rutherford, 42, 708 ; Ruyck- 
man, 463, 659, 683 ; Ryall, 894, 906 ; Ryan, 116, 429, 755, 
958 ; Rycker, 272, 789 ; Ryersen, 73 ; Rykman, 277, 385, 
526, 527, 531, 556, 558, 560 ; Rykse, 273. 

Raflferty & Co., T. C. 635 ; Rankin & Featlierstonhaugh, 
153 ; Ransom, E. D., 574 ; Ransom & Co., S. H., 567, 568; 
Ransom & Rathbone, 567 ; Rathbone & Co., 567; Rathbone, 
& Co., Wm., 632 ; Rathbone & Gallup, 613 ; Rathbone, J. 
& J- F-i 334 ; Rathbone & Kennedy, 567 ; Rathbone & 
Lefevre, 641 ; Rathbone, Sard & Co., 521, 567, 589 ; Rath- 
bun & Co., 613 ; Rawdon & Balch, 739 ; Read & Rawls, 
551 ; Read & Son, M. H., 551 ; Reed & Co., 855 ; Reynolds 
& Woodruff, 147 , Rice & Baker, 311 ; Ridgway & Russ, 
638 ; Rielly & Bro., J. T., 632 ; Robb & Carroll, 837 ; 
Roberts & James, 376 ; Robertson & Edmeston, 613 ; Rob- 
ertson, J. & A., 375 ; Robinson & Hale, 620 ; Rock & 
Casey, 635 ; Roessle, Son & Co., T., 652, 654 ; Rogers & 
Callender, 613 ; Romaine & Co., J. P., 613 ; Roman & Co., 
854 ; Rooney & Co., James, 643 ; Root & Sons, J. G., 956 ; 
Root & Youngs, 613 ; Roseboom & Co., 620 ; Ross & 
Colburn, 613 ; Ross & Crocker, 613 ; Ross & Karslake, 613; 
Rosseau & Eaton, 993 ; Rosseau & Harrington, 993 ; Ros- 
siter, Settle & Taylor, 805 ; Roy & Co., 991 ; Royalton & 
Co., James, 991 ; Russell, T. & J. & E., 646 ; Russell, 
Thos. & Joseph, 621. 


Schiffer, 632 ; SchiSerdetker, 102, 355 '; Schill, 230 ; 
Scliimerer, 557 ; Schindler, 559 ; Schlenk, 763 ; Schles- 
inger, 763 ; Schneider, 479 ; Schnellar, 342 ; Schneller, 
729, 753. 755; Schnellendrussler, 771; Schneyder, 808; 
Schoellkopf, 605 ; Schoepflle, 831 ; Schotield, 213 ; Schoe- 
newolf, 744 ; Schoolcraft, 17, 265, 354, 441, 474, 531, 782, 
843, 845, 846, 847, 850, 869 ; Schoonmaker, 88, 96, 98, 100, 
102, 103, 104, 278, 355, 420, 790, 800, ScQ, 810, 812, 829, 
832, 839, 870, 871, 872, 873, 874, 879, 882, 883, 884, 887, 
888, 911, 961, 972 ; Schixjnhoven, 272, 354, 716, 841 ; 
Schreiber, 745, 748 ; Schreiver, 308 ; Schrimpton, 975 ; 
Schrodt, 480, 557 ; Sohultes, 809 ; Schultz, 568 ; Schurr, 
100, 427, 479, 713 ; Schurlz, 402 ; Schutter, 213 ; Schuyler, 
4, 5, 6, 9, 10, 13. 41, 42, 61, 73. 80, 88, 89, 91, 124, 125, 
126, 131, 133, 154. 155. 205, 206, 213, 257, 258, 259, 
262, 267, 272, 273, 288, 290, 291, 292, 295, 302, 310, 331, 
344, 353, 354, 379, 380, 385. 386, 387, 388, 389. 39°, 39'. 
393. 394, 395. 39^, 397, 398, 399, 400, 401, 402, 403, 406, 
408, 410, 411, 412, 413, 414, 415, 418, 420, 440, 443, 444, 
463, 465, 466, 469, 474, 477, 489, 490, 491, 507. 5°9, 5 '9, 
520, 523, 524, 527, 528, 533, 657. 658, 659, 660, 6'. I, 664, 
674, 679, 766, 777, 808, 844, 891, 931, 934, 936, 943, 945, 

974, 975, 976, 981, 982, 984, 985, 989, 990, 993, 997 ; 
Schwartz, 564, 763, 789, 970 ; Schwikhardt, 989 ; Scofield, 
839 ; Scoon, 21 r ; Scott, 8, 15, 90, 91, 93, 116, 130, 154, 
261, 278, 374, 401, 420, 422, 478, 532, 613, 626, 629, 
630, 677, 714, 715, 717, 737, 791, 849, 853, 870, 
871, 905, 9^6, 920, 927, 928, 957, 970 ; Scottson, 726 ; 
Sedam, 691 ; Sedgwick, 556, 684, 769 ; See, 771, 777, 796 ; 
Seerles, 304 ; Seeley, 102, 769 ; Seelman, 154 ; Seger, 144, 
212, 354, 403, 777, 788, 844, 845, 846, 891, 892, 893, 901, 
903, 904, 906 ; Segers, 73 ; Segsbee, 781 ; Seib, 308 ; Sel- 
kiik, 210, 593, 761, 784, 789, 800, 833 ; Selden, 282 ; Selt- 
Pagh, 127 ; Scovel, 742 ; Scovell, 420, 625 ; Scoville, 
987 ; Scrafford, 119, 120, 420, 810, 841, 842, 843, 849, 869 ; 
Scrapper, 841, 846; Scribner, 879; Scully, 102, 118, iig, 
121, 308; Scutt, 906, 910, 911 ; Seabrid,^e, 75, 834, 835 ; 
Seabury, 179, 819, 872, 874, 882 ; Seaport, 969, 970, 973, 
974; Sear, 436; -Searle, 771 ; S.'arles, 477, 831 ; Searls, 
355, 832 ; Scars, 645, 653, 896 ; Secor, 812, 876, 877, 881 ; 
Seney, 758 ; Senderling, 774 ; Sennett, 343 ; Sf.nrick, 478, 
479, 599, 699 ; Serls, 91 ; Ssrvis, 744 ; Sessions, 972 ; Settle, 
89, 354, 639, 790, 803, 834, 805, 808, 809, 820, 817, 870, 
871, 877, 879 : Severson, 420, 710, 840, 841, 844, 848, 849, 
854, 899, 959 ; Sevant, 408 ; Sever, 402 ; Severance, 96, 98 ; 
Sewall, 210, 342 ; Seward, 11, 140, 142, 182, 278, 320, 373, 
443, 444, 554, 596, 70i, 714, 743, 816 ; Sewertse, 273 ; Sex- 
ton, 344, 911, 962 ; Seymour, II, 88, 92, 94, 180, 182, 215, 
220, 354, 420, 422, 438, 443, 526, 527, 531, 650, 958, 969, 
992, 995 ; Shackeford, 960 ; Shadbolt, 420 ; Shafer, 92, 156, 
266, 278, 354, 420, 788, 793, 810, ?II, 812, 817, 819, 820, 
823. 900 ; Shaffer, 425, t)05 ; Shagnon, 788 ; Shaler, 428 ; 
ShaneJley, 102 ; Shankland, 521 ; Shanklin, 713 ; Shanks, 
211 ; Shanky, 41 ; Shannahan, 983 ; Shannon, 427, 642, 
951, 961 ; Sharp, 304, 402, 420, 656, 7C4, 841, 847, 848, 
849, 854, 931, 996 ; Sharts, 376 ; Shattuck, no, ill, 587, 
589, 632, 716; Shaver, go. 441, 841, 842, 844, 845, 846, 
847,848,962,972; Shaw, 89, 90, 93, 156, 210, 234, 266, 
336, 354, 402, 481, 593, 650, 6S4, 712, 841, 963, 970 ; Shay, 
912, 914 ; Shear, 74, 88, 89, 92, 93, 94, 96, 98, 99, 100, 
loi, 102, 103, 119, 266, 354, 568, 829, 830, 832, 835, 839, 
906, 907 ; Sheehan, 475, 754, 958, 985 ; Shehan, 6.6 ; 
Sheldon, 210, 213, 526, 532, 621, 812, 951 ; Shelley, 643; 
Slielvin, 246 ; Shepard, 88, 89, 90, 154, 195, 355, 426, 429, 
4.38, 476, 498, 533, 611, 624, 640, 690; Shepardson, 413; 
Shepherd, 305, 338, 344, 413, 589 ; Shepley, 992 ; Sheriff, 
156, 21 r ; Sherlock, 103; Sherloyn, 273; Sheridan, 739, 
752; Sherman, 75, 378, 531, 534, 613, 617, 619, 625, 644, 
716, 827, 828, 830, 832, 836, 837, 961 ; Sherrill, 443 ; 
Sherwin, 177, 190, 191, 743 ; Sherwood, 159, 691, 744, 
926, 995 ; Shetlers, 127 ; Shevelin, 119, 574 ; Shield, 603 ; 
Shields, 989 ; Shiland, 2n, 212, 214, 997 ; Shirley, 4, 205, 
389; Shneider, 743; Shoemaker, 605, 911, 987; Shofner, 
811 ; Shotwell, 500 ; Shook, 849 ; Short, 861 ; Shorts, 714, 
Shoudy, 841, 847 ; Shouts, 420 ; Shover, 850 ; Showers, 
926 ; Shrimpton, 985 ; Shufelt, 877 ; Shultes, 355, 801, 
802, 806, 80S, 812, 813, 817, 818, 819, 887 ; ShurtleiT, 
354 ; Shutt, 274 ; Shutte, 252 ; Shuttle, go ; Silibinck, 295 ; 
Sible, 793 ; Sickels, 154 ; Sickler, 475 ; Sickles, 74, gi, 
354. 427. 681, 682, 788, 790, 834, 836, goo, 935 ; Sid- 
ney, 413 ; Siegrist, 763 ; Sigsbee, go, 211, 785, 812, 84g, 
850,892,902; Sigsby, 879; Sigourney, 941 ; Silcox, 971 ; 
Sill, 88, 89, 92, 103, 129, 354, 476, 532, 533, 573, 781, 
793, 812, 946, 961, g68 ; Silleck, 321 ; Silliman, 378, 

447, 52f', 567. 946, 951. 975, 963. 9^4, 9^7, 969, 980; 
Silvester, 405, 407, 418, 440 ; Simmons, 89, 104, 106, 
1C9, no, 112, 113, n5, 478, 479, 647, 755, 772, 784, 
785, 803,805, 806, 818, 894, 90i,go3, g57, 958, 961, 968, 
985 ; Simons, 479, 613, 645. 817, 877, 935, 972 ; Simp- 
son, 420, 474, 546, 587, 793, 951, 967, 968; Simpkins, 
926; Simms, 958, 968, 969; Sims, 211, 304; Sinclair, 
558, 9i;2 ; Siiikle, 420 ; Sisim, 849 ; Sisson, 266, 819 ; Sis- 
ton, 156; Sisterly, 841, 842, 843, 848; Siver, 841, 847, 
848, 850 ; Siverson, 846 ; Sixby, 841 ; Skeels, 862 ; Skiff, 
223; .Skillicorn, n8, 119, 213, 246, 587; Skillings, 613; 
Skillnian, 784; Skinner, 90, 373, 421, 574, 650,652,700, 
708, 722, 727, 870, 879, 911 ; Slack, 613, 625, 797 ; Slacks, 
613 ; .Slade, 90, 91, 793, 820, 920, 925 ; Slater, 179,953 : 
Slattery, 324 ; Slauson, 899, 900, 923 ; Slavin, 968 ; Slaw- 
son, 344, 345, 558 ; Sieicher, 377 ; Sleight, 369 ; Slicht, 
714 ; Slingerland (Slingerlant), 74, 92, 93, 104, 108, 
"3, 115, 273, 3c6, 320, 327, 330, 336, 354, 355, 
401, 471, 52c, 554, 555, 6n, 626, 655, 742, 777, 781, 


784, 78s, 790. 793. 845, 848, 849, 852, 894, 899, 928, 
828, 83s, 839, 841, 891, 892, 893, 900, 90s, 906, 907, 

910, 926, 927, 961 ; Sloan, 8g, 90, 420 ; Slocum, 736, 
812, 880, 963 ; Sloughter, 3, 10, 253, 379, 381, 384, 385 ; 
Sluyter, 297, 298, 327 ; Sly, 321 ; Smallie, 427 ; Small- 
iiig, 971 ; Smart, 726 ; Smith, 10, 40, 44, 75, 88, 91, 99, 
106, no, 112, 114, 120, 131, 132, 138, 141, 154, 156, 
170, 171, 173, 177, 184, 188, 191, 192, 193, 194, 195, 
196, 211, 276, 231, 260, 261, 268, 3C0, 305, 306, 308, 
325. 333. 338, 341, 342. 354. 355. 36'. 375. 376, 
379. 392. 397. 420, 426, 429. 475. 477. 480, 481, 
491, 500, 527, 531, 533, 535, 536, 561, 574, 
584, 587, 602, 604, 6ri, 613, 621, 625, 639, 642, 648, 651, 
666, 681, 682,685, 690, 694, 704, 705, 716, 717, 736, 739, 
725, 726, 750, 752, 753, 758, 761, 768, 772, 782, 806, 813, 
817, 820, 835, 841, 844, 846, 849, 850, 851, 864, 874, 892, 
899, 900, 905, 906, 907, 911, 913, 914, 919, 923, 925, 926, 
928, 956, 959, 968, 969, 971, 972, 973, 982, 985, 987, 988, 
991, 992, 997 ; Smyth, 174, 180, 212, 361, 362, 438, 535, 
547. 559' 575 ! Snedeker, 159 ; Snell, 907 ; Snider, 402 ; 
Sniveley, 150, 200, 760, 763 ; Snodgrass, 963 ; Snooks, 305 ; 
Snow, 212, 214, 217, 221, 246, 485 ; Snyder, 266, 282, 304, 
351. 355,420, 480, 558, 626, 656, 719, 793, 8ig, 828, 831, 
841, 842, 854, 855, 870, 871, 872, 873, 880, 915, 928 ; Solo- 
mon, 292, 603 ; Sommer, 856, 880, 881 ; Son, 763 ; Soop, 
777. 788, 781, 790, 791, 792, 800 ; Sotham, 330 ; Sothern, 
705; Southard, 828, goi, 910; Southwick, 91, 156, 267, 

328, 333. 358, 367. 368, 369. 375. 376, 419, 438, 5 9- 69°, 
700, 704, 714, 813, 814; Spaarbeck, 841 ; Spafford, 76,264, 
447 ; Spalding, 210, 213, 841, 845 ; Spanwick, 962 ; Spar- 
hawk, 637; Spauldmg, ii;4, 648, 788, 835, 844, 923, 925, 
928, 972; Spawn, 91, 613, 785, 789, 817, S49, «52, 855, 
860 ; Speir, 154, 612 ; Spelman, 624 ; Spellman, 716 ; 
Spence, 970 ; Spencer, 90, 92, 133, 136, 138, 141, 142, 145, 
147, '54, 197, 211, 261, 265, 267, 268, 269, 321, 335, 357, 
373. 394. 410. 421, 440. 441, 447, 472, 500, 534, 535, 536, 
564, 567, 611,621,637, 640, 662, 663, 664, 688, 760, 872, 
873, 934, 971, 972, 973 ; Spensley, 734 ; Spies, 763 ; Spindler, 
789 ; Spoffbrd, 375 ; Spohn, 744 ; Spooner, 384, 762 ; Spoor, 
152, 154, 273, 420, 680, 681, 682, 841 ; Spoore, 940, 945 ; 
Spor, 960 ; Sporburg, 746 ; Spore, 904, 910 ; Spose, 900 ; 
Sprague, 311, 334, 367, 3/5, 628, 650, 675, 705, 742, 764, 
766, 769, 841, 907, 960 ; Sprang, 562; Spriggs, 191 ; Spring- 
stead, 154, 163, 210, 426, 427, 833, 834, 837 ; Springs'.eed, 

89, 224, 225, 226, 355, 648, 788 ; Springsted, 793, 828, 832, 
833, 892; Spur, 852"; Squier, 367, 440; Squire, 375, 1:35, 

785, 852 ; Staats (Staets), 41, 83, 88, 89, 90, 94, 95, 96, 97, 
98, ICO, 154, 164, 204, 210, 211, 213, 214, 218, 272, 295, 
301, 327, 342, 354, 385, 400, 401, 402, 407, 412, 413, 462, 
474, 477, 478. 490, 526, 582, 6n, 621, 640, 664, 688, 717, 
725, 8co, 826, 905, 911, 968; Stackhouse, 112, 120, 
426, 589; Stackman, 119, 120, 121; Stacpole, 711 ; 
Stafford, 526, 529, 567, 621, 818, 848, 849, 850, 854, 869, 
870, 874, 877 ; Standish, 173, 648 ; Stanford, 440, 459, 934, 
935, 940, 945; Stanley, 174, 338, 341, 996 ; Stanton, 75, 80, 

90, 154, 441, 530, 532, 611, 621, 625, 664, 690, 735, 745, 
769, 813, 814, 835, 844, 921, 924, 925, 926, 927, 928, 969 ; 
Stannix, 152, 154, 490, 583 ; Stansbuiy 768 ; Stantial, 995; 
Stalker, 817, 877, 892, 901, 906 ; Staples, 613 ; Starin, 734; 
Stalk, 6, 393, 396, 398, 405, 621, 624 ; Starkey, 760 ; Slarks, 
573, 962 ; Starkweather, 112, 113, 115, 116, 212, 222, 246, 
798, 879 ; Starling, 304 ; Starr, 134. 354, 604, 621 ; Stead, 
812; Steadman, 516 ; Steams, 209, 213, 686, 985 ; Sted- 
man, 80, 154, 592, 605, 936 ; Stebbins, 765. 960; Steel, 88; 
Steele, 154,158, '59. 37i, 372, 532, 581, 602, 603, 637, 650, 
690, 729, 731, 739, 858, 940; Steenberg, 211, 212, 214, 
246, 950 ; Sleenbergh, 943, 962, 997 ; Steenburgh, 971; Steers, 
849, 931, 941 ; Steigleman, 1 10 ; Stein, 14, 54, 55, 566 ; Stein- 
art, 211; Steinhart, 475; Stenkle, 420; Stephen, 292; 
Stephens, 75, 154, 354, 587, 591, 699, 828, 830, 831, 870, 871, 
872, 873, 874 ; Stephenson, 156, 413, 528, 712, 726 ; Sterling. 
233 ; Stern, 154, 712 ; Sterne, 180, 844 ; Stemburg, 871 ; 
Sternburgh, 870 ; Sterry, 703 ; Stevens, 140, 141, 143, 144^ 
147, 154, 201, 211, 214, 217, 220, 262, 342, 407, 439, 632, 
643. 672, 727, 728, 743, 872, 874, 877, 911, 971 ; Steves, 
764, 967 ; Slevense, 273 ; Stevenson, 126, 179, 514, 516, 
526, 527, 572, 626, 640, 663, 667, 760 ; Stewart, 102, 109, 
373, 477, 528, 592, 621, 725, 914, 927, 937, 938, 977, 988 ; 
Stickney, 564, 565, 566, 735 ; Stiles, 154, 781, 782, 831 ; 
Stillnian, 212, 900; StiUwell, 354, 526, 530, 611 ; Stiner, 
806, 807, 817, 873, 874, 877 ; Stinson, 154, 211, 321, 420, 

478 ; St. John, 744, 820, qoi, p22, 924, 925, 927, 928 ; 
Stobel, 774 ; Stock, 562 ; Stockmg, 761 ; Stockwin, 727 ; 
Stoddard, 80, 922, 972 ; Stokes, 183, 184, 753 ; Stone, 319, 
354, 367, 373, 375, 376, 377, 420, 525, 605, 701, 704, 916, 
969 ; Stonehouse, 212, 214, 246, 710, 744 ; Stoneman, 736 ; 
Stoner, 902 ; Stool, 402 ; Storer, 923 ; Storke, 325 ; Storrs, 
882 ; Story, 164, 355, 557, 808 ; Stouppe, 259 ; Stover, 665, 
962 ; Stow, 969 ; Siowe, 568, 737 ; Strain, 279 ; Strang, 
304 ; Strasser, 603 ; Strattier, 901 ; Stratton, 688, 758 ; 
Street, 375, 376, 675, 705 ; Stremple, 713 ; Strevell (Strevel), 
77, 94, 116, 118, 122, 156, 814, 817, 820, 832, 843, 869 ; 
Strickland, 582 ; Stringer, 205, 207, 405, 406, 408, 
409, 648, 672, 718, 760 ; Stringham, 817 : Strong, 
154, 369, 425, 533, 538, 570, 621, 742, 934, 945, 
973, 961, 983, 984, 995 ; Stryker, 154, 425, 812 ; 
Stuart, 91, 312, 478, 596, 635, 676, 925, 926 ; Stumpf, 306 ; 
Sturges, 266, 871 ; Sturtevant, 154, 189, 376, 474, 476, 477, 
870, 873, 874 ; Stuben, 674 ; Stutz, 793 ; Stuyvesant, 3, 10, 
13, 46, 47, 48, 49, 55, 56, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 67, 68, 69, 
71, 77, 251, 271, 288, 297 ; Styles, 210; Sukles, 712; Sul- 
livan, 7, 92, 112, 113, 115, 188, 206, 226, 305, 379,394,476, 
477, 573, 748 ; Sully, 737 ; Suppes, 744 ; Summer, 355 ; 
Sumner. 474, 519, 521, 613,617, 726 ; Sunderlin, 355 ; Sun- 
derland, 286 ; Surrington, 750 ; Sutherland, 964 ; Sutliff, 
92 ; Sulfa, 788 ; Suydam, 989 ; Swan, 77, 750, 870, 871, 
872, 874, 882, 892, 934; Swart (Swartt), 63, 156, 211, 252, 
354, 407, 418, 761, 788, 870, 872, 882 ; Swarthout, 819 ; 
Swartwout, 420, 677, gio, 923, 926, 927, 928, 987 ; Swart- 
out, 973 ; Swartz, 103, 173, 179 ; Swatling, 972, 997 ; 
Swayne, 174 ; Sweat, 911 ; Sweet, 78, 171, 188, 331, 443, 
582, 781 ; Swertteger, 416; Svveny, ggi ; Swift, 355, 424, 
710, go2, go3 ; Swinburne, 116, 117, 164, 190, 210, 213, 
214, 219, 220, 222, 23s, 236, 237, 238, 242, 245, 441, 480, 
481, 666, 690; Switcher, 851 ; Swits, 226, 403 ; Switzer, 
900; Swope, 857 ; Swerckhammer, 8il ; Sykes, 621 ; Syl- 
vester, 128, 129, 135, 412, 948; Symington, 433 ; Sage 
& Co., H. W., 613 ; Satterley, E. R. & E., 626 ; Sands, A. 
B. & D., 648 ; Sands & Son, 854, 855 ; Sanders, B. & J. B., 
650 ; Sanders & Co., B. B., 632, 639 ; Sanford & Page, 
621 ; Saul, Keith & Ward, 642 ; Saxe Bros., 613 ; Sayles, 
J. & E. M., 625; Schiffer & Co., 632; Schwartz & Co., 
George, 564 ; Scott & Son, John, 957 ; Scovill, N. & C, 
625 ; Selkirk & Gardinier, 593 ; Seward & William, 373 ; 
Shaw & Bennett, 593 ; Shaw & Rose, 593 ; Shear, Packard 
& Co., 568 ; Sheehan, James & Ryan, 958 ; Sheldon & 
Sykes, 621 ; Shepard & Boyd, 640 ; Shepley & Smith, 
992 ; Sliei-man, S. H. & E.J., 378, 837 ; Shoemaker & Pabst, 
605 ; Shield &: Son, 603 ; SiUiman & Miller, 378 ; Sim- 
mons & Co., D., 958 ; Simmons & Page, 958 ; Sinclair & 
Walsh, 558; Simons & Griswold, 613 ; Simons & Richards,6i3 ; 
Skillings & Whitney Bros., 613 ; Skinner & Co., E.W., 372, 
650 ; Slack, J. & R. F., 625 ; Slacks & Davis, 613 ; Sleight & 
Tucker, 369 ; Slingerland & Son, H. H., 626 ; Smith & Bro., 
613 ; Smith & Bancroft, 177 ; Smith, Bancroft &Moak, 177, 
192, 196 ; Smith, Cary & Moseley, 625 ; Smith & Co., 613 ; 
Smith & Co., A., g5g ; Smith, Covert & Co., 437 ; Smith, 
Craig & Co., 613 ; Smith & Co., J. S., 340 ; Smith, Moak & 
Buchanan, 177, 192, 194 ; .Smith, Story & Co., 621 ; Smith 
& Wood, 632 ; Smyth & Walkee, 557, 559 ; Snyder & Front, 
854 ; ^pawn & Son, E., 852, 855 ; Spelman, B.R.& R.I,., 
624 ; Spencer & Co., John, 536, 637 ; Spencer, Daniels & Co., 
567 ; Spencer, Stafford & Co., 637 ; Stafford, R. F. & E. E., 
647 ; Stafford, J. & S., 621 ; Staples & Van Allen, 613 ; Stark 
& Co., B., 621, 624 ; Starks & Pruyn, 573 ; Steele & Co., 
D., 650 ; Steele & Durrie, 650 ; Steele & King, 603 ; Steele 
& Warren, 637 ; Stein & Co., 566 ; Stevens & Cagger, 141, 
147 ; Stevens & Sons, James, 6^3 ; Stevenson, Douw & Ten- 
Eyck, 572 ; Stewart & Townsend, 663 ; Stone & Co., 377 ; 
Stone & Henley, 376, 377 ; Story Bros., 557 ; Story, Russell & 
Co., 621 ; Strasser & Co., M., 603; Strickland & Co., R., 582; 
Stringer & Bay, 648; Strong & Co., A.M., 621 ; Strong, 
Russell & Lawyer, 621 ; Strong, Whitney & Co., 621 ; Sulli- 
van & Ehler, 573 ; Sumner & Co., 613 ; Sumner & Hasey, 


Taaffe, 603; Taber, 286, 342, 354, 621, 801, 817, 854, 
870, 879, 882 ; Tabor, 143, 144, 210, 211, 971, 972, 973 ; 
Taintor, 330 ; Talbot ; Talcott, 138, 139, 267, 433, 443, 406, 
613, 732, 942, 988 ; Talleyrand, 751 ; Tallmadge, 525, 639 ; 



Talmadge, 906 ; Talmage, 787, 940 ; Tallman, 613, 914 ; 
Tails, 879 ; Tanbert, 743 ; Taney, 138 ; Tanner, 103, 154, 
377, 601, 915, 920; Tappan, 18:1, 982; Tarbell, 426; Tar- 
panny, 870 ; Tarpenny, 844, 871 ; Tatlock, 572, 759, 760 ; 
Tasler, 676 ; Tayler, 155, 200, 267, 354, 418, 419, 442, 5C0, 
513. 523. 5251 528, 529, 759, 660, 844, 892, 944, 989 ; Tay- 
lor, 90, 91, 94, 103, 129, 138, 142, 185, 209, 227, 341, 342, 
365- 376, 377. 378. 406, 408, 416, 422, 446, 459, 474, 476, 
477, 514, 521. 526. 527. S31.532, 533. 534, 546, 556, 557, 558, 
SS9. 566, 581. 6ii, 621, 624, 635, 650, 665, 675, 702, 705, 
714. 71S. 716, 726, 728, 759, 760, 777, 813, 814, 817, 820, 
823, 860, 881, 885, 891, 892, 894, 901, 904, 905, 906, 
937, 940, 944, 972, 982, 984, 986, 988, 991, 977 ; Teachout, 
963, 973 ; Teals, 834 ; Teats, 813, 928 ; Tebbutt, 103, 
104, 477, 647 ; Teeple, 914 ; Teeter, 916 ; Teeven, 
305 ; Tefft, 212, 829; Teller, 125, 156, 272, 295, 334, 354, 
648, 891 ; Templar, 905 ; Temple, 422, 498, 514, 624; 
Templeton, 533, 534. 605, 690, 699, 728 ; Ten IJrock, 
42, 385 ; Ten Broeck, 125, 129, 155, 261, 262, 277, 
290, 292, 353, 354, 356, 385, 391, 399, 400, 401, 
403, 405, 406, 407, 409, 410, 411, 412, 418, 
429, 440, 444, 467, 485, 486, 490, 523, 528, 658, 660, 661, 
669, 679, 846, 906, 941, 944: Ten Eyck, 42, 74, 75, 76, 88, 
89, 90, 91, 92, 103, 104, iu6, 125, 126, 128, 129, 155, 156, 
212, 219, 261, 273, 322, 323, 336, 353, 354, 401, 405, 407, 
408, 409, 410, 412, 413, 415, 416, 418, 420, 424, 440, 474, 

475, 476, 477, 478, 480, 513, 515, 519, 524, 528, 531, 534, 
564, 566, 572, 611, 621, 630, 635, 660, 6t)i, 671, bgi, 692, 
693, 694, 70!, 702, 777, 780, 784, 785, 789, 792, 793, 794, 
826, 827, 828, 829, 832, 833, 836, 839, 936, 944, 952, 958, 
971, 984; Tennant, 717, 768 ; Tenney, 248, 269, 271, 286, 
391, 433, 441, 458, 656, 690, 733 ; Termouth, 677 ; Ter- 
penning, 875, 872 ; Terrell, 364, 712 ; Terry, 744, 756, 
899, 964, 966, 968 ; Terwilisjer, 892, 894 ; Terwilliger, 450, 
712, 099; Tessier, no; Teunisse, 272, 273, 274, 385; 
Teunissen, 294 ; Terrise, 273 ; Terrisse, 273 ; Thacher, 93, 
95, 100, 154, 173, 180, 189, 206, 207, 354, 426, 474, 477, 
478, 479 532, 533, 575, 577, 578, 579, 580, 639, 665, 666, 
745, 753 ; Thalhimer, 977 ; Thatcher, 738 ; Thayer, 100, 
266, 344, 345, 450, 751, 772, 928, 985; Thibeault, 757; 
Thieroff, 854; Thiers, 308; Theyer, 101 ; Thomas, 116, 
226, 304, 333, 377, 378, 394, 532, 534, 563, 564, 567, 614, 
621, 634, 642, 645, 646, 652, 676, 715, 716, 843 ; Thom- 
asse, 272, 385 ; Thompson, 154, 213, 246, 261, 267, 305, 
307, 341, 354, 368, 378, 418, 420, 424, 429, 440, 447, 477, 
527, 567, 571. 634, 650, 652, 669, 683, 691, 694, 732, 735, 
737, 801, 816, 828, 942, 957, 960, 963, 987, 997 ; Thomson, 

476, 477, 613, 614, 617, 618, 735 ; Thorburn, 90, 334 ; 
Thorn, 870, 871, 951, 952, 955, 956, 968, 969, 973 ; 
Thome, 611, 8r3 ; Thornton, 98, 376, 480, 485; Thorp, 
311; Thorpe, 531, 705; Throop, 11, 443, 677, 735; 
Thumb, 705 ; Thurston, 155 ; Tibbetts, 708, 710, 975 ; 
Tibits, 420; Tibbitts, 545, 993 ; Tibbutt, 120 ; Tice, 485 : 
Ticknor, 606 ; Tiercks, 273 ; Tiernan, no; Tierney, 988 ; 
Tietz, 601, 635 ; Tiglie, 355 ; Tigner, 920; Tilden, II, 145, 
170, 173, 180, 366, 444, 717, 799 ; Tillinghast, 519, 527, 
532, 557, 592, 6ii ; Tillman, 402; Tillotson, 528; Tim- 
mer, 870 ; Timnard, 977 ; Timon, 755 ; Tinker, 402, 694 ; 
Tinkham, 632, 643 ; Tinklepaugh, 266 ; Tinslar, 980 ; 
Tisdall, 977 ; Titcomb, 691 ; Titus, 535, 916 ; Todd, 436, 
744, 870,877, 879 ; Toedt, 744 ; Tols, 870, 871 ; Tomassen, 
295, 611 ; Tombley, 770 ; Tomlmson, 425 ; Tompkins, i, 8, 
136, 142, 154, 262, 290, 291, 304, 329, 356, 420, 439, 441, 
442, 443, 545, 785, 789, 792, 831, 832, 834, 836, 839, 840, 
893, 906, 916, 920, 924, 928 ; Tomlinson, 711 ; Tompson, 
200, 687, 892 ; Toom, 301 ; Topp, 725 ; Torrance, 154 ; 
Torrence, 995, 996, 997 ; Torrey, 967 ; Terry, 970 ; Tor- 
ren, 744 ; Totten, 841, 845, 851 ; Tottie, 987 ; Tower, 
562, 632, 633, 634, 86l, 882 ; Town, 569 ; Towner, 613, 
614; Townsend, 90, 91, 209, 211, 212, 213, 214, 220, 247, 
268, 335, 355, 424, 426, 438, 439, 49°. 500, 513, 514, 518, 
524, 526, 527, 528, 529, 530, 531, 533, 534, 544, 567, 572, 
573, 574, 599, 601, 621, 640, 663, 064, 665, 677, 690, 699, 
710, 716, 733, 734, 735, .750, 7&I, 877, 887, 942, 982 ; 
Traber, 841, 842, 844, 845 ; Tracey, 154, 210, 426, 475, 
476, 519, 534, 559, 651, 676, 686, 699, 729, 753, 756; 
Tracy, 268, 361, 441, 442, 474, 493, 561, 625, 626, 960, 
988 ; Trainor, 307 ; Trask, 535 ; Traver, 74, 90, 211, 60 (, 
6:12, 708, 743, 74+, 832, 987 ; Travis, 951, 962, 967, 969, 
971 ; Treadwell, 78, 90, 102, 261, 354, 427, 527, 567, 568, 
570, 571, 581, 604, 605, 634, 699, 713, 728, 743, 744, 750, 

844, 912, 915, 920, 921 ; Treanor, 378, 990, 997 ; Treat, 
210, 416; Tredwell, 354; Trego, 212, 247 ; Tremain, 103, 
III. 149, 152, 154, 163, 164, 167, 181, 182, 183, 184, 185, 
191, 194, 232, 355, 426, 428, 443, 479, 690, 733, 760, 911, 
916, 940, 963, 964; Tremper, 637, 710 ; Trenchard, 831 ; 
Treskatis, 211; Trico, 46; Triger, 716; Trimble, 
654, 705, 997; Tripler, 236; Tripp, 926; 
Troop, 442; Trotter, 210,500, 620, 621; Troup, 138; 
Trowbridge, 498, 516, 559, 632, 923, 927, 934, 987 ; 
Truax, 156, 401, 420, 818, 840, 841, 845, 846, 847, 851, 
870, 871, 872, 888, 931, 933, 945 ; True, 153, 154 ; Prull, 
967,970; Trumbull, 376, 395, 411, 714, 738; Trunipp, 
750; Tryon, 5, 10, II, 275, 379, 382, 403; Tubbs, 960, 
962; 968, 970; Tuck, 820, 823; Tucker, 212, 214, 220, 
221, 247. 333. 359. 369, 370, 371, 375, 378, 544, 680, 761, 
948, 984 ; Tuder, 41 ; Tuffs, 154, 479, 530, 611, 621 ; Tal- 
ler, 813, 814; Tulley, 210; TuUy, 234; Tupper, 677; 
Turk, 156, 273, 420 ; Turner, 129, 104, 305, 402, 420, 648, 
814, 819, 823, 906, 925, 943, 946 ; Tuttle, 95, 188, 266,336, 
793. 785, 789 ; Tweddle, 337, 440, 443, 532, 551, 552, 
553. 559. 991 ; Tweed, 160 ; Twiller, 10 ; Twing, 982 ; 
Twist, 977 ; Twitchell, 74, 737, 739 ; Tygert, 843, 852, 
853, 86o, 869 ; Tyler, 90, 142, 156, 354, 613, 805, 813, 817, 
818, 879, 88o, 977 ; Tymese, 273 ; Tymerson, 931, 963, 
972. 973 ; Tyse, 273 ; Tyssen, 49 ; Taaffe & Gough, 003, 
Tater & Marks, 621 ; Tallmadge & Co., 639 ; Tallman 
& Co., J., 613 ; Tanner & Son, R. W., 6oi ; Taylor, 
937 ; Taylor, Hamlin & Co., 581 ; Taylor & Sons, J., 559, 
621 ; Taylor & Waterman, 624; Tayson, Wendell & Co., 
581 ; Ten Eyck & Brinkerhoff, 635 ; Ten Eyck & Co., 621 ; 
Ten Eyck & Co., W. J., 958 ; I'en Eyck & Parker, 621 ; 
Thacher & Co., 568, 575 ; Thacher & Co., G. H., 575 ; 
Thacher, Lathrop & Co., 575 ; Thomas & Co., W. G., 613 ; 
Thomas, Lowe & Potts, 635 ; Thomas & Potts, 567 ; 
Thomas cS: Wells, 567 ; Thompson & Co., 320, 321 ; 
Thomson & Co., L., 613, 617 ; Thomson & Hyatt, 613 ; 
Thomson & Lefferts, 957, 960; Thorne & Sons, R. P., 
641; Thorp & Sprague, 311; Torrence, Merriam & Co., 
997 ; Tonner & Co., J. O., 613 ; Tonner & Son, B. A., 613; 
Townsend & Blessing, 574 ; Townsend & Jackson, 572 ; 
Townsend, I. & [., 572 ; Townsend, J. & I., 663 ; Tracey 
& Cooper, 154 ; Tracey & Son, J., 559 ; Tracey, Woolverton 
& Wilson, 625, 626 ; Treadwell & Co., 604, 634 ; Treadwell 
& Co., G.C., 604 ; Treadwell & Perry ; 567, 568 ; Treanor 
& Hardin, 378, 990 ; Trotter & Tuffs, 621 ; Tubbs & 
Humphreys, 91:9 ; Tubbs & Seberson, 959 ; Tucker, G. M. & 
Son, L., 333, i7i, 378 ; Tucker, L. H. & G. M., 333, 378 ; 
Turner Brothers, 648 ; Turner & Powers, 378 ; Tygert & 
Martin, 853. 


Ubsdell, Pierson & Co., 621, 623 ; Ubsdell, 623 ; Udell, 
89, 793, 926 ; Ufford & Latham, 993 ; Uline, 211, 324, 325, 
522; Uldrick, 931 -; UUman, 212, 214; Underbill, 47; 
Unholtz, 763 ; Upfold, 204, 209, 694, 765 ; Upham, 950, 
968 ; Upjohn, 759, 961 ; Upson, 268, 769, 774 ; Uran, 420 ; 
Urquhart, 753 ; Usher, 345 ; Utter, 829. 

Vail, 325, 566, 620, 844, 975 ; Valentine, 268, 376 ; Val- 
kenburgh, 90, 321, 624 ; Valks, 892 ; Valois, 970 ; Vaughn, 
985 ; Van Acerman, 843 ; Van Aden, 274 ; Van Aecklen, 295 ; 
Van Aerden, 77 ; Van Aernden, 870 ; Van Aernam, 308, 
401, 406, 840, 842, 844, 846, 847, 849, 851, 943 ; Van Aiken, 
420 ; Vanakers, 914-; Van Ale, 463 ; Van Aken, 869; Van 
Alen, 254; Van Allen, 91, 213, 221, 334, 335, 356,401, 
407, 413, 415, 516, 521, 527, 533, 553, 554, 555,. 581, 6n, 
741, 777. 778, 784, 789. 800, 826, 829, 835, 853, 879, 880, 
892,894,905,976; Van Alstyne, 114, 126, 154, 155, 187, 
210, 212, 213, 238, 254, 354, 402, 406, 412, 415, 441, 491, 
531. 637, 714, 835, 840, 879, 906, 907, 975, 997 ; Van Attan, 
910 ; Van Atten, 899, 900, 906 ; Van Arnum, 841, 845, 931, 
962, 975, 976, 977 ; Van Arsdale, 812 ; Van Auken, 90, 94, 
95. 355. 793. 841, 842, 843, 846, 848, 849, 851, 859, 871, 
872, 873, 881, 883, 850, 854, 869, 900, 904, 905, 938, 950, 
952, 968, 969; Van Antwerp, 156, 210, 413, 420, 426, 
429, 478, 480, 517, 519, 529, 534, 832, 942 ; Van Baal, 
891 ; Van Beaumont, 288; Van Benson, 911 ; Van Ben- 
thusan, ii6, 791 ; Van Benthuysen, 375, 49c, 494, 529, 

XXVI 11 


699, 700, 701, 935, 938, 954, 956, 970 ; Van Ben- 
sci-oten (Van Benbcroten), 854, 855, 873, 874, 877 ; 
Van Bergen, 273, 4C6, 413. 777 ; Van Buren, 413, 415, 841 ; 
Van Broeckelen, 51 ; Van Brugge, 46, 57, 62 ; Van Brugh, 
41, 42, 272, 289, 658 ; Van Buren, 11, 75, 125, 127, 132, 
135. 137. 142, 149. 158, 159. 210, 267, 268, 342, 358, 359, 
368, 373, 401, 402, 412, 429, 439, 440, 442, 443, 647, 663, 
658, 714, 728, 738, 752, 780, 785, 961 ; Van Bylel, 288 ; 
Vance, 358, 376, 714 ; Van Campehondt, 966 ; VanCorlaer, 
272, 556 ; Van Cleeck, 842 ; Van Corllandt, 261, 288, 
289, 662 ; Van Cott, 180, 793 ; Van Courlland, 399 ; 
Van Curler, 51, 53, 55, 295, 590; Van Daalston, 
829 ; Van Dalston, 832 ; Van Dalssen, 832 ; Van 
Dam, 4, 10, 273, 379, 658 ; Van Decar (Van Der- 
kee), 870, 879, 882, 985 ; Vandenberg, 620 ; Van De- 
mark, 972 ; Vandenberg, 491, 582 ; Van Denmark, 210 ; 
Vanderbelt, 543, 900 ; Vanderbilt, 317, 489, 526, 527, 566 ; 
Vander Bergh (Van Der Ber^^h, Vanderberg), 401, 402, 412, 
420, 777, 846, 849, 899, 907, 931, 932, 934, 935, 940, 962, 
993 ; Vander Bogaert, 46 ; Vander Cook, 104, 970 ; Van- 
der Donck (Van der Donk), 52, 53, 55, 73, 250, 949 ; 
Van Doren, 771 ; Van Dervort, 971 ; Vander Heyde, 
272 ; Vanderheyden (Vander Heyden, Van Derheyden), 
90, 402, 464, 528, 620, 673, 793, 978, 979, 980; Van- 
derhoop, 425 ; Vander Huygens, 54, 55 ; Van Derlip 
(Vanderlip), 425, 613, 900 ; Vanderpoel (Van der Poel, Van- 
derpool. Van Der Poel, Van Der Poell), 91, 154, 164, 173, 
211, 212, 213, 214, 220, 247, 301, 401, 402, 406, 4T2, 415, 
420, 444, 477, 614, 788, 832, 841, 842, 847, 848, 849, 851, 
854, 858, 902, 910 ; Van derUythof, 272 ; Vanderveer (Van 
der Veer, Van Der Veer), 74, 211, 214, 217, 220, 221, 242, 
245, 247, 481, 485, 926 ; Van Derwerkeii, 304, 950, 960, 
961, 970, 997; Vanderwilliger, 777; Van Der Zee 
(Van Deizee, Vanderzee), 89, 90, 91, 103, 104, 119, 
IM, 227, 266, 272, 355, 401, 415, 420, 777, 785, 
788, 790, 792, 793, 794, 8co. 829, 832, 893, 90s, 
934, 939; Van Driessen, 39, 660, 771; Van Deusen, 
209, 308, 416, 812, 817, f<20 ; Van Dusen, 127, 213, 
';82, 777, 837, 894, 906,931 ; Van Duser, 156 ; Van Duzen, 
89, 163 ; Van Dyck, 42, 62, 273, 354, 380, 409, 411, 413, 
414, 440, 620, 701, 828, gli, 946; Van Dyke, 358, 
376, 916, 917, 919, 934 ; Van Eckkelen, 252, 253 ; 
Van Embden, 295 ; Van Eps, 658 ; Van El(en, 355, 899 ; 
Van Fleet, 860 ; Van Gaaslweck (Van Gaasbeck), 426, 437. 
624, 625 ; Van Guysling, 837, 934 ; Van Hagen, 4O2 ; Van 
Hart, 782 ; Van Heusen, 566, 637, 652, 701, 735, 841, 843, 
848, 858 ; Van Hoese, 272, 273 ; Van Hoesen, 295, 307, 
475, 476, 479, 594 ; Van Hook, 809 ; Van Home, 261 ; 
Van Husen, 622 ; Van Huysen, 78, 553, 787, 894, 898, 899, 
903 ; Van Ingen, 88, 354, 441, 486, 526, 527, 528 ; Van 
iCeuren, 926 ; Van Kleeck, 156, 809, 841, 846 ; Van Liew, 
8og ; Van I^euven, 80, 924, 928 ; Van Leyden, 295 ; Van 
Loon, 274, 406, 567 ; Van Namn, 708 ; Van Natta, 873, 
874 ; Van Nattan, 910 ; Van Munickendam, 51 ; Van Ness 
(Vanness, Van Nes), 89, 129, 135, 136, 273, 295, 354, 380, 
385, 414, 582 ; Van Nest, 841 ; Van Nostrand, 533 ; Van 
Olinda (Van O'Linda, Van Olinde), 93, 94, 95, 97, 213, 272, 
376, 420, 422, 899, 904, 905, 931, 932, 935, 936, 939, 940, 
950; Van Orden, 354; Van Ostrand, 777; Van Fallen, 
304, 354, 587, 840, 841, 842, 844, 845, 846, 851, 987 ; Van 
Petten, 273 ; Van Reath, 904 ; Van Rensselaer (Van 
Renslaer), 8, 14, 37, 41, 42, 47, 49, 50, 52, 55, 62, 65, 66, 
69, 72. 73. 74. 76. 77. 129, 136, 138, 154, 15s, 200, 2IO, 
221, 261, 267, 268, 271, 273, 277, 278, 279, 280, 281, 282, 
287, 288, 289, 290, 291, 292, 293, 294, 295, 310, 328, 329, 

334, 335. 353. 354, 355, 385. 39'. 394, 399, 40i, 402, 403, 
407, 408, 410, 412, 413, 416, 418, 419, 420, 421, 422, 429, 
438, 440, 441, 442, 443, 444, 446, 447, 462, 466, 469, 491, 
497, 498, 513, 523, 524, 526, 527, 528, 532, 534, 613, 621, 
629, 631, 656, 658, 659, 661, 662, 667, 674, 675, 676, 
677, 679, 683, 684, 694, 714, 715, 718, 735, 752, 758, 760, 
762, 780, 782, 783, 796, 810, 825, 826, 838, 842, 844, 845, 
897. 899, 9'>. 915. 924, 926, 932. 933. 936. 938, 943. 944. 
95°. 951. 952. 964, 974, 990. 993 ; Van Sante, 
403 ; Van Santford, 448, 479, 613, 614, 637 ; 
Van Sanlvoord, 621, 645, 834, 899, 900, 950; 
Van Santvoordt, 405, 406, 408, 409 ; Van Schaack, 125, 
128, 436 463, 892, 893, S94, goi, 903 ; Van Schaaik, 407, 
826 ; Van Schack, 465, 467 ; Van Schaick, 89, 90, 124, 129, 
155, 156. 273. 274, 294, 353, 355. 375, 376, 390, 391, 397, 
398, 399, 400, 402, 406, 409, 410, 413, 414, 415, 524, 526, 

528, 620, 621, 661, 841, 944, .950 ; Van Schelluyne, 69, 
288, 403 ; Van Schie, 771 ; Van Schlechtenhorst, 288 ; Van 
Schoik, 843 ; Van Schoendenwoert, 659 ; Van Schoonhoven, 
355, 523. 95°. 989 ; Van Schwaick, 528 ; Van Slechtenhorst, 
55, 56, 57. 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 380, 658, 931 ; Van Slyjk, 
273. 355 : Van Slyke, 126, 212, 214, 220, 424, 603, 647, 
771 ; Van Sleenterg, 159, 211, 218; Van Tienhoven, 62, 
250 ; Van Toper, 467 ; Van Twiller, 2, 46, 47, 55, 59. 67, 
288 ; Van Valkenburgh, 200, 325, 355, 402, 526, 6r3, 840, 
841, 842, 843, 847, 848, 901, 948 ; Van Vechten, 88, 131, 
132. 133. '36, 138. 154. 156, 195. 266, 267, 273, 286, 353, 
355. 393. 399. 4': 6, 44°. 44i, 443, 444, 5°°. 502. 519. 526, 
S28, 620, 650, 664, 671, 686, 687, 752, 838, 926, 932, 945, 
952, 961, 969 ; Van Veghten, 401, 407, 409, 410, 412 ; Van 
Vorst, 162, 163, 272, 345, 690; Van Vranken, 212, 214, 
402, 412, 417, 931, 935, 940, 945 ; Van Wagenen, 809 ; 
Van Wagner, 343 ; Van Waggoner, 841, 842, 849 ; 
Van Waggden, 385 ; Van W^eely, 47 ; Van Wely, 55, 
288 ; Van Wey, 273 ; Van Wie, 91, 154, 401, 780, 781, 
785, 792, 8cc, 817, 841, 843, 869, 894, 901, 906, 944; 
Van Will, 777 ; Van Woert, 180, 401, 626 ; Van Wormer, 
534, 568, 569, 570, 587, 840, 842, 846, 849, 904 ; Van 
Wyck, 310; Van Yansen, 254; Van Zandt, 80, 89, 90, 
91, 92, 210, 305, 355, 426, 528, 612, 845, 846, 892, 899, 
901, 906, 907, 934. 982 ; Varick, 137 ; Vasser, 533 ; 
Vaughn, 402 ; Vedder, 186, 420, S09, 880, 891, 910, 934, 
945 ; Veider, 209, 353, 355, 401, 402, 412, 415, 702, 837, 
841, 842, 844, 8^5, 846, 847, 848, 849, 855, 894, 898, 900 ; 
Veghls, 124 ; Vellencure, 966 ; Verbeck, 272, 295 ; Ver- 
beeck, 288 ; Verbrugge, 658 ; Verdi, 228, 229 ; Verhulst, 
10, 46 ; Vermilye (Vermilyea), 771, 85o, 969, 970 ; Vetnon, 
704, 705 ; Verplanck, 75, 88, 125, 156, 273, 355, 463 ; Ver- 
plank, 74, 520, 659, 708, 826, 829, 830, 831, 832, 834, 836, 
839, 844, 928, 931 ; Verraline, 862 ; Verrazano, i, 42, 43 ; 
Verrazzano, 458 ; Ver Vanger, 614; Vescher, 406 ; Vibbaid, 
489.533; Vicher, 973; Viele, 211, 337, 429, 532, 624, 
637, 688, 728, 732, 735, 942, 994, 995, 996 ; Viets, 209, 213 ; 
Viggers, 480 ; Viller, 708 ; Villeroy, 273; Vincent, 378; 
417, 688, 832, 836, 924 ; Vine, 91, 626, 841, 842, 846, 847, 
849, 850 ; Vinegar, 566 ; Vinhagen, 273 ; Vint, 737 ; Vin- 
ton, 424 ; Virgil, 319, 320, 321 ; Visbeck, 273; Vischer 
(Vislier), 129, 156, 302, 355 ; (Visscher), 401, 403, 
405, 406, 410, 414, 415, 416, 417, 424, 425, 465, 
469, 499, 673, 715, 750, 931, 972 ; Viselaer, 272 ; 
\onda, 272, 273; Vonner, 380; Von PuUhammer, Voor- 
hees (Voorhuyse), 102, 118, 119, 154, 212, 401, 439, 784, 894, 
902, 908 ; Vores, 895 ; Vose, 568, 613 ; Vosburgh, 125, 127, 
154, 273, 355, 402, 440, 521, 636, 637, 63S, 716, 717, 850 ; 
Vrooman (Vroman), 90, 154, 2C9, 355, 410, 418, 647, 704, 
777, 779, 784. 792, 795, 832, 834, 839, 841, 844, 845, 848, 
849, 872, 891, 906, 928, 945, 986. 

Van Aemam & Steiner, 854 ; Van Allen & Henry, 
554 ; Van Alstyne & Son, 637 ; Van Aimes & Chase, 634 ; 
Van Benschoten & Warner, 854, 855 ; Van Benthuysen & 
Co., 701 ; Van Benthuysen & Wood, 375, 700, 701 ; Van 
Bonghee & Son, 924 ; Van Buren, 647 ; Vance & Wendell, 
376; Van Gaasbeck & Co., A. B., 624; Van Heusen & 
Charles, 325, 637, 701 ; Van Rensselaer & Co., 613 ; Van 
Santford & Anable, 637 ; Van Santford & Co., A., 645 ; 
Van Santford & Eaton, 448, 613 ; Van Schaick & Co., J." 
B., 376 ; Van Slyke & Co., 603, 647 ; Van Valkenburgh & 
Co., J. B., 613 ; Van Valkenburgh & Co., S.M., 624 ; Van 
Wormer & Co., J., 569 ; Van Wormer & McGarrey, 568, 
569; Van Wormer & Sons, C, 587: Virgil & Rice, 
320 ; Vose & Co., 568 ; Vroman & Co., S., 647. 

Waas, 743 ; Wachbum, 923 ; Wachter, 652 ; Wacker- 
hagen, 581, 772, 811 ; Wade, 80, 154, 210, 211, 664, 681, 
935 ; Wademan, 785, 872, 902, 910 ; Wadhams, 154, 671, 
728, 729, 753, 754, 757 ; Wadsworth, 182, 493, 524, 971 ; 
Wager, 378, 934, 950, 957, 964, 967, 970, 989, 995 ; 
Wagoner, 154, 401, 584, 763, 772, 780, 785, 817, 832, 841, 
842, 846, 847, 849, 850, 893, 907, 908 ; Whalen, 476 ; Waine, 
329, 613 ; Waite, 178, 355, 376, 521 ; Wait, 170, 558, 742, 
920 ; Wakeman, 957, 992 ; Watbeck, 400 ; Walch, 754, 834 
944 ; Walden, 631, 803, 804, 805 ; Waldman, 519, 621 ■ 
Waldo, 226 ; Waldiidge, 311 ; Waldron, 355, 635, 829 832' 
833. 840, 842, 846, 847, 848, 863, 914, 961 ; Walford, 681', 
884 ; Walker, 77, 375, 421, 429, 477, 526, 529, 530, 557, 


559, 6ii, 621, 626, 632, 636, 637, 643, 647, 663, 742, 
842, 847, 848, 849, 850, 851, 871, 882, 960 ; Wallace, 90, 

91, 154, 226, 376, 424, 596, 787, 974 ; Wallack, 704 ; Wal- 
len, 600 ; Waller, 210, 213 ; Walley, 785, 793 ; Walls, 305 ; 
Walsh, 100, 154, 304, 425, 477, 524, 526, 528, 558, 587, 
621, 639, 664, 672, 754, 755, 757, 987 ; Walshe, 154 ; 
Walters, 186, 599 ; Wallon, 683 ; Waltmeyer, 393 ; Wal- 
worth, 341, 592, 677, 680, 753 ; Wandell, 901, 977, 979, 
980, 984, 986; Wands, 77, 89, 92, 94, 104, 211, 212, 788, 
789, 793, 855, 892, 893. 894, 902, 903, 904, 905 ; Waoler- 
hagen, 573 ; Ward, 90, 103, 106, 116, 154, 212, 216, 220, 
221, 223, 224, 238, 239, 284, 342, 344, 365, 394, 448, 476, 
481, 485, 500, 567, 613, 642, 677, 690, 691, 710, 819, 841, 
841, 842, 848, 854, 924, 926, 928, 985 ; Warden, 689, 988 ; 
Wardwell, 657 ; Warford, 154, 980, 987 ; Warmg, 331, 812 ; 
Warker, 526 ; Warmington, 426, 782 ; Warner, 5, 89, 92, 
93. 98, 233. 3''6, 394. 399. 4°!. 420, 527, 602, 713, 750, 
801, 804, 809, 810, 811, 813, 814, 817, 819, 854, 855, 872, 
873, 879, 881 ; Warnck, 872, 873, 874, 875^ S79, 900, 901 ; 
Warring, 159 ; Wairen, 205, 210, 213, 214, 336, 342, 420, 
477, 553. 558, 613, 637, 705, 742, 743, 788, 790, 875, 893, 
954, 906, 963, I 75, 990 : Warrington, 426 ; Warl, 7; Wash- 
burn, 154, 535. 587, 613, 621, 634, 749, 927, 980, 989, 995 ; 
Washington, 290, 304, 394, 396, 400, 405, 418, 429 ; Wasler, 
706 ; Wasserbach, 211 ; Wasson, 92, 319, 321, 333, 376, 378, 
438, 4S0, 513, 568, 574, 729 ; Waterbury, 154, 266, 641, 
679, 680, 914, 916, 926, 935 ; Waterman, 156, 479, 485, 
592, 624, 632, (339, 699, 732, 735, 934, 936, 942, 945, 957, 
966, 967, 974, 977 ; Waters, 414, 671, 777, 781, 880; Wat- 
icins, 735 ; Watson, 9, 76, 78, 88, 155, 281, 300, 310, 355, 
507, 509, 523, 524, 528, 535, 592, 599, 624, 639. 646, 694, 
760, 810, 817, 850, 88i, 913, 916, 920, 970; Watt, 77; 
Watts, 262, 523, 719, 962; Way, 519, 874, 945; Way- 
land, 749 ; Waugh, 993, 997 ; Wayne, 292, 597, 598, 
607, 893, 894, 902, 904, 906 ; Weatherby, 635 ; Weather- 
head, 626; Weatherwax, 321, 527, 854, 935 ; Weaver, 98, 
ICO, loi, 102, 103, u8, 345, 479, 592, 612, 728, 841, 842, 
844, 847, 850, 906, 924, 931, 944, 982 ; Webb, 500, 516, 
531. 545. 55«. 571. 621, 637, 718, 743, 749, 764, 970; 
Weber, no, 120, 559, 743, 973 ; Webber, 706 ; Webster, 209, 
220, 318, 335, 34c, 358, 367, 371, 372, 375, 376, 419, 448, 500, 
533. 534. 567, 611, 650, 667, 692, 695, 700, 702, 944, 981 ; 
Wedell62I ; Weddin, 751 ; Weed, 142, 144, 356, 358, 359, 

361, 372. 373. 374. 376, 377, 37«, 421, 424. 425. 5^1. 
529, 589, 596, 617 ; Weed, 679, 687, 701, 702, 704, 743, 768, 
806, 860; Weeden, 926 ; Weeks, 995 ; Weems, 4, 386 ; Weld- 
man, 72, 212, 526, 621, 630, 631, 632, 801, 802, 804, 
805, 808, 809,810, 813,814,818,820,823, 9C6, 923,927, 
961, 968, 970 ; Weiger, 402 ; Weir, 586, 737, 968 ; Weise, 
I, 43 ; Weiser, 38 ; Weitzel, 842, 851, 870 ; Welch, 90, 92, 
191, 211, 334, 342, 613, 638, 650, 675, 749, 750, 941, 988 ; 
Weld, 539; Weller, 568; Welles, 281; Wellington, 210, 
562 ; Wells, 134, 154, 318, 319, 320, 321, 323, 337, 
355, 359. 566, 567, 705, 719, 785, 940, 961, 962 ; Welton, 
769 ; Wemp, 295, 348 ; Wemple, 93, 108, IC9, 156, 475, 
477, 478, 529, 728. 793. 800, 901 ; Wendel, 273, 385 ; 
Wendell, 41, 42, 107, in, 112, 113, 125, 133, 154, 155, 
209, 213, 267, 272, 325, 355, 356, 358, 370, 377, 401, 403, 
405, 406, 407, 409, 410, 412, 415, 440, 442, 462, 466, 471, 
474, 491, 517, 531, 532, 581, 601, 602, 603, 620, 621, 635, 
640, 641, 653, 654, 659, 667, 671, 675, 709, 722, 932, 940; 
Wendt, 643 ; Wentz, 677 ; Wenz, 643 ; Wenlen, 420 , 
Werles, 744 ; Werner, 378, 736, 820, 872, 874, 880 ; 
Wessel, 273; Wcssells, 386, 464, 658, 659; Wessels, 41, 
274, 385, 462, 463; West, 355, 441, 657, 812, 817, 820, 
911, 920; Westbrook, 165, 190; Wcstcott, 599, 962, 
963 ; Westerlo. 79, 80, 262, 267, 290, 441, 524, 679, 
771, 921, 939; Weslervelt, 211, 784, 800, 834; West- 
fall, 784, 788, 810, 817, 842, 843, 869, 899, 906, 
956, 957, 958 ; Weston, 172, 308 ; Wetherbee, 791 ; 
Westveer, 900, 926 ; Wetzel, 512 ; Wetzell, 344, 773 ; Wha 
len, 476, 478, 305 ; Wharlon, 640, 648 ; Wlieaton, 138, 
'144, 145, 149, 156, 197, 342, 355, 440, 923, 926 ; Wheeler, 

92, 96, 98, ICO, loi, 102, 103, 210, 239, 273, 321, 346, 355, 
441, 573, 600, 602, 652, 708, 740, 906, 928, 971, 972, 974, 
977, 989; Wheelock, 39, 40, 188, 679; Whelan, 751; 
Whelpley, 89, 91 ; Whetsell, 841 ; Whipple, 73, 355, 399, 
494, 495, 496, 513, 613, 802, 805, 810, 817, 818, 823, 849, 
870, 872, 873, 877, 882 ; Whilcr, 908 ; Whitbeck, 88, 90, 
91, 92, 93, 266, 355, 572, 708, 709, 826, 827, 828, 832, 
835, 839, 840 ; Whitcomb, 604 ; White, 90, 91, 92, 103, 

104, 209, 212, 235, 321, 345, 378, 4c6, 409, 412, 416, 420, 
474. 521, 531, 533. 534. 557. 559. 5^5, 592, 611, 612, 614, 
618, 619, 621, 622, 623, 624, 635, 642, 650, 685, 699, 732, 
752, 788, 805, 817, 818, 820, 842, 847, 849, 861, 870, 871, 
872, 873, 879, 906, 907, 912, 914, 915, 918, 938, 944, 948, 
951, 952, 957, 960, 962, 964, 968, 969, 970, 971, 987, 997 ; 
Whitehall, 973 ; Whitehead, 593, 791, 825 ; Whiteman, 

1 18, 485, 828 ; Whiteside, 355 ; Whitfield, 996 ; Whiting, 
355, 375. 563 ; Whitlesey, 373 ; Whitlock, 613, 614 ; Whit- 
man, ic6, 109, 116; Whitmore, 154; Whitney, 429, 438, 
549, 621, 623, 624, 708, 718, 742, 744, 996; Whittaker, 
338 ; Whittingham, 762 ; Whittle, 335 ; Whittlesy, 142 ; 
Whitty, 92, 93, 98 ; Whitwell, 972, 973 ; Wilbor, 377 ; 
Wickham, 587, 592, 593, 831, 834, 928 ; Wickes, 53, 93, 
210, 279, 916, 952 ; Wickoff, 952 ; Widdman, 716 ; Wider- 
hofer, 244 ; Widdow, 272 ; Widmer, 905 ; Wiedman, 626 ; 
Wilbeck, 907, 989 ; Wilber, 872 ; Wilbore, 841, 844 ; 
Wilbur, 211, 219, 230, 613, 623, 873, 874 ; Wilcox, 89, 346, 
402, 545, 625, 755, 817, 962 ; Wild, 19, 533, 952, 953, 968 ; 
Wilda, 420; Wilday, 817; Wilder, 526, 611, 621, 719, 

870, 871, 955, 963 ; Wiles, 474, 475, 739, 744 ; Wiley, 112, 
"3, "5, 355, 564, 639 ; Wilgns, 977, 989 ; Wilkes, 92, 93, 
136, 793 ; Wilkins, 92, 842, 848, 849 ; Wilkinson, 8, 154, 
343, 421, 57,2, 701, 946, 951, 960; Wilks, 420; Willard, 
179, 205, 209, 211, 213, 214, 215, 236, 266, 441, 526, 571, 
655, 729, 813, 820. 971, 988 ; Wilier, 127 ; Willes, 88, 89, 355, 
556, 685, 789, 804, 817, 818 ; Willett, 6, 355, 396, 397, 603, 
671, 708 ; Williams, 7, 88, 121, 136, 148, 156, 209, 213, 215, 
273. 355. 373. 3**9. 4oi, 407. 414, 420, 527. 532, 534, 537, 589, 
603, 604, 613, 621, 636, 639, 641, 691, 699, 702, 715. 725, 
734. 744, 750. 764, 769. 785. 800, 802, 833, 847, 848, S70, 

871, 872, 873, 874, 877, 879, 880, 882, 886, 912, 934, 956, 
958, 960, 962, 967, 969, 970, 972, 973, 977, 989, 991 ; Wil- 
liamson, 406, 428, 559, 586, 772, 870, 871, 872, 873, 938 ; 
Willinglon, 213 ; Willis, 784, 828, 834, 835, 839 ; Williscon, 

913 ; Willsey, 803, 822, 817, 8iS, 835, 907 ; Wilson, 170, 
210, 211, 214, 230, 247, 304, 305, 306, 333, 334, 343, 376, 
420, 424, 474, 475, 477. 521. 526, 527, 532, 557, 577, 582, 
600, 613, 620, 625, 626, 630, 634, 636, 638, 641, 642, 673, 
690, 694, 699, 715, 730, 759, 760, 784, 817, 839, 849, 855, 
879, 907, 926, 934, 96a, 967, 989 ; Wiltsie, 211, 777, 780, 785, 
789, 792, 796, 797, 800, 829, 832, 835, 837, 839, 910, 911, 
924, 928 ; Wimple, 92 ; Winans, 914, 919, 969 ; Winants, 

88, 744 ; Winantsc, 463 ; Winegar, 882, 924, 926 ; Wingar, 

914 ; Wing, 2C9, 213, 214, 215, 240, 355, 533, 626, 640, 
645 ; Wingate, 843 ; Wink, 743 ; Winne, 42, 74, 93, 94, 

119, 120, 127, 156, 210, 211, 212, 272, 273, 336, 355, 
401, 416, 437, 477, 486, 492, 500, 526, 528, 534, 553, 613, 
621, 634, 677, 690, 708, 709, 714, 732, 735, 769, 777, 781, 
784, 785, 793, 793, 797, 798, 799, 800, 812, 817, 840, 
841, 842, 843, 847, 874, 892, 893, 9DI, 905, 906, 
9'2, 931, 933, 934, 945, 952, 981, 984, 987, 995 ; 
Winslow, 46, 389, 537, 540, 541, 572, 637, 648 ; Winston, 
80, 903, 904, 906, 910, 923, 925, 926 ; Winterbum, 574 ; Win- 
thtop, 381, 385, 657 ; Wise, 120, 626, 627, 763 ; Wiswall, 
975, 989, 991 ; Witbeck, 74, 154, 173, 211, 283, 401, 402, 
797, 829, 830, 831, 832, 834, 835, 836, 905, 922, 928, 932, 
934, 935, 939, 94"-, 95', 948, 975, 977, 987, 992, 997; 
Witherwax, 843, 852, 869 ; Withford, 847 ; Witlock, 615 ; 
Witmarsh, 987 ; Witsen, 775 ; Witter, 8i8, 854, 870, 871, 

872, 873, 874, 879, 880, 881, 883 ; Witters, 91 ; Woglom, 
272; Wolcott, 489; Wolcutt, 42; Wolenman, 643; Wolf, 
632, 840 ; Wolfe, 154, 708, 716, 746,834 ; Wolfenden, 750; 
Wolford, 91, 92, 152, 155, 355, 818, 841, 870, 871, 874, 913, 
937 ; Wolfinger, 613 ; Wolverton, 516 ; Wood, 90, 109, 118, 
119, 120, 154, 212, 268, 308, 323, 341, 342, 343, 355, 375, 

370, 377, 439. 440, 441, 513, 53'. 544, 559, 573. 574. 584, 
621, 626, 632, 635, 684, 687, 6q2, 699, 700, 701, 703, 708, 

734. 735. 737, 758, 761, 769, 790, 79'. 793. 801, 804, 806, 
808, 810, 817, 822, 823, 842, 848, 849, 861, 872, 874, 881, 
894, 934. 906. 913, 924, 957, 962, 972, 980, 984, 987, 996, 997; 
Woodbury, 901 ; Woodford, 448 ; Woodhall, 425, 710, 711 ; 
Woodi-uff, 147, 206, 207, 2og, 213, 477, 637, 665, 668, 
768 ; Woods, 156,355; 981; Woodward, 209, 212, 231, 
234, 376, 581 ; Woodworth, 134, 261, 267, 406, 413, 416, 443, 
524, 526, 843, 844 ; Wool, 8, 420, 421, 422, 715 ; Wool- 
cotl, 399 ; Wooley, 336, 474, 475, 744, 941 ; Woolford (see 
Wolford) ; WooUctt, 728, 740, 741, 997 ; Woolworth, 266, 
268, 679 ; Woolverton, 561, 605, 623, 625, 626 ; Wooster, 

89, io6, 108, 109, 1 10, 112, 394, 533, 570, 592, 599, 632, 
639, 724, 735, 740, 923, 928 ; Worcester, 744 ; Wor- 


den, 212, 541, 938; Wordsworth, 443, 738; Wormer, 
777, 810, 842, 844, 848, 850, 851, 90Z ; Worth, 8, 
207, 421, 422, 433, 508, 529, 714, 941 ; Worthen, 
952, Worthington, 690, 982 ; Wright, 11, 21, 91, 112, 154, 
ISS. 159. 211, 282, 339, 358, 385, 427, 443, 499, 516, 531, 
581, 584, 632, 639, 640, 642, 647, 679, 698, 722, 740, 763, 
764, 785, 812, 816, 817, 820, 850, 854, 863, 894, 901, 903, 
905, 906, 925, 963 ; Wurmer, 841 ; Wurts, 330 ; Wyatt, 
733 ; Wyckoff', 209, 211, 342, 343, 622, 771, 938, 951, 961, 
g8i, 983, 984'; Wygant, 322, 385; Wylie, 642, 726; 
Wyman, 834 ; Wynant, 940 ; Wyncoop, 54, 641 ; Wyngar, 

Waine & Andrews, 613 ; Walker & Pratl, 632 ; Walker & 
Williams, 960 ; Walsh & Co., D., 621 ; Walsh, J. H. & E. 
A., 587 ; Walsh & Son, W. E., 634 ; Ward & Derby, 613 ; 
Ward & Sons, J. C, 613 ; Wardell & Bordwell, 637 ; War- 
ner & Hooker, 376 ; Warren Bros., 990 ; Warren & Sons, 
613; Warren, Wilbur & Co., 613; Washburn &Knower, 621; 
Waterbury & Jones, 647 ; Waterman & Bennett, 632 ; \Vater- 
man & Son, J., 639 ; Weaver & Co., W. H., 612 ; Webb & 
Co., H. & C, 636 ; Webb & Dummer, 621, 636 ; Webster, 
C. R. & G., 372, 375, 650 ; -Webster & Skinner, 372, 373 
700; Webster & Wood, 376 ; Weed, Becker & Co., 806 
Weed, Dawson & Co., 377 ; Weed & Parsons, 701 ; Weed 
Parsons & Co., 378, 701 ; Weller, Goodwin & Adams, 568 
Wells, Butterfield & Co., 319 ; Wells & Co., 319, 321 
Wendell & Co., C. E., 601, 635 ; Wendell & Co., Wm. 
640 ; Wendell & Fellham, 641 ; Wendell & Jenkins, 621 
Wendell & Trotter, 620 ; Wendell & Roberts, 641 ; Wenz & 
Co., J., 643 ; Wheaton, Doolittle & Hadley, 197 ; Wheeler 
& Bromley, 652 ; Wheeler, Melick & Co., 573 ; White & 
Co., 612, 618 ; White & Co., D. & L., 612, 618 ; While, J. 
J. & E.M., 623 ; While, Ljveland & Co., 612, 618 ; White 
& Moir, 612, 618; White, Olmstead & Co., 951 ; While & 
Sons, J., 621, 623, 624 ; While & Sons, J. G., 557 ; White- 
head & Bro., 837 ; Whiting, Backus & Whiting, 375 ; Whit- 
lock & Fassett, 614 ; Whitney & Co., W. M., 621, 624 ; Wick 
& Strong, 602 ; Wiedman & Kelly, 626 ; Wilbur cS: Co., 623 ; 
Wilbur & Son, N. R., 613 ; Wilder, Hastings & Co., 621 ; 
Wiley & Bro., 639; Williams & Co., C. P., 613 ; Williams, 
Parke & Co., 603 ; Williams, Ryan & James, 958 ; Wil- 

liamson & Sons, J., 559 ; Wilson & Badgley, 630 ; Wilson 
& Co., 557 ; Wilson & Co., M. E., 960 ; Wilson & Gross, 
642 ; Wilson, Lansing & Co., 626 ; Wilson & Monteath, 626, 
630 ; Wilson, Rathbnne & Chapin, 625 ; Wilson & Son, J., 
641 ; Wilson & Son, J. & S., 376, 6oo ; Wilson, Thorburn & 
Keller, 334 ; Wing Sons & Co., A., 626, 645 ; Winne & 
Co., 492 ; Winne & Gamsey, 621 ; Winslow & Co., 572 ; 
Winslow, Griswold & HoUey, 541 ; Witbeck & Jones, 992 ; 
Wolenman & Lochner, 643 ; Wood & Acres, 621 ; Wood, 
Pierce & Co., 957 ; Wood & Co., D. S., 559 ; Wood, J. S. 
& B., 377 ; Woodward & Hill, 581 ; Woodward & Packard, 
376; Woolverton & Co., 605 ; Woolverlon & Co., G. A., 
623 ; Wooster & Co., B. W., 639 ; Wooster & Co., F., 632 ; 
Wright & Anderson, 639 ; Wright & Co., N., 581 ; Wyn- 
gaard, 252 ; Wynkoop, 129, 491, 620. 

Yagger, 837 ; Yates, 7, II, 128, 129, 130, 131, 132, 
)J4, 154, 155, 156, 210, 212, 213, 262, 267, 269, 272, 353, 
355. 368, 39°. 397> 401, 403. 405. 406, 407, 408, 409, 410, 
411, 412, 413, 415, 418, 436, 437, 438, 440, 442, 446, 467, 
468, 469, 472, 473, 497, 524, 528, 529, 534, 640, 662, 665, 
669, 674, 677, 679, 704, 709, 718, 750, 763, 771, 944, 961, 
985, 994 ; Yeardsley, 427, 935 ; Yerks, 643 ; Yetts, 125 ; 
Young, II, 109, no, 112, 113, 115, 116, 142, 150, 154, 156, 
210, 211, 214, 'zi8, 266, 269, 274, 280, 323, 355, 373, 406, 
411, 413, 433, 443> 464, 474, 524> £26, 527, 533, 534, 613, 
621, 667, 674, 677, 704, 712, 729, 743, 747, 769, 802, 816, 
852, 879, 880, 881, 892, 893, 899, 900, 905, 911, 912, 919, 
931, 980; Younger, 562 ; Youngs, 848, 874, 915 ; Young- 
love, 355, 937, 938, 951, 952, 967, 968 ; Youngman, 635, 

Yates & Mclntyre, 472 ; Young & Ehle, 621 ; Younglove 
& Co., T. G , 937 ; Yuck & Norris, 837. 


Zandl, 810 ; Zea, 855 ; 7^h, 103, 104, 801, 802, 804, 805, 
809, 810, 811, 812, 817, 820, 879; Zeigler, 828; Zeil- 
man, 712 ; Zeiser, 716 ; Zeller, 652 ; Zimmerman, 355, 479, 
583, 612, 716 ; Zinger, 4 ; Zinck, 906. 









IN 1524, John de Verazzano, a Florentine naviga- 
tor in the service of Francis I. of France, made 
a voyage to the North American coast, and, as is 
beheved from the account which he gave, entered 
the harbor of New York. No colonies were plant- 
ed ; no results followed ; and the voyage was 
almost forgotten. 

Though discoveries and settlements were made 
by the French north from this point, and colonies 
were planted by the English farther to the south, it 
is not known that New York was again visited by 
Europeans till 1609,* when the Dutch East India 
Company sent Henry Hudson, an Englishman 
by birth, on a voyage of discovery, in a vessel 
called the Half Moon. He reached the coast of 
Maine, sailed thence to. Cape Cod, then south- 
westerly to the mouth of Chesapeake Bay ; then, 
coasting northward, he entered Delaware Bay, on 
the 28th of August. From thence he proceeded 
northward, and on the 3d of September, I609, 

* And yet there is abundant evidence from the older French, Spanish 
and Italian writers of the frequent visits of French traders to that part 
of America lying between the northeastern part of Florida and the 
coast of Newfoundland, and even up the Hudson River to Cohoes 
Falls. This view is confirmed by the map of Visconte de Maiollo of 
Genoa, in 1527, where the territory above named is clearly shown by a 
boundary line and the arms of France, with the name of Francesca 
designating it, and capes and headlands all along the coast indicated 
and named : by the map of Gerard Mercator, made in Duisburg in 1569, 
where the Hudson River is shown to the north of the junction of the 
Mohawk: and by the map in the " Cosmographie Universelle" of 
Andre Thcvet, printed in Paris in 1575, where the Hudson River is 
shown as in the map of Mercator above mentioned. The very name 
of this section of the country, Norumbega, is doubtless of French 
origin, being a corruption of " L'anorme berge," "the great rock 
ledpe, or escarpment," now called the Palisades. For these facts and 
for an examination of the maps mentioned, I am greatly indebted to the 
late work of Mr. A. J. Weise, entitled, " Discoveries of America to 

G. R. H. 

anchored in New York Bay. On the 12 th he en- 
tered the river that bears his name, and proceeded 
slowly up to a point just above the present site of 
the City of Hudson ; thence he sent a boat's crew 
to explore farther up, which probably passed above 
Albany. September 23d he set sail down the 
river, and started on his return to Europe, Oc- 
tober 4th. 

In 1609 Samuel Champlain, a French navigator, 
sailed up the St. Lawrence, explored its tributaries, 
and on the 4th of Jul)', in thatj'ear, discovered the 
lake which bears his name. 

At the time of the discovery of New York by the 
whites, the southern and eastern portions were in- 
habited by the Mohegan Indians ; while that por- 
tion west from the Hudson River was occupied by 
five confederate tribes, afterwards named by the 
English the Five Nations, by the French the 
Iroquois, and by themselves called Hodenosaunee 
— people of the Long House. The Long House 
formed by this confederacy extended east and west 
through the State, having, at its eastern portal, the 
Mohawks, and at its western the Senecas ; while 
between them dwelt the Oneidas, Onondagas, and 
Cayugas ; and, after 17 14, a sixth nation, the 
Tuscaroras, southeast from Oneida Lake. Of 
these Indians, Parkman says that at the commence- 
ment of the seventeenth centur}-, " in the region 
now forming the State of New York, a power was 
rising to a ferocious vitality, which, but for the 
presence of Europeans, would probably have sub- 
jected, absorbed, or exterminated every other In- 
dian community east of the Mississippi and north 
of the Ohio." 

"The Iroquois was the Indian of Indians. A 
thorough savage, yet a finished and developed 
savage, he is. perhaps, an example of the highest 
elevation which man can reach without emerging 
from his primitive condition of the hunter. A geo- 
graphical position, commanding, on the one hand, 



the portal of the great lakes, and, on the other, 
the sources of the streams flowing both to the 
Atlantic and the Mississippi, gave the ambitious 
and aggressive confederates advantages which they 
perfectly understood and by which they profited to 
the utmost. Patient and politic as they were fe- 
rocious, they were not only the conquerors of their 
own race, but the powerful allies and the dreaded foes 
of the French and English colonies ; flattered and 
caressed by both, yet too sagacious to give them - 
selves without reserve to either. Their organiza- 
tion and their history evince their intrinsic superior- 
ity. Even their traditionary lore, amid its wild 
puerilities, shows at times the stamp of an energy 
and force in striking contrast with the flimsy crea- 
tions of Algonquin fancy. That the Iroquois, 
left under their own institutions, would ever have 
developed a civilization of their own, I do not be- 

These institutions were not only characteristic 
and curious, but almost unique. Without sharing 
Morgan's almost fanatical admiration for them, or 
echoing the praises which Parkman lavishes on 
them, it may be truly said that their wonderful and 
cohesive confederation furnished a model worthy to 
be copied by civiHzed nations ; while, so long as 
they were uncontaminated by the vices of ci\iliza- 
tion, they possessed, with all their savagery, many 
noble traits of character, which would adorn any 
people in their public, social, or domestic rela- 

They made themselves the dreaded masters of all 
their neighbors east of the Mississippi, and carried 
their victorious arms far to the north, the south 
and the easL Their dominance is thus eloquently 
pictured in Street's " Frontenac " : 

" The fierce Adirondacs had fled from their wrath, 
The Hurons been swept from their merciless p ith ; 
Around, the Ottawas, like leaves, had been strewn. 
And the lake of the Eries struck silent and lone. 
The Lenape, lords once of valley and hill. 
Made women, bent low at their conqueror's will. 
By the far Mississippi the Illini shrank 
When the trail of the Tortoise was seen on the bank ; 
On the hills of New England the Pequod turned pale 
When the howl of the Wolf swelled at night on the gale ; 
And the Cherokee shook in his green, smiling bowers. 
When the foot of the Bear stamped his carpet of flowers." 

It will hereafter be seen that the Iroquois acted 
an important part in the early history of the 

Space will not permit a description of their 
league, or confederation, a sketch of their tribal re- 
lations, and their religious, social, and domestic 
customs, or a history of their warlike achievements. 
Nor is it necessary. Every one has heard or read 
the story. 



TO 1765. 

IN 1 6 10, another vessel was sent from Holland to 
trade with the natives. Soon after others fol- 
lowed. A small fort and a few rude buildings 
were erected at the southern extremity of Manhat- 
tan Island, in 161 2, and the place was named New 
Amsterdam. In 16 14. the Stales General of Hol- 
land granted a charter to the merchants engaged in 
these expeditions, under the title of United New 
Netherlands Company, giving exclusive privileges 
of trade for four years. The Hudson River had 
been ascended by Hendrick Corstiaenssen, and 
in 1623 a fort and trading house were erected on 
the east bank of the river about fifteen leagues above 
Manhattan Island, called Fort Nassau. This was 
the first of four forts built by the Dutch on the 
Hudson River, all of which were erected in the 
same year.* 

In 1621, the Dutch West India Company was 
chartered, and in 1623, a small fort was built near 
the Hudson River, in what is now the City ot 
Albany, called Fort Orange, and traders were sent 
to occupy and to carry on traffic in furs and peltry 
with the Indians. In 1626, Peter Minuit, as direc- 
tor-general of the province, arri\ed with other set- 
tlers, and purchased the island of Manhattan from 
the Indians for trinkets valued at about I24. In 
1629, the Company offered grants and privileges 
to patroons who should found settlements in the 
province of New Netherlands of fifty or more 
adults. Several availed themselves of this offer. 
In 1632, Minuit was recalled and Wouter Van 
Twiller appointed in his place. During his ad- 
ministration a controversy concerning jurisdiction 
was commenced between the Dutch and the Eng- 
lish. The latter claimed the country on the ground 
of prior discovery by Cabot and the grant of James 
I. covering the territory. 

In 1638, the weak and rapacious Van Twiller 
was succeeded in the government of the colony by 
William Kieft. Hostilities, long and merciless, 
occurred with the Indians, for which the rash and 

* ITie first Dutch traders on their arrival at the present site of 
Albany, found the remains of a fort or chateau on Castle Island, took 
measuremenis of it (which are recorded on an old map in the New 
York State Library) and called it Fort Nassau, but they at that time 
built no fort there. The old fort on Castle Island, which suggested the 
name for the island itself, was undoubtedly the relic of a previous oc- 
cupation by the French as a tradng port. The name of Fort Orange, 
a fort on the mainland at the foot of Slate Street, Albany, was on 
September i, 1673, changed to Fort Nassau, and the name of the settle- 
ment Beverwyck to Willemstadt- G R H 


cruel Kieft was deservedly censured. He was re- 
called, and succeeded by the sturdy and honest 
Peter Stuyvesant, in 1647. Controversy concern- 
ing jurisdiction and general disorders troubled 
his administration, till, ■ in 1 664, Charles II. of 
England, regardless of the claims of the Dutch, 
granted to his brother, the Duke of York and 
Albany, afterwards James II., the whole country 
from the Connecticut to the Delaware, including 
the entire Dutch possessions. A fleet was sent 
under Col. Richard Nicollsbythe Duke, to enforce 
his claim, and on the 3d of September, 1664, the 
provirice was surrendered without bloodshed, and 
the government of New Netherlands passed into 
the hands of the English. 

Col. Nicolls at once assumed the functions of 
governor ; the name New Amsterdam was changed 
to New York, and Fort Orange to Albany ; laws 
for the government of the province were prescribed, 
and courts for their administration established. In 
1668, the unpopular Nicolls resigned, and was suc- 
ceeded by the odious Col. Francis Lovelace. Eng- 
land soon became involved in a war with Holland. 
July 30, 1673, ^6w York surrendered to the Dutch 
without resistance. Capt. Anthony Colve became 
Dutch governor ; but on the conclusion of peace 
between" the two powers, February 9, 1674, the 
province, by treaty, reverted to the English. A 
new patent was issued to James, confirming the 
first, and Sir Edmund Andros was commissioned 
governor. The despotic agent of a despotic ruler, 
he was unpopular, and became involved in diffi- 
culties with the neighboring colonies. He was re- 
called, and Thomas Dongan, his successor, ar- 
rived August, 1683. October 17th of the same 
year, the first Colonial Assembly was convened ; 
many needed reforms were instituted, counties were 
erected, and better times appeared to have dawned. 
The most important act of this Assembly was the 
adoption of a charter of liberties and privileges, or 
bill of rights. The hopes thus raised were soon 
disappointed. On the accession of James II. to 
the English throne, in 1685, he refused confirma- 
tion of the privileges which had been granted while 
he was Duke of York, prohibited the Assembly, 
forbade the establishment of a printing press in ihe 
colony, and filled the principal offices in the prov- 
ince with partisan Roman Catholics. During 
Dongan's administration, a war broke out between 
the Iroquois and the French. The country of the 
former had been invaded by De la Barre and M. 
Denonville successively ; and, in retaliation, the Iro- 
quois, twelve hundred strong, fell upon the French 
on the south side of the island of Montreal, 

" burned their houses, sacked their plantations, 
and put to the sword all the men, women and chil- 
dren without the skirts of the town. A thousand 
French were slain in this invasion, and twenty-six 
were carried into captivity and burned alive." The 
French yielded their claim to the territory south of 
Lake Ontario, and peace returned. 

In 1688, New York was placed in the same 
jurisdiction with New England ; the liberal Dongan 
was recalled, and Francis Nicholson temporarily 
succeeded him. The arbitrary and foolish King 
James II. abdicated in 1688, and in 1689 William 
and Mary ascended the English throne. Sir Ed- 
mund Andros was seized at Boston, and the 
popular Jacob Leisler held the fort at New York, 
awaiting the policy of the new sovereigns. During 
the two years of Leisler's control, the French and 
English made a descent on Schenectady, February 
8, 1690, and massacred about sixty of the inhabit- 
"ants. The danger by which they were threatened 
induced all the people, many of whom were op- 
posed to Leisler — to submit to his authority for the 
time. On the arrival, in March, 1691, of Col. 
Sloughter, who had been commissioned governor, 
Leisler was unfairly tried by a special commission, 
and unjustly sentenced to death. The governor 
refused to sign his death warrant, until over-per- 
suaded while intoxicated. Leisler was murdered 
by his enemies before the governor had recovered 
from his intoxication. Sloughter died after a weak 
administration of only a few months. 

In August, 1692, Benjamin Fletcher arrived with 
a commission as governor. He was narrow, violent, 
avaricious and bigoted, and his administration was 
a continual exhibition of these qualities. 

During his time, the Episcopal Church became 
the religion of the province, as the Dutch Reformed 
had previously been. In 1696, Wm. Bradford es- 
tablished the first printing-office in New York. 
Bold piracies, reaching into the very harbor 
of the city, crippled the commercial inter- 
ests. The war with France raged, and the French 
and Indians under Count Frontenac invaded the 
country of the Iroquois, killing and taking prison- 
ers. The Indians retaliated by hostile incursions 
among their enemies, but the peace of Ryswick, 
between France and England, in 1697, terminated 
these hostilities. 

Gov. Fletcher was succeeded in 1698 by Richard, 
Earl of Bellomont. He died in 1701, leaving a 
name honored for integrity, capacity and sympathy 
with the people. In his time the, citizenship and 
estate of the Leisler family were restored, and piracy 
was checked. John Nanfan succeeded him till the 


arrival of the next governor, Lord Cornbury, in 
1702. The administration of this governor was 
chiefly distinguished for reUgious intolerance, dis- 
honesty and licentiousness — the -worst governor 
under the English regime. He was succeeded, in 
1708, by Lord Lovelace, who soon died. Under 
Lieut. -Gov. Ingoldsby, who administered the gov- 
ernment after his death, an unsuccessful expedition 
against Canada was undertaken, and he was re- 
moved. June 14, 1710, Gov. Robert Hunter ar- 
rived. In 171 1, another disastrous expedition 
against Canada was made ; but in 1713, the treaty 
of Utrecht terminated the war between England 
and France. In 1 7 1 9, Hunter returned to England, 
in failing health, and Peter Schuyler was governor, 
ad interim, till the arrival of William Burnet in 
1720. On the accession of George II. the accom- 
plished Burnet was transferred to the government 
of Massachusetts, succeeded, in 1728, by John 
Montgomerie, who died in 1731. Rip Van Dam, 
by virtue of seniority in the council, was his suc- 
cessor, till William Cosby, the next governor, be- 
gan, in 1732, an administration memorable for its 
arbitrary proceedings and tumult, rather than for 
striking or important events. The libel trial of 
Zenger was in his term.. Cosby died in 1736, and 
was succeeded by George Clark, senior counselor 
after Van Dam. Clark was commissioned lieutenant 
governor in the following October. During his 
term, the "negro plot" and the disfranchisement 
of the Jews were leading matters. An antagonism 
had been growing during some time between the 
democratic and the aristocratic parties in the col- 
onies. Clark, at first, sought to conciliate both, 
but in the end had the confidence of neither, and 
his retirement, on the arrival of his successor, Ad- 
miral George Clinton, in 1743, was little regretted. 
The administration of Governor Clinton was 
characterized by a continual conflict with the peo- 
ple, represented in the provincial Assembly. Un- 
able by repeated prorogations and dissolutions to 
coerce them into submission, he resigned after an 
administration of ten years, and was succeeded, in 
1753, by Sir Danvers Osborne. After an adminis- 
tration of a few days he committed suicide by hang- 
ing, deranged, probably because of the embarrass- 
ment by which he was surrounded and domestic 
grief. He was succeeded by Lieut. -Gov. James 
De Lancey, till the arrival, in 1755, of Sir Charles 
Hardy, who. though nominally governor, surren- 
dered the duties of the office into the hands of De 
Lancey. Gov. Hardy resigned in 1757, and De 
Lancey became governor. He died in 1760, and 
Cadwallader Colden, president of the council, took 

charge of the government until October, 1761, 
when Gen. Robert Monckton assumed the guber- 
natorial functions ; but on the 13th of the follow- 
ing month he left the administration of affairs in the 
hands of Colden, and went on an expedition against 
Martinique. Colden's administration continued 
till 1765. 



AS early as 1722, a trading post was established at 
Oswego by Gov. Burnet, with the view of 
establishing others farther west on the lakes, and se- 
curing the trade of the western Indians. To inter- 
cept this, and secure this trade for themselves, the 
French established a post and erected a fort at Ni- 
agara, with the design of extending a chain of 
military posts to the Ohio River, and thus limiting 
the English trade. 

In March, 1744, war was declared between 
France and England, in which the colonies of New 
York and New England participated. During its 
continuance the country north from Albany was 
frequently ravaged by parties of French and In- 
dians. Saratoga was burned, and nearly all the in- 
habitants either killed or made prisoners, and the 
village of Hoosic taken. 

In 1746, an unsuccessful expedition against 
Canada was undertaken, for which the colony of 
New York furnished sixteen hundred men. Peace 
was concluded at Aix La Chapelle in 1748, and a 
period of nominal tranquillity followed, though the 
frontier was desolated by savage parties, encouraged 
by the French. 

In i755>with the view of checking their en- 
croachments, four expeditions were sent against 
them, two of which were in the colony of New 
York. One of them, that against Niagara, under 
Gov. William Shirley, was unsuccessful ; and the 
other, against Crown Point, under Sir Wm. John- 
son, achieved only a partial success. 

It was not till 1756 that the English ministry 
aroused from its imbecility and formally declared 
war. In the campaign of 1756, the English and 
colonial forces met with no success, but the two 
forts at Oswego were lost, with 1,600 prisoners and 
much war material. The campaign of 1757 was 
equally unsuccessful and disastrous. Fort William 
Henry, on Lake George, with 3,000 men, fell into 
the hands of the French under Montcalm. 

On the accession of William Pitt to the head of 


the British ministry, in 1758, new energy was in- 
fused into its measures, and a fresh impulse given 
to the colonies. Success soon turned in favor of 
the English, and, with few exceptions, continued 
till Canada was subdued. Louisburg surrendered 
in 1758; Ticonderoga, Crown Point, Niagara and 
Quebec fell in 1759 ; and Montreal, Detroit, Mich- 
ilimackinac and all other Canadian posts in 1 760. 
The French power in America was ended. A 
great obstacle to the prosperity of New York was 
removed by the conquest of Canada. There were 
no further hostile incursions of French and Indians 
into its territory. The treaty of peace was signed 
in 1763. 

During many years the government of Great 
Britain had attempted to make encroachments on 
what the colonists regarded as their rights, but 
without complete success. The taxation of the 
people without their consent was sought to be ac- 
complished in some insidious manner, and was 
steadfastly and watchfully guarded against by the 
colonists through their representatives in the 
colonial Assembly. In 1765, the notorious Stamp 
Act was passed, and its enforcement in the City of 
New York and elsewhere attempted. It was re- 
sisted by the populace ; the efiBgy of Gov. Colden, 
who was charged with its execution, was hanged 
and burned in the streets, and a quantity of the 
stamped paper was seized and consumed in a bon- 

Through the influence of London merchants, 
whose colonial trade suffered by reason of the act, 
the odious law was repealed in 1766 ; but its re- 
peal was followed by a declaration by Parliament 
of the right " to bind the colonies in all cases what- 
soever." Troops were quartered in New York 
City, for the purpose of enforcing the laws that 
Parliament might enact. Collisions occurred be- 
tween these troops and the people, and the As- 
sembly refused appropriations for their support. 
Parliament declared the legislative powers of the 
Assembly annulled until compliance with the de- 
mands of the government. In June, 1767, a bill 
was enacted by Parliament imposing duties on tea 
and certain other articles imported into the colonies. 
This was followed by a revival of the non-importa- 
tion agreement that had previously been entered 
into by the colonists, and again the interests of the 
English merchants procured the repeal of all these 
duties, except that on tea. 

Sir Henry Moore succeeded Gov. Colden in 
1765, and his administration continued till his 
death, in 1769, when the government again de- 
volved on Cadwallader Colden. Between the 

soldiers and the Sons of Liberty animosities con- 
tinued to exist. On the 1 8th of January, 1 770, a 
collision between patriot citizens and the soldiery 
occurred at Golden Hill, in New York City, in 
which several of the citizens were wounded. 

In October, 1770, Lord Dunmore superseded 
Colden. In 1771, he was transferred to Virginia, 
and succeeded in New York by William Tryon. 

The non-importation agreement was continued 
so far as related to tea, and the East India Com- 
pany suffered severely in consequence. Deter- 
mined to maintain the assumed right of taxation, 
the British government remitted to the company 
the export duty on tea shipped to the colonies, and 
demanded 3d. per pound to be paid in America. 
Regardless of this appeal to their cupidity, the 
people made such demonstrations of resistance that 
the consignees in New York resigned, and when 
an attempt was made to land a quantity of tea 
clandestinely, it was thrown overboard by the 
vigilance committee, April 22, 1774, as it had been 
done in Boston on the i6th of the previous De- 
cember. It is hardly necessary to say that the op- 
pressive acts of the King and Parliament met with 
as firm resistance in the other colonies as in New 
York. The battle of Lexington, April 19, 1775, 
was the signal for a general rush to arms through- 
out all the colonies. The first Continental Con- 
gress met September 5, 1774. 

In New York City the arms in the arsenals were 
seized and distributed among the people, and a 
provisional government for the city was organized. 
Ticonderoga was seized on the loth of May, 1775, 
by Vermont and Connecticut patriots under Col. 
Ethan Allen, and two days later. Crown Point was 
taken by Seth Warner. Thus the command of 
Lake Champlain was secured. 

The adjourned Continental Congress, with five 
members from New York, assembled in Phila- 
delphia on the loth of May. The Provincial Con- 
gress assembled in New York April 20th and May 


It authorized the raising of two regiments, en- 
couraged the making of powder and muskets, 
projected forts, and appointed a Committee of 

In the autumn an armament was collected by 
Gen. Philip Schuyler, at Ticonderoga, and an ex- 
pedition went against Canada, under Gen. Richard 
Montgomery, who fell at Quebec, December 31, 
1775. The forls at Chambly, St. Johns and 
Montreal were taken, and Quebec was assaulted ; 
but the colonial forc<5 was finally repulsed by over- 
whelming numbers, and driven out of Canada, 


after much brave fighting and heroic endurance, 
in the summer of 1776. 




WASHINGTON, by appointment of Congress, 
took command of the Continental army 
July 3, 1775, at Cambridge, Mass. Early in 1776, 
Gen. Charles Lee, vpith a force of twelve hundred 
men, occupied the City of New York against Sir 
Henry Clinton. On the 25th June, General Howe, 
who had previously evacuated Boston and sailed 
for Halifax, appeared off Sandy Hook with his 
army, where he was soon afterwards joined by his 
brother, Admiral Howe, with a force of British 
regulars and Hessians, and Clinton, on his return 
from an unsuccessful attack on Charleston, making 
an aggregate force of about 30,000 men. 

The Provincial Congress of New York adjourned 
to White Plains, where it convened on the 9th of 
July, and ratified the Declaration of Independence 
by the Continental Congress, made July 4, 1776. 

On the 2 2d of August, a British force landed on 
Long Island, and on the 27th a battle was fought, 
resulting in the defeat of the Americans, who, on 
the night of the 29th, favored by a thick fog, re- 
treated to New York. We have not space to tell 
the horrible story of the New York prisons and 
prison-ships, nor of the barbarian execution of 
Nathan Hale. The plan had been formed to cap- 
ture New York, ascend the Hudson, effect a junc- 
tion with a force from Canada under Gen. Carleton, 
and thus cut off communication between the pa- 
triots of New England and those of the middle and 
southern colonies ; but the precautions of Wash- 
ington and the failure of Carleton frustrated the 

On the 15 th of September, Gen. Howe took pos- 
session of New York, and the Americans retreated 
to Harlem Heights. Gen. Howe sought to gain 
their rear, but Washington's movements frustrated 
his designs. On the 28th of October, was fought 
the battle of White Plains. Fort Washington and 
Fort Lee were taken by the British in November. 

Opposed to Gen. Carleton at the north was Gen. 
Gates, who abandoned Crown Point and concen- 
trated his forces at Ticonderoga. A small squadron 
was formed and placed on Lake Champlain under 
command of Arnold in August An action took 
place in October between this squadron and the 

fleet which Carleton had prepared at St. Johns, in 
which the Americans were defeated and fell back 
on Ticonderoga. Not deeming it prudent to at- 
tack them there. Gen. Carleton withdrew to Canada. 
The whole affair reflected credit on American skill 
and bravery in naval contest. 

On the 2 1 St of April, 1777, the first State Con- 
stitution was adopted at Kingston, and under it 
George Clinton was elected governor. 

The principal object of the British in the cam- 
paign of 1777, was to carry out the cherished design 
of separating the eastern from the southern colonies 
by controlling the Hudson River and Lake Cham- 
plain. Gen. Burgoyne, who had superseded Gen. 
Carleton, was to force his way from Canada, and 
meet Sir Henry Clinton at Albany, while Col. St. 
Leger was to ascend the St. Lawrence, and, with a 
force of loyalists and Indians, sweep through the 
Mohawk valley from Oswego and Rome, and join 
them at the same city. 

In June, Burgoyne moved on Ticonderoga, 
which Gen. St. Clair evacuated on July 5th. The 
American army retreated to Fort Edward. At 
Bennington, the Americans, under Gen. John 
Stark, achieved a splendid victory over a detach- 
ment of the enemy under Col. Baum, on the 17th 
of August. 

Col. St. Leger invested Fort Schuyler, situated 
where now is the village of Rome. Gen. Gans- 
voort was in command of the fort, called later Fort 
Stanwix, to whose relief Gen. Herkimer was sent 
Under him was fought, August 5th, the fierce bat- 
tle of Oriskany against Tories and Indians from the 
forces of St Leger. The bravery of Marinus Wil- 
lett and Gen. Arnold saved the fort and led St 
Leger to withdraw on the 2 2d of August. 

Gen. Philip Schuyler," in command of the north- 
ern army, continued his retreat before Burgoyne, 
until he reached Van Schaick's Island, at the 
mouth of the Mohawk, where he threw up in- 
trenchments and awaited the approach of the 
enemy. Here he was superseded by Gen. Gates, 
who advanced his forces to Bemis Heights, in 
Stillwater, where were fought the desperate and de- 
cisive battles of the 19th of September and 7th of 
October, and Burgoyne was forced to surrender, on 
the 1 7th of October, his whole army and military 

While operations were in progress in the vicinity 
of Saratoga Sir Henry Clinton sought to make a 
diversion in favor of Burgoyne. He proceeded up 
the Hudson, captured Forts Montgomery and 
Clinton, devastated the settlements along the banks 
of the river, burnt Kingston, and, on learning of 


the surrender of Burgoyne, returned to New York. 

In the campaigns of 1778 and 1779, '^^ ^^O' ™" 
portant operations were carried on in New York. 
The Indians of the Six Nations (except some of the 
Oneidas and a few others) were induced by the 
Tories to carry on against the Americans their 
savage and cruel warfare, and devastation, slaughter 
and massacres were the result. To arrest these 
depredations Gen. John Sullivan, in the summer of 
1779, with an army of 3,000 men, ascended the 
Susquehanna to Tioga Point, where he was joined 
by Gen. James Clinton with a thousand men. 
With these forces they penetrated the country of 
the savages, destroyed their towns, and laid waste 
their cornfields and orchards, all through Western 
New York. Though not subdued by this punish- 
ment, they were so crippled that their inroads were 
less frequent and destructive. 

During the years 1780 and 1781, the Mohawk 
valley was the scene of devastation by the savages 
of the Six Nations, particularly the Mohawks, under 
their celebrated chief Brant. The oft-told tales of 
massacre at Wyoming, Cherry Valley, Minnisink, 
Cobleskill, and other peaceful homes along the 
Susquehanna, Mohawk, Schoharie and Delaware 
valle3's, require no repetition. Aside from these. 
New York was not the scene of important hostile 
operations. The year 1780 was made memorable 
by the treason of Arnold. This brave and daring 
officer had, for some irregularities in Philadelphia 
in 1778, been court-martialed and sentenced to be 
reprimanded by the commander-in-chief He ap- 
parently acquiesced in the sentence, but his pride 
was deeply wounded, and he thirsted for revenge. 
He solicited and obtained command of West Point, 
and entered into negotiations with Sir Henry Clin- 
ton for the delivery of that fortress into the hands 
of the British. In the course of these negotiations 
Major John Andre, of the British army, met Gen. 
Arnold on the banks of the Hudson. In attempt- 
ing to return he was captured, about thirty miles 
from New York, by three militiamen, named John 
Paulding, David Williams and Isaac Van Wart, 
who refused his offered bribes, and delivered him 
to their commander. He was tried, condemned, 
and executed as a spy, October 2, 1 780. 

The Revolutionary War virtually closed with the 
surrender of Cornwallis and his army at Yorktown 
on the 19th of October, 1781. A treaty of peace 
was entered into on the 3d of September, 1783, 
and on the 25th of November in the same year the 
British trojops evacuated New York. Washington 
laid down his command in December. 

After the United States had achieved their inde- 

pendence, it was early perceived that the confeder- 
ation, which had been established for a particular 
purpose, lacked that cohesive force which was re- 
quisite for an effectual national government. 
Measures were accordingly instituted, first for a re- 
vision of the Articles of Confederation, but, finally, 
the formation of a national Constitution was deter- 
mined on ; and such Constitution was formed by 
the Convention in Philadelphia, in 1787. Hamil- 
ton, Yates and Lansing were the delegates from 
New York. After its adoption by the requisite 
number of States, it was ratified in Convention by 
the State of New York, on the 26th of July, 1788, 
by a vote of 30 to 27, and seven not voting. 

The difficulties arising out of the conflicting 
claims of New York and New Hampshire to the 
territory now comprising Vermont, since 1763, 
which had been held in partial abeyance during 
the Revolutionary struggle, were finally settled by 
the admission of the disputed territory into the 
Union, in 1790, under the name of Vermont, as 
the fourteenth State. 

By reason of indefiniteness and confusion in the 
original grants, Massachusetts made valid claim 
upon a portion of the territory of New York. This 
claim was settled by the cession to Massachusetts- 
ofall rights, except that of political sovereignty, over 
about one-fourth of the State. The largest tract of 
these lands, embracing what has been known as 
the Genessee country, was sold by Massachusetts 
for the sum of one million dollars. 



EARLY in the present century difficulties arose 
between this country and Great Britain con- 
cerning the rights of neutrals on the seas, and the 
alleged aggressions of the British became a subject 
of bitter animosity. 

The English government claimed the right to 
search American vessels and impress into iis ser- 
vice such of their crews as it chose to regard as 
British subjects. Claiming that the vindication of 
the national honor demanded it, war Mas declared 
by the United States on the 19th of June, 181 2. 
To this measure there was a strong opposition, 
both in New England and New York. Party spirit 
ran very high. War crippled commerce and every 
industry, and cost money and men. To carry it 
on, an invasion of Canada was determined on. 


and forces were collected in the vicinity of Platts- 
burg, on Lake Champlain, under Gen. Henry 
Dearborn, and at Lewiston, on the Niagara River, 
under Gen. Stephen Van Rensselaer. A naval 
force was fitted up on the lakes, and Commodore 
Chauncey was placed in command of it. Unsuc- 
cessful attempts were made by the British fleet on 
Sackeit's Harbor and Ogdensburg. The British 
vessel Caledonia was captured at the foot of Lake 
Erie. An attack was made on the heights at 
Queenstown, on the Canadian side of the Niagara ; 
and though at first the Americans were successful, 
they were finally compelled to retreat. 

Early in the spring of 1813, a successful expe- 
dition to Canada was made from Ogdensburg. In 
retaliation, an attack was made on that place, some 
stores were taken, several vessels destroyed, and 
the property of citizens injured. In April, a suc- 
cessful expedition was sent by Gen. Dearborn 
against York, now Toronto. In May, the British 
were driven from Fort George, on the Niagara 
River, near Lake Ontario, and the enemy's post on 
that frontier was evacuated. Sackett's Harbor was 
attacked by the British, who were repulsed. An 
unsuccessful attack was also made by them on the 
village of Black Rock. 

The brilliant victory of Commodore Oliver H. 
Perry, on Lake Erie, was achieved on the loth of 
September, 18 13. The operations on Lake On- 
tario were less decisive. Late in the autumn, an 
unsuccessful attempt was made to invade Canada 
under Gen. Wilkinson. The American generals 
Izard and Hampton were repulsed near the border 
of Franklin Count). In December the British 
took Fort Niagara, and massacred a large part of 
the garrison, and even hospital patients. Lewis- 
ton was burned, and the villages of Youngstown, 
Manchester, Schlosser and the Indian village of 
Tuscarora were devastated by the enemy. The 
villages of Black Rock and Buffalo were also 
burned, and thus the desolation of the Niagara 
frontier was completed. 

Early in 1814, an attempt was made by the Brit- 
ish to capture some military stores at Oswego 
Falls, but without success. On the 3d of July, 
1814, Fort Erie was taken by the Americans, and 
on the 25th a battle was fought at Lundy's Lane. 
In August, Fort Erie was besieged by the British, 
who were compelled to retire. Scott, Wool, 
Brown, Miller and other American commanders 
showed remarkable skill and bravery in these bat- 
tles ; but many noble lives were lost and little 
gained in compensation. 

The plan of a dismemberment of the Union, by 

possessing Lake Champlain and the Hudson River 
and capturing New York, was again formed. It 
was hoped that discontent- and opposition to the 
war in New England, and possibly in New York, 
might lead to the conclusion of a separate peace 
with these States. The people, however, were fully 
aroused, and the defenses of New York were 
strengthened and strongly garrisoned. An invasion 
was undertaken from Canada, and a descent was 
made upon Plattsburg by an army of 11,000 men 
under Sir George Prevost. A severe engagement, 
on the nth of September compelled him to retire 
with great loss. The British fleet, under Commo- 
dore Downie, was on the same day captured on 
Lake Champlain by Commodore McDonough. No 
further invasion of the New York frontier took 
place. On the 24th of December, 1814, a treaty 
of peace was concluded at Ghent. The cruel war 
was ended, and the Union was made stronger. 
Daniel D. Tompkins was the great war governor, 
and was left almost single-handed to protect our 
northern frontier. New England, excepting Ver- 
mont, being filled with discontents. No State 
suffered more than New York, or gained more b_v 
the return of peace. 

No other serious interruption of the peaceful 
relations between this countrj' and England has 
occurred. Some infractions of the neutrality laws 
have been attempted on the Canadian frontier, the 
chief of which took place during the Canadian re- 
bellion, commonly known as the "Patriot war," 
in 1837-38. 

What were known as the ' ' anti-rent disturb- 
ances," growing out of the manorial claims, com- 
menced as early as 1839, and were not terminated 
till 1846. Laws were enacted to modify the pro- 
cess of collecting rents and to extend the time for 
"re-entry" on lands where rents were in arrears, 
and quiet was finally restored. 

The annexation of Texas to the United States 
led to hostilities between Mexico and this nation, 
and on the nth of May, 1846, Congress declared 
that, by the acts of the Mexicans, war existed be- 
tween the two nations. The Americans were vic- 
torious in all important engagements with the 
Mexican army, and the part taken by the troops 
from the State of New York, under Generals Worth 
and \^'ool, was conspicuous and highly creditable 
to their valor. 

From time to time, the Legislature enacted laws 
concerning slavery, down to the jear 18 19. A law 
passed in 1799 provided for the gradual extinction 
of slavery in the State. In 1817 a further act 
was passed decreeing that there should be no slav- 



ery in the State after the 4th of July, 1827. Ten 
thousand slaves were set free by this act, and the 
dark stain was wiped out. 

The recognition of slavery in the Territories of 
the United States was earnestly resisted during 
many years, and the controversy finally resulted in 
a gigantic civil war. On the election of Abraham 
Lincoln to the Presidenc)', in i860, on the platform 
of avowed hostility to the extension of slavery, 
and the failure to effect a compromise by which the 
institution should be recognized or tolerated in 
any of the Territories, the Southern States deter- 
mined to secede from the Union and establish a 
separate government. The attack by the Confede- 
rates, as these States styled themselves, on Fort 
Sumter, was the first overt act of the Rebellion, 
and its occurrence, in April, 1861, was the com- 
mencement of active hostilities. Before the dose 
of that year the State of New York had placed in 
the field one hundred and fifteen regiments. 

In July, 1863, during the execution of a draft 
ordered by Congress, an alarming riot occurred in 
the City of New York. The police were unable to 
check its progress, and during several days the city 
was convulsed with lawlessness, rapine and murder. 
The outbreak was finally quelled by military force, 
but not until a large amount of property had been 
destroyed and many lives sacrificed. The war 
was prolonged till April, 1865, when it terminated 
with the complete success of the Union arms and 
dispersion of the rebel army. This State had done 
its part in this great struggle. 



IN 1791, the Legislature ordered an exploration 
and survey to ascertain the most eligible meth- 
od of removing obstructions from the Mohawk and 
Hudson Rivers, with a view to improve their navi- 
gation by the construction of canals. In 1792, 
two companies were incorporated, styled the North- 
ern and Western Inland Lock Navigation Com- 
panies, for the purpose of facilitating navigation by 
connecting Lake Ontario with the Mohawk and 
Lake Champlain with the Hudson by canals. 
Among the prime movers were Gen. Schuyler and 
Elkanah Watson. 

In 1 8 ID, a provision was made by the Legislature 
" for exploring the route of an inland navigation 
from Hudson's River to Lake Ontario and Lake 

Erie. " It was at first proposed to solicit aid from 
the general government to carry out this work; but 
in 181 2, a commission reported to the Legislature 
that sound policy demanded that this should be 
done by the State. War with Great Britain inter- 
rupted the project. 

On the termination of the war the project was 
revived; and notwithstanding the formidable char- 
acter of the undertaking, and the difficulties in its 
way, through the untiring energy and perseverance 
of De Witt Clinton, an act prepared by him was 
passed in April, 18 17, authorizing the construction 
of the work. This — the Erie Canal — was com- 
menced on the 4th of July in that year, and on the 
26th of October, 1825, the first flotilla of boats left 
Buffalo for New York. Its departure was commu- 
nicated to New York in one hour and twenty min- 
utes by the discharge of cannon stationed within 
■ hearing of each other. This was then regarded as 
a rapid transmission of intelligence. 

The first railroad in the State, between Albany 
and Schenectady, was chartered in 1826, and 
completed in 1831. Other roads through the cen- 
tral portion of the State were soon constructed, 
and railroad connection between the great lakes 
and Hudson River established. In 1851, these 
different roads were consolidated into the present 
immense New York Central Railroad; and, subse- 
quently, connection was made by the Hudson 
River Railroad, with the City of New York. In 
1833, the New York and Erie Railway was com- 
menced, and completed in 1852. The enlarge- 
ment of the Erie Canal to its present capacity was 
commenced in 1835 and completed in 1862. 
These constitute the main avenues of travel and 
transportation through the State, between its eastern 
and western extremities. Connecting routes in 
every direction have come into existence, and the 
facilities for transportation and travel in this State 
are not excelled by those of any other. It is hardly 
necessary to call attention to the telegraph lines 
that ramify through all parts of the State. 

It has already been stated that a State Constitu- 
tion was adopted in 1777. Several amendments 
to this Constitution were adopted in the Convention 
of 1 82 1, and the new Constitution was adopted in 
1822, at a popular election held for that purpose, 
by a large majority in a vote of 116,919. 

On the I St of June, 1846, another constitutional 
convention met at Albany, which continued in 
session more .than four months. The amendments 
adopted by that body were ratified by the people 
in the following November, by a majority of more 
than 20,000 votes. 



In June, 1867, another constitutional conven- 
tion assembled. The amended Constitution framed 
by this convention, submitted to the people in No- 
vember, 1869, resulted in its rejection, except the 
article making changes in the judiciary, by a ma- 
jority of more than 66,000. The judiciary article 
was accepted by a small majority. 

In 1872, a commission of thirty-two persons was 
appointed to propose to the Legislature amend- 
ments to the Constitution. In 1873 several im- 
portant amendments were recommended, and rati- 
fied at the election in 1874. It is a notable fact 
that, as changes have been made in the Constitu- 
tion of the State, the elective franchise has been 

In 1784, a law was enacted incorporating the 
Regents of the University of New York. They 
were entrusted with the higher education of the 
State, as imparted or to be imparted in colleges 
and academies. The first academies incorporated 
by them were Erasmus Hall of Flatbush, and 
Clinton Hall of Easthampton, both on Long 
Island, and both incorporated November 20, 1787. 
In their report for 1793, they called attention to the 
importance of instituting a Common School System. 
At different times, from 1787 to 1795, Gov. Clin- 
ton called the attention of the Legislature to the 
same subject. In the latter year, an act was passed 
appropriating $50,000 annually, for five years, for 
the encouragement of schools. In 1805, after 
attention had repeatedly been called to the subject 
by the different governors, the Legislature passed 
an act laying the foundation of the present com- 
mon school fund. In 181 2, the common school 
system was adopted, comprising substantially the 
features of the system as it existed up to 1840. In 
1854, a Department of Public Instruction was 
established, and Victor M. Rice made the first 
Superintendent. Under his administration of nine 
years. Normal Schools were established, County 
Supervision and Teachers' Institutes made more 
efficient, the odious rate bill was abolished, and 
other improvements inaugurated, which lay at the 
foundation of all that has since been done under 
our grand school system. 

The State Agricultural Society, which has been 
productive of such great benefit, was organized 
at a convention in Albany in 1832. It was reor- 
ganized in 1 84 1, and measures were adopted for 
raising funds and holding annual fairs. 

In 1836, the Legislature ordered a scientific 
survey of the State for the purpose of developing 
a knowledge of its geology, mineralogy and nat- 
ural history. The published reports of this survey 

are of very great value. To Prof James Hall is 
chiefly due this great work. 

The following list of the Governors, Lieutenant 
Governors and Presidents of the Council who have 
administered the Government of the Colony and 
of the State of New York from 1629 to the present 
time, will be found convenient for reference : 

Under THE Dutch. — Directors General — Adriaen 
Joris, 1623 ; Cornells Jacobsen May, 1624 ; Willem 
Verhulst, 1625; Peter Minuit, 1626; The Coun- 
cil, 1632; Wouter Van Twiller, 1633; William 
Kieft, 1638 ; Peter Stuyvesant, 1647. 

Under the English. — Colonial Governors, etc., 
1664-73 — Richard Nicolls, 1664; Col. Francis 
Lovelace, 1667. 

Under the Dutch again, 1673. — Cornells Ev- 
ertse, Jr., Jacob Benckes, and Council of War, 
August 19; Anthony Colve, September 19, 1673. 

Under THE English. — Colonial Governors, etc — 
Major Edmund Andros, 1674; Anthony Brock- 
holies (Commander-in-Chief), 1677; Sir Edmund 
Andros, 1678; Anthony Brockholles, 1681 ; Col. 
Thomas Dongan, 1682; Sir Edmund Andros, 
August II, 1685; Francis Nicholson (Lieutenant 
Governor), October 9, 1688; Jacob Leisler, 
1689; Col. Henry Sloughter, March 19, 1691 ; 
Major Richard Ingoldsby, July 26, 1691 ; Col. 
Benj. Fletcher (Commander-in-Chiei), 1692 ; 
Richard, Earl of Bellomont, 1688 ; John Nanfan 
(Lieutenant Governor), 1699; Earl of Bellomont, 
1700; William Smith (eldest Councillor), 1701 ; 
John Nanfan (Lieutenant Governor), 1701 ; Lord 
Cornbur}-, 1702; John, Lord Lovelace, 1708; 
Peter Schujder (President), May 6, Richard In- 
goldsby (Lieutenant Governor), May 9, and Peter 
Schuvler, May 25, and Richard Ingoldsby (Lieu- 
tenant Governor), June I, 1709; Gerardus Beeck- 
man, April 10; Brigadier Robert Hunter, June 
14, 1710; Peter Schuyler (President), 1719; 
William Burnet, 1720; John Montgomerie, 1728 ; 
Rip Van Dam (President), 1 73 1 ; Col. Wm. Cosb)-, 
1732; Geo. Clarke (President), 1736; Admiral 
Geo. Clinton, 1743 ; Sir Danvers Osborne, Octo- 
ber 10, and James De Lancey (Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor), October 12, 1753; Sir Charles Hardy, 
1755; James De Lancey (Lieutenant Governor), 
1757; Cadwallader Colden (President), 1760; 
Major-General Robert Monckton, October 26, and 
Cadwallader Colden (Lieutenant Governor), No- 
vember 18, 176 1 ; Major General Robert Monck- 
ton, 1762; Cadwallader Colden, 1763; Sir Henry 
Moore, 1765; Cadwallader Colden, 1769; John, 
Earl of Dunmore, 1770; WiUiam Tryon, 1771 ; 
Cadwallader Colden (Lieutenant Governor), 1774 ; 



William Tryon, 1775; James Robertson, 1780; 
Andrew Elliot (Lieutenant Governor), 1783. 

Governors of the State: George Clinton, 1777; 
John Ja}', 1795 ; George Clinton, iSoi ; Morgan 
Lewis, 1804 ; Daniel D. Tompkins, 1807; D^ 
Witt Clinton, 1817; Joseph C.Yates, 1822; De 
Witt Clinton, 1824; Martin Van Buren, 1828 
Enos T. Throop, 1830; William L. Marcy, 1832 
William H. Seward, 1838; William C. Bouck 
1842; Silas Wright, 1844; John Young, 1846 
Hamilton Fish, 1848; Washington Hunt, 1850 
Horatio Seymour, 1852 ; Myron H. Clark, 1854 
John A. King, 1856; Edwin D.Morgan, 1858 
Horatio Seymour, 1862; Reuben E. Fenton 
1864; John T. Hoffman, 1868; John A. Dix^ 

1872 ; Samuel J. Tilden, 1874 ; Lucius Robinson, 
1876; Alonzo B. Cornell, 1880; Grover Cleve- 
land, 1883; David B. Hill, 1885. 

The population of the colony and State of New 
York was, in 1698, 18,067; 1703. 20,665; 1723, 
40,564; i73i> 50,824; 1737, 60,437; 1746, 
61,589; 1749, 73.348; 1756, 96,790; 1771, 
163,337; 1790,340,120; iSoo, 586,756; 1810, 
959,049; 1820, 1,372,812; 1830, 1,918,608; 
1840, 2,428,921; 1850,3,097,394; i860, 3,880,- 
735; 1870,4,382,759; 1880, 5,084,173- 

Of the total population there were in 1790, 
21,324 slaves; in 1800, 33,343; 1810, 15,017; 
1820, 10,088; 1830, 75; 1840, 4. 

»-«<5«2^ — ■ 







THE County of Albany, one of the original ten 
counties of the present State of New York, 
bears the name of the Scotch title of the Duke of 
York and Albany, afterwards King James II. of 
England. It was incorporated under Gov. Thomas 
Dongan, November i, 1683, and confirmed 
October i, 1691. It is situated on the west bank 
of the Hudson River, about 165 miles from its 
sources in the Adirondacks, and 168 miles from 
its mouth at the Atiantic Ocean, reckoning from the 
Mohawk. It lies at the head of tide w-ater, and 
of sloop and steamboat navigation. Its latitude is 
between 42" 23' and 42° 49'N. Its longitude is 
between 2" 40' and 3" 15' E. from Washington, and 
1 5' and 20' W. from New York Cit)'. Its extent, 
east and west, is about 25 miles ; north and south, 
22 miles. It has an area of about 544 square miles, 
or 348,160 acres. Its northern and southern 
boundaries are nearly parallel, and its western 
boundary, throughout its whole extent, is under- 
stood to run equidistant from the course of the 
Hudson River in all its windings. 

The land surface of the county is strikingly diver- 
sified. Alluvial flats, varying from about a quarter 
of a mile to one mile in breadth, lie along the Hud- 
son, from which hills arise, by slopes now gentle, 
now abrupt, to an elevation of from 100 to 200 feet. 
From these extend undulating plains, varied by 
fields of sand and cla}', small marshes and ravines 
made by the waterwa3'S, until the foot of the 
Helderbergs is reached on the west, making a total 
rise of from 400 to 800 feet above the tides. Then 
come these Helderberg hills, rising from 300 to 
1,000 feet higher, and often forming a precipitous 
wall of 100 feet or more. There are no isolated 
peaks to these hills. Beyond, sloping gradually 
toward the west and south, are irregular and rocky 
plateaus in the towns of Berne and Rensselaerville. 

Along the Mohawk the land istroken and rugged. 
Rocky ridges, deep gullies and hills and plains of 
clay and sand, are abundant throughout the county. 
The highest elevation in the county is at the 
place called the "Helderberg Station ' of the 
United States Coast Survey, a location which 
ought to have a more distinctive name. Its sum- 
mit is 1,823 feet above sea level. It lies in- the 
town of New Scotland. The Helderberg Hills 
are a leading feature of the count}-, whether we 
consider their prominence, their geological struc- 
ture, or their relation to soil and climate. Their 
' ' romantic wooded rock scenery, dark caverns, 
sprayey waterfalls, varied landscape and accessible 
mountain grandeur render them of interest to the 
artist, author, student, poet, tourist and rusiicator," 
says Colvin. 


Hills. — The name Helderberg signifies Clear 
Mountain. Its hills and ranges connect with 
the Catskills, of which they are outlying spurs. 
They are a continuation of the Allegany Moun- 
tains, running northerly across our county, 
and a part of the great Appalachian system to 
which belong the Adirondacks, the Green Moun- 
tains and the White Hills. No description of 
these hills so graphic as that written by Verplanck 
Colvin, of Albany, and published in Harper's 
"Monthly Magazine," for October, 1869, has yet 
been seen or read. He tells you of their dark, gra)- 
cliffs, their fearful overhanging precipices, their 
rock -filled gorges, their gloomy recesses untrodden 
by man, their dripping rocks, their domes and 
dark intricate caverns, their waterfalls that drop 
into caves, and, after subterranean flow, appear 
again as tributaries to larger streams ; of their 
sequestered dens, once the resort of 'savage beasts 
and more savage Indians and Tories ; of the Indian 
trail and Indian ladder; of shell-covered cHffs and 
limestone rocks charged with fossils that tell us 



that once they formed beds of the old ocean. As- 
cending the summits, he shows you the sutured 
plateaus and the splendid scene in the widespread 
panorama of field and forest and distant hills 
around you. 

The learned Sir Charles Lyell, of England, visited 
this region and viewed its varied wonders with 
amazement, and spoke of them as a new world, 
forgotten by men of science, abounding in 
striking peculiarities worthy of close stud}-. 
Dr. Markle remembers his remark that the 
"Helderbergs are a key to the geology of North 
America. " 

Recently they are much visited, and are becoming 
a favorite summer resort to the weary student and 
the tired and stifled denizens of the city, as well as 
to the appreciative lover of nature. Better facilities 
for access to them, and pleasant homes upon their 
slopes and summits, are now provided. 

There are other hills in the county that ' ' have 
a local habitation and a name," as Cedar Hill, in 
Bethlehem; Mossy and Gedney Hills, in Coeymans ; 
Grippy and Irish Hills, in Berne ; Sittles Hill, in 
Knox ; Bennett's, Mount Pleasant and Copeland's 
Hills, in New Scotland — all spurs or elevations of 
the Helderbergs. 

Islands. — In the acts establishing the river 
boundary of Albany County all islands in the Hud- 
son that are nearest the western shore are included 
in our county of Albany. There are several of 
these, some of which are of considerable importance. 
Of these Van Rensselaer's or Westerlo Island is the 
largest, containing about 1 60 acres of fertile land, 
adapted to garden culture, producing fine crops in 
favorable seasons. The northern part is occupied 
by extensive iron works. Its lower grounds are 
subject to the heavy floods. In May, 1833, it was 
occupied by eleven farms, which were overflowed, 
causing a damage of $6,000 to the crops. It is 
recorded, in October, 1850, that it had been 
flooded eight times that year. Historicall)', this is 
our oldest island. To say nothing of the tra- 
ditionary occupation by Spanish or French adven- 
turers, at an earher date, which, if true, is of little 
importance, as they left no name and no trace in 
our history, we are certain that Hendrick Corstiaen- 
sen, in 16 14, with his companions, occupied the 
island, under the patronage of the United New 
Netherlands Company, for the purpose of trading 
in furs, and remained until the spring floods 
destroyed their works. Then they removed further 
down on elevated grounds, near the mouth of the 
Normanskill. It is said that they erected a stockade 
as a defense against the Indians, with whom they 

carried on a profitable trade. This fortification was 
about 50 feet square, surrounded by a moat 18 
feet wide, defended by 1 1 stone guns and 2 can- 
non, and garrisoned by 1 2 men under Jacob 
Jacobsen Elkins, who succeeded Corstiaen.ssen. 
The name of Kasteel or Castle Island was taken. 
It is called by this name by many early writers, and 
in the later reports and papers of Gov. Stuyvesant. 
In 1639, it was visited by De Vries, who found it 
occupied by Brandt Pylen, or Peelan, under lease 
from the patroon and his co-partners, Godyn, 
Bloemart, and De Laet. It was well stocked and 
successfully farmed. Indians were fishing around 
its shores. The island has been spoken of at 
various times as Welysburg, Van Der Donk's, Mar- 
tin Gerritsen's, Sweaton's and Boyd's Island, prob- 
ably from its leading occupants. It belongs to the 
town of Bethlehem. On the Coast Survey maps it 
is written as Westerlo Island — a preferable name, as 
the name of Van Rensselaer was, long ago, given 
to the island opposite Albany and belonging to Rens- 
selaer Count)-, upon which are situated the Boston 
and Albany Railroad shops. 

Near the junction of the Mohawk and Hudson 
are Haver Island, on which, as tradition tells us, 
was Moenemines Castle, once an important Mo- 
hawk village ; Van Schaick's Island, on which 
Gen. Schuyler, in 1777, retreating from Burgoyne's 
advancing march, stationed his army behind in- 
trenchments, hoping to stay the progress of the 
British army towards Albany at that point ; and 
Whale Island, now covered with sand and water, 
and interesting only as the stranding place of that 
" monster of the deep, " which wandered up the 
river in 1646, hoping, no doubt, to find a passage 
to Greenland this way, but instead meeting his 
death, losing his blubber, greasing the river, and 
creating a great stench for miles around, by his 
atmospheric cremation. 

Green Island, directly opposite Troy, is a village, 
incorporated October 14, 1853, and May 12, 1869. 
It is the seat of extensive manufactures, producing 
railroad cars, stoves, sash and blinds, etc. It also 
has the repair shops of the Rens. and Sar. Railroad, 
foundry and machine shops, malleable iron works 
and many mechanic shops. It is connected with 
Troy by a bridge 1680 feet long, and by street cars 
with Cohoes, Troy, W. Troy and Albany. It has 
five or six churches, railroad stations of the New 
York Central and Rens. and Sar. Railroads, 
and village schools. It was once called Tibbett's 

Pleasure Island, a short distance above Albany, 
is a summer resort, having a race-ground and 



other attractions for sporting men and pleasure- 

Beeren Island (Beeren Eylandt), or Bear's 
Island, in the Hudson, about 1 1 miles below 
Albany, belongs to the town of Coeymans, and lies 
near the shore, a little southeast of the village. Its 
area is about two acres,its northern aspect being an 
abrupt rocky promontory, from which it gradually 
slopes to its southern terminus. Its soil was 
never adapted to agriculture ; trees and a thin 
growth of grass cover it in patches ; it has been 
a good place for fishing. Claimed by the patroon, 
it was chosen early as a fine place for fortifications 
to keep off intruders upon his lands, his timber, 
his trade and his home. Accordingly, in 1643, 3. 
fort, named Rensselaer Stein, was erected, defended 
by mounted cannon and a garrison, and placed in 
charge of Nicholas Coorn as wachtmeister. Each 
skipper, on passing the island, was to lower his 
flag in acknowledgment of the rights of the patroon 
and pay a tribute of five stivers. This caused bit- 
ter but bloodless contention for a time between the 
officers of the patroon and of the West India Com- 
pany. This company denied the exclusive claim to 
the navigation of the river made by Van Rensselaer. 
The fort and the controversy ceased when the Eng- 
hsh came in possession in 1664. Dim histor3' tells 
us of its occupancy, at one time, by a few Indian 
hunters ; at another, b}' the Coeymans family as a 
defense against the Indians ; at another, as a 
quarantine station for vessels coming up from New 
York City ; at another, by hunters digging for the 
hidden treasure of Capt. Kidd. For a generation 
past it has been a favorite resort for Sabbath-school 
and other picnic excursions. For this purpose it 
is well adapted by location, neatness and fine 

Other islands in the Hudson, belonging to 
Albany Count}-, that have a name, beginning 
southerly and coming up the river, are Shad and 
and Schermerhorn — the latter called sometimes 
Neifer — Wooden and Poplar, opposite Coeymans ; 
Sill's or Van ^^'oert, Bear, Beacon or Bisby, Cab- 
bage or Jolly, Marsh and Bogart's, opposite Beih- 
lehem ; Lower Patroon, Patroon, Cuyler, Hill- 
house or Glen, and Breaker, opposite Watervliet. 
On the Mohawk, above the Cohoes F'alls, are 
Fonda and Cobble islands. 

Ponds. — The ponds or lakes of the county are 
few and small. In Rensselaerville are two small 
ponds, dignified by the name of Big and Little 
Lake ; Werner's Lake in Berne ; Thompson's in 
Berne and Knox ; Lawson's in New Scotland, and 
Coeymans. Tivoli Lake is one of the sources of 

the water supply of Albany, lying in what is now 
Watervliet, at the north of the city. Deer Pond 
also is in Watervliet. 

The lakes Werner and Thompson, on the hills, 
are becoming places of delightful resort in summer, 
for which ample accommodations are made. 

Rivers. — The notable rivers that water the county 
are the Hudson, the Mohawk, the Catskill, the 
Schoharie and the Normanskill. To these all other 
streams are tributary. Indeed, all the others and 
their supplies find their way to the Atlantic through 
the Hudson. 

1 he streams in the county take the arbitrary 
designation of river, creek, kill or brook. The 
direct tributaries of the Hudson are Catskill, 
Coeymans, Haana-Krois, Vlamans, Normans, 
Beaver, Rutten, Foxen, Patroon, Ralger, Ceme- 
tery, Dry and Mohawk. Those of the Mohawk 
are the Schoharie, Lisha's, Town and Donkers. 
Of the Catskill, Eight-Mile, Ten-Mile, Scrub, 
Fox and Wilbur. Of the Schoharie, Beaver 
Dam, Foxen and Switz. Of Normanskill, Vly 
or Fly, Bozen or Boza, Honger, Wildhause and 
Krum. Other sub-tributaries are the Swart or 
Black, Oneskethau, Basic, Hockatock, Mill, El- 
der, Spruyts, Provost, Steinhook, Pitchtaway, 
Wolf, Fl}', Bethlehem or Mud, and several smaller 
brooks. The Beaver or Buttermilk, Rutten and 
Foxen Kills, in Albany, are used now mostly for 
sewer drainage. 

Most of the streams which run into the Hudson 
have worn deep gullies in the sand and clay. Some 
of these are a hundred feet in depth and extend 
nearly to the river flats. In the western part of 
the county the streams generally flow through 
narrow ravines bordered by steep banks. Most of 
the streams are very rapid and subject to extremes, 
rising rapidly during a powerful rain and as rapidly 
falling. The spring melting of the winter snows 
fills the charinels; the summer drought reduces 
them to very low water. There are a few natural 
falls upon several of these kills or creeks, and 
facilities for increasing greatly their hydraulic 
power. Vly Kill has a remarkable cascade of 60 
feet, and another of 40 feet is in the Oneskethau. 
But, except at the mouth of the Normanskill 
and at Cohoes, on the Mohawk, little is done 
with the water power, except the erection of a 
few grain and saw mills for local accommoda- 
tion. With enterprise and money they might be- 
come agents in adding \'astly to the productive in- 
dustry of the county. As contributing to an abun- 
dant water supply for man and beast, irrigation to 



the lands and diversity to our scenery, they can- 
not be too highly valued. 

Hudson River. — In many respects the Hudson 
is one of the most important and interesting rivers 
in the world. It was first made known to the 
civilized world by Henry Hudson, in 1609, he hav- 
ing entered it and proceeded by ship and boat, 
probably nearly to the mouth of the Mohawk, and 
spent most of the month of September, in that year, 
upon its waters. From its sources in Essex and 
Hamilton counties, among our northern moun- 
tains, to its mouth at Sandy Hook, its length is 
about 325 miles. Its head branches are the small 
streams of Adirondack, Boreas, Indian, Schroon, 
and the larger Sacandaga. Its eastern tributaries, 
besides many smaller streams, are the Battenkill, 
Hoosac, Kinderhook, Claverack, Roeliff Jansen, 
Wappinger, Fishkill and Croton ; its western, the 
Mohawk, Normanskill, Catskill, Esopus, Rondout 
and Murderer's, and numerous other little creeks 
and brooks. While these streams increase the vol- 
ume of the majestic river, the allu\'ion which they 
carry down form obstructions to navigation in the 
shape of bars and flats of sand and deposits of mud, 
especially for some thirty miles below the sprouts 
of the Mohawk. The most remarkable of these 
are the Overslaugh and Winne's bar, in this county, 
opposite Bethlehem. Many devices, much labor, 
and heavy expense have been emplo}-ed for their 
removal, with only temporary success. As long as 
water runs the difficulty will remain, although 
money and toil lessen it. The destruction of the 
northern forests, unless speedily arrested, must 
sensibly lessen the water supply of this noble 
stream, impairing its navigation and damaging 
every interest in every city and town upon its 

Among the names known to ha^^e been given 
this river are Cohatatea, by the Iroquois ; Maha- 
ganeghtuc and Shatemuc, by the Mohegans ; Great 
River, by Hudson and his crew ; River of the 
Mountain; North River, to distinguish it from 
the Delaware, called South River by the early 
Dutch ; also, Mauritius or Maurice, in honor of 
Prince Maurice of Netherlands ; Manhattes ; and 
Hudson, given ver}' appropriately by the early 
English, and readily adopted by all people. 

Baker's and Glen's Falls, in the upper part, are 
the only rapids of note. The course of the stream 
is southerly, with only slight curves, and its surface 
is generally smooth. The elevation above the sea 
at Albany is only i']\ feet.* The tidal influence is 

* The fall of the river from Albanv to New York is a little over 
three ieet. G. R. H. 

noticed at Albany, although the tide proper can 
hardly be said to flow so far. The mean tide here 
is 2.46 above that at Governor's Island. The river, 
in fact, is an estuary or long arm of the sea, as far 
up as the Mohawk. The narrows at the High- 
lands, 53 miles from New York City, making a 
pass of about 16 miles, present scenery picturesque, 
grand and exciting. A steamboat ride the whole 
length of its navigable channel presents a continu- 
ous scene of surpassing beauty and sublimit)'. It 
is the classic river of our young country, conse- 
crated by the fascinating pages of Irving, Paulding, 
Cooper, and Lossing, the fine touches of the 
Harts, Cole and other artists, and the verse of 
many a local poet. Its waters and its banks are 
associated with some of the most interesting events 
of our history, connected with our early discoveries 
and settlements, the arts of peace and the arts of 
war. Eminent scholars, writers, philanthropists 
and patriots have dwelt near its shores, now conse- 
crated by their monuments and the memories of 
their deeds. 

Chancellor Robert R. Livingston, in 1797, assisted 
by Nisbet, an Englishman, experimented in build- 
ing a steamboat to navigate the Hudson. He was 
ridiculed as a visionary humbug when he applied, 
in 1798, for Legislative aid, but failed in his object 
when he could not navigate his boat of 30 tons, four 
miles per hour. It was upon the Hudson that 
Robert Fulton, encouraged by Livingston, though 
ridiculed by many, first placed his steamer, the 
Clermont. September 4, 1807, at 7 a. m., he left 
New York for Albany, which he reached the next 
day at about 1 1 p. m. This was the beginning of 
steamboat navigation on the Hudson. 

On the banks of the Hudson dwelt Henry and 
Morse, inventors of the telegraph. Here is New- 
burgh, once the headquarters of 'Washington ; and 
here West Point, pregnant with thrilling historic 
events, where repose the dust of Kosciusko, Win- 
field Scott, and many others of our nation's patriots. 
Here is the school-house of our army officers. At 
every step along its shores, the traveler— be he 
scholar, student of history, artist, poet, lover of 
his country, lover of arts, or lover of nature — finds 
something to instruct, delight and inspire. 

Pleasant villages and flourishing cities charm the 
traveler sailing down the stream to New York, 
which owes much of its marvelous commercial 
prosperity to the river which, for many years, was 
almost its only channel for bringing into its marts 
the rich products of the North and the West 
through the Champjain and Erie Canals. And it 
may as truly be said of Albany and Troy, that the)' 



are the gift of the Hudson, as it was said by them 
of old, that Egypt was the gift of the Nile. Of the 
commercial and economical relations of Albany 
county to this river the reader will see in other 
parts of this history. 

Maude, traveling here in 1800, writes : "The 
Hudson is one of the finest rivers in America, and 
superior to them all in romantic and sublime scen- 

Says Charles Mackay, in 1858 : " I found abun- 
dant reason to agree with the most enthusiastic ot 
Americans that no river in Europe, unless it be 
the Clyde, surpasses the Hudson in natural beauty, 
and that the Rhine itself, deprived of its ruined 
castles, could not stand a comparison with this 
splendid stream." 

The opening and closing of the navigation of the 
Hudson River at Albany each year, so far as the 
dates can be found, is here tabulated from the best 


1645 . . 

1793 •■ 


1795 ■• 









Nov. 24. 

.Mar. 23. 


. Nov . 


3, Dec. 8 Mar. 27. 

8 Mar. 17. 

12 Mar. 6. 

26 Mar. 17. 






3 Feb. 28. 

3, Dec. 16 

.Jan. 12, Dec. 13 Apr. 6. 

• Jan. 

9 Feb. 20. 

II Apr. 8. 

4 Mar. 10. 


19, Dec. 14 



22 Mar. 12. 




7 Apr. 3. 

14 Mar. 25. 

13 Apr. 3. 

• 13 Mar. 25. 

13 Mar. 15. 

24 Mar. 15. 


1823 Dec. 16,. 

1824 Jan. s... 

1825 Dec. 13.. 

1826 Dec. 13.. 

1827 Nov. 25 , 

1828 Dec. 23., 

1829 Jan. 14. . 

1830 Dec. 25. . 

1831 Dec. 6... 

1832 Dec. 21. . 

1833 Dec. 13.. 

1834 Dec. 15.. 

1835 Nov. 30., 

1836 Dec. 7... 

1837 Dec. 14.. 

1838 Nov. 25., 

1839 Nov. 18. . 

1840 Nov. 5... 

1841 Nov. 19. 

1842 Nov. 28., 

1843 Dec. 10. . 

1844 Dec. 17. . 

1845 Dec. 3... 

1846 Dec. 14. . 

1847 Dec. 25.. 

1848 Dec. 27. , 

1849 Dec. 26. . 

1850 Dec. 17. 

1851 Dec. 14.. 

1852 Dec. 23.. 

1853 Dec. 2t. . 

1854 Dec. 8... 

185s Dec. 20. . 

1856 Dec. 14. . 

1857 Dec. 27.. 

1858 Dec. 17.. 

1859 Dec. 10. . 

i860 Dec. 14.. 

l86i Dec. 23. 

1862 Dec. 19. 

1863 Dec. II. 

1864 Dec. 12. 

1865 Dec. 16. 

1866 Dec. 15. 

1867 Dec. 8.. 

1868 Dec. 5.. 

I869 Dec. 9... 

1870 Dec. 17. 

1871 Nov. 29. 

1872 Dec. g. . 

1873 Nov. 22. , 

1874 Dec. 12. 

1875 Nov. 29. 

1876 Dec. 2. . 

1877 Dec. 31. 

1878 Dec. 20. 

1879 Dec. 20. 

1880 Nov. 25. 

1881 Jan. 2.. 

1882 Dec. 4.. 

1883 Dec. 15. 

1884 . 


.Mar. 24. 
..Mar. 3. 
. .Mar. 6. 

..Feb. 25. 
, .Mar. 20. 

.Feb. 8. 

.Apr. I. 
, .Mar. 15. 
..Mar. 15. 
..Mar. 25. 
..Mar. 21. 
..Feb. 25. 

.Mar. 25. 

.Apr. 4. 
. . Mar. 27. 

.Mar. 19. 
..Mar. 25. 

..Feb. 25. 
. . Mar. 24. 

..Feb. 4. 

..Apr. 13. 
..Mar. 18. 

.Feb. 24. 
..Mar. 18. 
..Apr. 7. 

. Mar. 22. 

.Mar. 19. 
. . Mar. 10. 

.Feb. 25. 
..Mar. 28. 
. .Mar. 23. 

.Mar. 17. 
, .Mar. 27. 
..Apr. II. 
..Feb. 27. 
. .Mar. 20. 
..Mar. 13. 
..Mar. 6. 
. . Mar. 5. 

.Apr. 4. 
..Apr. 3. 
, . Mar. 1 1 . 
. .Mar. 22. 
. . Mar. 20. 
. . Mar. 26. 
. .Mar. 24. 

..Apr. 5. 
, . Mar. 31. 
. .Mar. 12. 
..Apr. 7. 

.Apr. 16. 
. . Mar. 19. 
. .Apr. 13. 
. .Apr. I. 
. . Mar. 30. 
. .Mar. 14. 
..Apr. 4. 
. .Mar. 5. 
. .Mar. 21. 
..Mar. 8. 
. .Mar. 29. 
. .Mar. 27. 




The geology of the county is included in the 
" Helderberg Division," belonging to the upper 
Silurian system, and comprising nearly all the 
rocks of the "New York system," from the 
Utica slate to the corniferous limestone. It em- 
braces rocks varied in mineralogical character, 
chemical composition, and abounding in fossil 
remains. It contains subordinate beds of clay and 
silicious grits. In consequence of these rocks 
being so well developed in the Helderberg hills, 
forming a natural group, the term of "Helder- 
berg Division " is used to designate them. 

The limestone in which the fossils occur is 
usually a gray, but in some places a reddish 
crystalline stone. The fossils are a cr)'stalline 
carbonate of lime, and are so numerous that they 
attract the attention of the observer when tra\eling 
along the road. 

The Delthyn's shaly limestone is one of the 
thickest and most extensive members of the 
Helderberg Division. This rock is well developed 
and is frequently quarried as a building stone. 
The stone fences and roadsides often exhibit 
the remains of ancient life. This is well exposed 
on the road from New Salem to Clarksville. The 
middle subdivision is a slaty limestone, and contains 
fossils of many varieties washed clean by the rains 
and ready for the collector. These again are nu- 
merous in the vicinity of Clarksville and near 
New Salem. 

The lower subdivision is a mass of slaty-argillo- 
silicious limestone, and may be seen one mile 
north and northwest of Clarksville. 

The Onondaga limestone and Schoharie grit are, 
also, found about Clarksville, and contain many 
fossils. The argillaceous and shaly rocks are nu- 
merous on the summits of hills. 

The lowest rock is the Utica slate cropping out 
on the Hudson, Normans Kill and Mohawk. 
Above this are the graywackes and shales of the 
Hudson River group, which appear in the valleys 
of many streams, and apparently underlie a part of 
the county. 

The rocks of the Erie division occupy in the 
aggregate a thickness of several hundred, probably 
two thousand feet. The division that is worked 
for economical is a strata of flagging 
stone which is from seven hundred to one thou- 
sand feet above the Helderberg limestone series. 
This stone is extensively quarried for flagging 
and building purposes in the southeast part of 
Berne and in Coeymans. The red rocks which 
form the base of the Helderbergs, probably be- 

long to the Medina sandstone series, sometimes 
confounded with the red shales of the Onondaga 
salt group. Next in order above this, and forming 
the first terrace of the mountains, is the water line 
group, from 50 to 200 feet thick, and furnishing 
both water and quicklime. Next in order is the 
penlamerus limestone, 50 feet in thickness, of im- 
pure gray and black limestone, mixed with slate 
and shale, well developed in Berne and Bethlehem. 
0\'erlying this is the Catskill limestone, from 50 to 
180 feet in thickness, consisting of thick com- 

i pact masses of limestone, alternating with thin 
layers of shale. This, also, is used for building 

j purposes and lime. 

The Oriskany sandstone next appears in a stra- 
tum two feet thick, well exposed in Berne, Knox 

' and Bethlehem, followed by the cauda-galli grit, 
from 50 to 60 feet thick. This last has a fine grit 

I and resembles black or gray slates, but crumbles 
upon exposure to the air. The Onondaga and 
coniferous limestones next appear, the latter form- 
ing the summits of mountains. These rocks 
furnish excellent building material, and a superior 
quality of lime. Above the rocks, in the east part 
of the county, are deposits of drift, consisting of 
sand, gravel and clay. The high lands west of the 
Cit\- of Albany are covered to the depth of forty feet 
with sand, which rest upon a bed of clay estimated 
to be one hundred feet deep. These clay beds 
extend into several of the adjoining townships. 
In this drift are sometimes found beds of bog ore, 
chalybeate and sulphureted springs. In the lime- 
stone regions are caves, sink-holes and subter- 
ranean water-courses. 

Clay forms the subsoil, or exists at a great 
depth below the gravel and sand beds which form 
the plains and elevations. 

There are two kinds, the blue and the gray. 
They are almost uniform by associadon, the blue 
lying below the gray. These clajs may be used 
to improve the soil, for the manufacture and glaz- 
ing of stone ware, and for brick and tile, of which 
many millions are made at Albany. 

The geological formations of Albany County are 
given by J. G. Gebhard as follows : 

Hamilton, Marcellus, Corniferous, Onondaga, 
Schoharie grit, Cauda-galli grit, Oriskany sand- 
stone, Upper Pentamerus, Delthyn's shale, Penta- 
merus Galeatus, Tentaculite, Water limestone, Co- 
raline, Pyritous slate, Hudson River sandstone. 

The following, abridged from the pen of Henry 
R. Schoolcraft, a native of this county, in regard 
to its geology, is worthy a place here. 

The most prominent feature of the county is the 



range of the Helderbergs, an offshoot of the Cats- 
kill Mountains. This highest range divides the 
county into twc general levels of unequal width, 
characterized as being above or lelow that elevation. 
The lower level is distinguished for its diluvial and 
drift deposits of arable layers, clays, sands, anal- 
ogic pebbles and boulders. The rock strata, as 
generally denoted bj' geologists, and more parti- 
cularly described by Prof James Hall, are, begin- 
ning at the apex of the Helderberg, chertz lime- 
stone, neutral colored sandstones, fossiliferous 
limestone, graywacke, sedimentary, horizontal 
slate, or graywacke slate and argilite. 

The City of Albany rests upon the edges and 
top of the terraceous blue clays, and their asso- 
ciated sand strata. This terraceous clay is covered 
with a mantle or plateau of diluvial sand, which 
extends northwestwardly from the Hudson to the 
Valley of the Mohawk. 

This mantle of sand rests, throughout its entire 
extent, upon the terraceous blue capitoline clay. 
Rains and atmospheric moisture speedily sink 
through it, until arrested by its impervious alumin- 
ous basis, by which it finds an outlet on the sur- 
face of these clay beds into the nearest streams. 

It is by the union of several of the outlets of 
these spring gorges of the pine plains, that the 
Honger Kill is formed. Small in its volume, it 
flows with sufficient force to sink its channel 
through the deep clay stratum, and enter its recip- 
ient, the Normans Kill, through the boulder and 
pebble drift. Feeble as the action of the stream is, 
it has been sufficient to reveal a formation of red 
sandstone, which, apparentlv, underlies the mider 
Helderberg series of graywacke and slates, and the 
upper series of fossiliferous limestone, and its su- 
perimposed porous and marly horizontal new 

This disclosure was made in a depressed part of 
the Honger Kill Valley. The rock, in colors and 
grain, resembles the Piedmont or Haverstraw sand- 
stones of the lower Hudson. The localities of 
these observations are at the now deca3'ed manu- 
facturing village of Hamilton, within about a mile 
from the entrance of the stream into the Normans 
Kill. The deepest cutting into the geological col- 
umn of the county is made by this Tawasentha. 
This stream in its western fork, the Bozen Kill, 
originates on the Helderberg range. In passing 
through the series of newer sandstones, lime- 
stones and graywackes, it lays bare the succession 
of rocks, and hurries with a rapid channel to its 
junction with the Black Creek and the Tiergaca, or 
northeast branch. Reinforced by these tributaries,- 

it sweeps its way through the alluvial coverings to 
the Hudson. In its progress it sinks its level 
quite through the graywackes and deeply into the 
Tawasentha slate. At the rapids, in passing 
through Guilderland, this rock stands in perpen- 
dicular facades, from 80 to nearly 120 feet high. 
The stream finally enters the Hudson, two miles 
south of the City of Albany, near the ancient Iro- 
quois cemetery of Tawasentha. 

The cuttings of the Normans Kill and the con- 
struction of railroads reveal the Hamilton group at 
these points. 

Soil. — The soil of any territory in its primitive 
state, before the hand of culti\ation has transformed 
it, is determined by its geology, vegetation, mois- 
ture and temperature. 

The soil upon the intervals is a rich alluvial 
loam, used largely for garden purposes. In Water- 
vliet, Albany, and the eastern parts of Guilderland 
and Bethlehem, it consists largely of sand, with 
strips of clay along the banks of the streams. This 
combination of soil is well adapted for the growth 
of some grains and grass . The belt of land lying 
between the sandy region and the foot of the Hel- 
derbergs is principally a clay and gravelly loam, 
receiving the drainage from the limestone hills, 
which renders the soil very productive. Upon the 
Helderbergs the soil is colder, consisting of alter- 
nate layers of clay, slate and gravel, with a subsoil 
of tenacious clay or hardpan. Some portions are 
stony, wet and cold. These are not very produc- 
tive. Some of these lands are favorable for grazing. 

On the Mohawk the land is uneven and natur- 
ally sterile. Most of the soil in the county is sus- 
ceptible of culture, and has within its limits the 
material needed to make it productive. The facts 
relating to its husbandry and productions will ap- 
pear under the head of Agriculture. 

Among the minerals of the count}', as given 
by Mather and Beck, are bog iron ore in a few 
localities ; snowy gypsum along the Helderbergs 
and in Coeymans ; marl beds of some extent in 
Bethlehem and Coeymans; calcareous spar on 
the banks of the Normans Kill, in a cavern a 
few miles from Albany, also in the town of 
Knox and in the McCullough quarries of New 
Scotland. Epsom salts have been found in small 
quantities in the form of efiBorescences in Coey- 
mans, on the east face of the Helderberg, and in 
the townships of Bethlehem and Guilderland. 
Rock and quartz crystals are picked up in several 
localities. These minerals are of very little value • 



but the county is rich in geological formations, 
as appears elsewhere. 

The mineral springs of the county comprise the 
following : Acidulous, saline, chalybeate waters, 
near Boyd's brewery, Albany, were found in a slate 
strata after boring 300 feet below tide ; another 
sulphurous spring was found by boring 100 feet ; 
also a carbureted gas spring — both in the same 
vicinity. Sulphurous springs have been found at 
Wendell's Hollow, near the city ; at Coeyman's 
Landing ; near McKown's, in Guilderland ; in 
Watervliet, near Van Rensselaer's, and in Rensse- 
laerville. White sulphur springs exist in Berne, 
and on the farm of James Hendrick, in New Scot- 
land. The mineral springs issue from the slate 
rocks of the Hudson group. The white sulphur 
springs especially are visited by invahds. 


The Cohoes mastodon is the most remarkable 
of the ancient fossils in this count}'. The fol- 
lowing notes in regard to it are taken from the 
' ' Notes and Observations" of Dr. James Hall, 
our citizen geologist, whose fame in the fields of 
science makes him a citizen of the world of 
scholars : 

In the month of September, 1866, the workmen 
engaged in excavations for the foundations of a 
new mill to be erected by the "Harmony Mills 
Company of Cohoes, N. Y. , " discovered the lower 
jaw of a mastodon, with a single foot bone, resting 
upon a projection of rocks between two depres- 
sions or concave walls of small pot-holes, in the 
margin of what afterwards proved to be a large pot- 

At this time the excavation had been carried on 
to the depth of about twenty-five feet from the 
original surface. 

The discovery of a jaw with a single bone in 
such a position naturally led to the inference that 
the other parts of the skeleton would be found at 
the bottom of the pot-hole, could it ever be 
reached, and the progress of the excavation was 
watched with great interest. In the bottom of this 
cavity, lying upon a bed of clay, broken slate, 
gravel and water-worn pebbles, and covered 
with river ooze and vegetable soil, lay the principal 
parts of the mastodon skeleton. The first parts 
uncovered were the bones of the hind legs, with a 
portion of the pelvis. The head, with tusks un- 
broken and undisturbed, was directed to the east- 
ward and partially inclined against the sloping 
walls. The vertebra, with exceptions, the ribs in 
part, one fore limb and scapula followed, the pos- 

terior parts lying more to the westward and south- 
westward, but all in juxtaposition. The absence 
of the lower and some of the larger limb bones 
was obvious, and but for these we might have sup- 
posed that the entire skeleton had been drifted in- 
to this pot-hole and covered with river ooze and 
peaty soil. On further examination other bones 
were discovered thirty or forty feet distant, and at 
a somewhat lower level than the main part of the 
skeleton, but still above the gravel. Expecting to 
find some, at least, of the remaining bones, efforts 
were made to remove all the peaty earth and loose 
materials, but this was not fully accomplished. 

At a later date, some time in February, 1867, 
during excavations upon another part of the 
ground outside of the mill, a small pot-hole was 
opened in which were found bones of the right fore 
leg and foot. This point is more than sixty feet to 
the southwest of the place where the principal 
bones of the skeleton were found, and at least 
twenty feet higher. 

All the parts of the skeleton found at the differ- 
ent points designated were presented to the State 
Cabinet of Natural History by Alfred Wild, Esq. , 
President of the Harmony Mills Company, and 
have been mounted in their proper position. The 
missing bones were modeled from opposite cor- 
responding parts or from adjacent ones, and after- 
wards cast in plaster-of-Paris. In some instances 
recourse was had to the Warren mastodon skele- 
ton, of which careful examinations and comparisons 
were made. 

In the following spring and summer a careful 
survey of the Cohoes FaUs and the surrounding 
country was made, mainly with a view of deter- 
mining the relations of the pot-holes, in which the 
mastodon remains were found, to those of the river 
bed and adjacent valley. From this survey it was 
clearly ascertained that the large and deep pot-holes 
were entirely outside the present river channel ; 
that all the pot-holes existing within limits over- 
flowed by the present Mohawk River are shallow 
basins. We therefore began to distinguish them 
as ancient and modern, and, with few exceptions, 
above the falls all those of the river bed seem to be 
of modern origin. 

We have, by these observations, determined that 
the water of the present river, neither above, below 
nor at the falls, produces pot-holes of the character 
of those in which the mastodon bones were found. 

In the bottom of all the ancient pot-holes there 
is a considerable space occupied b}' gravel and 
pebbles, which are chiefly or almost wholly of hard 
quartzite, a partially metamorphic condition of the 



Potsdam sandstone. Turning to the northward, 
we find large exposures of the sandstone or quartz- 
ite, from which these pebbles might have been de- 
rived, had there been the means of transporting 

The breaking down of these rocks, and the 
transport is usually attributed to the action of ice, 
and the rounding of these into pebbles is due to 
the action of water. The agency which trans- 
ported the quartz pebbles of the Mohawk valley 
was doubtless the same as that which transported 
the remains of the mastodon found in the pot-holes 
at Cohoes. I do not believe that any of the mas- 
todon remains which we find are of animals that 
wandered into swamps or sought their food in such 
localities, and thus became mired. 

Returning to the consideration of the geo- 
graphical and geological surroundings of the 
Cohoes mastodon, we find the following condi- 
tions : The Mohawk River, having an easterly direc- 
tion, makes a bend toward the northward after 
leaving Schenectady ; at Crescent it turns abruptly 
to the southeast, uniting with the Hudson River 
below Waterford, and at a point ten miles above 
Albany. The Cohoes Falls is on the Mohawk, 
about one mile above its junction with the Hudson 
River. The area to the southward is covered by 
drift and estuary deposits in the order of boulder- 
clay- and gravel below, above which is an evenly 
stratified clay, graduating into a loam, and finally 
to a fine yellow sand, which covers much of the 
area between Albany and Schenectady. 

The relation of the clay and gra\'el are often 
seen in excavations ; they are often found resting 
upon a boulder-clay, or a mixture of clay and 
gravel, the whole covering an extremely uneven 
surface of slate rock, as is often seen along the 
Hudson and at a few points along the Normans 

Throughout all parts of the river bed and chan- 
nel we search in vain for evidence of pot-holes of 
the character of those described as containing peb- 
bles of quartzite, and in which the remains of the 
mastodon were found. These ancient pot-holes 
are of all dimensions, from one foot to fifty feet in 
depth and diameter. 

The pot-holes of the river bed exhibit all stages 
of formation and obliteration. The shales of the 
Hudson River Group present everywhere a surface 
quite rough in detail, though even and regular in 
its general features. An insensible gradation may 
be seen above the crest of the fall, from irregular 
hollows, bounded by sharp fractures of slate, to 
deep, rounded, smoothed pot-holes. Upon the 

plateau below the fall the few remaining pot-holes 
are filled nearly to the brim by gravel and mud. 
The typical form of these pot-holes is a cylinder, 
with rounded bottom and rounded brim. The 
type is modified by the enlargement of the mouth, 
by expansions and constrictions in the shaft, and 
other irregularities. The interior surfaces are 
rounded, smoothed and even polished, especially 
at the bottom. In my examination I saw nothing 
to controvert the theory that they were formed by 
the grinding action of stones moved by water. 

The rock over which the Mohawk flows, from 
the Cohoes Company's dam to the Hudson, is of 
very uniform character. 

Excavation has revealed in Cohoes and vicinity 
a number of pot-holes found anterior to the pres- 
ent gorge of the Mohawk. The great difference 
between the pot-holes of the shore and of the river 
bed appears to be that of size. Half of those dis- 
covered on the eastern shore outrank the largest of 
the modern. The mastodon pot-hole was probed 
to a depth greater than the river bed can show. 
The gravel from the ancient pot-holes is all well 
rounded, while the modern ones contain many 
boulders that are but partly so. 

The water makes no clear leap in Cohoes Falls ; 
for a distance of 400 feet the descent is 14 feet on 
a gradual plane, and from the crest to the base, on 
a curved slope, 57 feet. Above Cohoes town the 
bed rock of the -west shore is, to a large extent, 
hidden by the hills of drift and a terrace of clay. 
On the east side, an area nearly a mile broad and 
two miles long shows the bed rock, covered by a 
thin clay soil derived from the decomposition of 
the rock itself. This area is elevated about 175 
feet above the water of the Hudson. Its eastern 
boundary is a line of drift hills and terrace. The 
latter is of clay, covered by sand, and extends some 
distance up that river. The drift hills frequently 
rise above the level of the terrace. 

The rock plateau below Cohoes Falls is the base 
line for sections near the falls ; it is 61 feet above 
tidewater. The upper level of the Cohoes Com- 
pany's race is 94 feet above plateau and 188 above 
tide; cliff near the falls, 115 feet above plateau, 
and 176 feet above tide; plateau west of Albany, 
225 feet above tide ; top of gravel hill near " Pa- 
troon's, " about 225 feet above tide. Gravel banks : 
At the Patroon's a remarkable incliried bed of clay 
lies under and over gravel in the following order : 
Soil, slightly sorted gravel, red clay, blue clay, 
stratified, coarse and fine sand, with rarely lenticu- 
lar beds of coarse gravel. These gravel banks ex- 
tend nearly to Cohoes, The coarser materials of 



the gravel hills near Albany are chiefly of the con- 
glomerate of the Hudson River Group and con- 
glomerates and jaspers of the Quebec Group. 
Massive quartz, white or yellow (Potsdam ?), is 
commonly met with, and, in some hills near the 
Mohawk, seem even to predominate. They are 
the best worn of all the pebbles, but the boulders 
generally are not so well rounded as those turned 
by pot-holes. 

The numerous fossil shells referred to under the 
head of "Geology," in connection with the rock 
formations, properly come under this head. They 
all have a specific name which we cannot repeat 
here. They may be often seen in the flagstones 
that cover our city sidewalks, and the rough stones 
in the roadside walls. They tell us of the inhabit- 
ants that dwelt, countless ages ago, in the now up- 
heaved bed of the old ocean that once surged over 
the places where we dwell. 


The Flora of the county of Albany is rich in 
the number and variety of its plants, almost 
every natural order and genus common to the 
State being represented in this county. The 
hills and valleys, fields and forests, lakes, brooks 
and swamps, all contribute to adorn nature with a 
firofusion of vegetable beauty, and invite the prac- 
tical student to gather these treasures so liberally 
spread before him. 

The amateur and student in Botany will find few 
localities in the State from which he can secure a 
greater variety of interesting plants than in Albany 
county. Nature has, indeed, been lavish in her 
gifts to our county, as seen all over its surface, 
made picturesque and charming by the grand Hel- 
derbergs, the noble Hudson, its crystal lakes, its 
rapid streams tumbling over cataracts, running 
through deep ravines, its caverns and rocky re- 
cesses and steep precipice.s, its forest trees and 
shrubs, its varied and beautiful flora, its fields of 
grass and grain, and its variety of sedges, mosses, 
rushes and ferns in the by-places. 

We are indebted to Torrey's "State Botany,'' 
Wright & Hall's "Plants About Troy," Prof C. H. 
Peck and Dr. J S. Markle for valuable aid in this 

In the list of the trees, shrubs and plants found 
in the county, only such as are indigenous or 
naturalized are included. They are grouped 
under their natural orders, and the generic, specific 
and common names are given. Exotic and green- 
house plants will be omitted from our list. All 
descriptions, for want of space, are left out. The 

simple list will tell our wealth and make a useful 
guide to the student. 

Order. Common Name. 

Clematis, Virginiana Virgin's Bower. 

C verticillaris Whorl-leaved V. B. 

Anemone, nemorosa. . . Wood Anemone. 

A Pennsylvanica 

A cylindrica 

A Virginiana Virginia Anemone. 

llepalica, triloba Liverwort. 

H acutiloba 

Ranunculus, Flammula Small Spearwort. 

R recurvatus Hooked Crowfoot. 

R fascicularis Early Crowfoot. 

R abortivus Round-leaved Crowfoot. 

R sceleratus Celery Crowfoot. 

^ acris Butter-cups. 

R bulbosus Bulbous Crowfoot. 

R Pennsylvanicus .... Bristly Crowfoot. 

R multifidus Yellow Water Crowfoot. 

R repens Creeping Crowfoot. 

Callha, palustris Marsh Marigold. 

Coptis, trifolia Goldthread. 

Aquilegia, Canadensis Wild Columbine. 

Acto;a, spicata var Red Baneberry. 

A rubra White Baneberry. 

Thalictrum, dioicum Early Meadow Rue. 

T purpurasccns Purple Meadow Rue. 

T Cornuti Meadow Rue. 

T anemonioides Rue Anemone. 

Liriodendron, Tulipifera White Wood. Tulip Tree. 

iNTenispermum, Canadense Moon Seed. 


Podophyllum, peUatum May Apple. Mandrake. 

Caulophyllum, thalictroides Blue Cohosh. 

Braseiiia, peltatum Water Target. 


Nymphoea, odorata Water Lily. 

Nuphar, advena Yellow Pond Lily. 

N Kalmiana Kalm's Pond Lily. 

Sarracenia, purpurea Side-saddle Flower. 


Sanguinaria, Canadensis Bloodroot. 

Chelidonium, majus Celandine. 


Dicentra, cucullana Dutchman's Breeches. 

D Canadensis Squirrel Coon. 

Adlumia, cirrhosa Mountain Fringe. 

Corydahs, glauca Glaucous Corydalis. 


Capsella, Bursa-pastoris Shepherd's Purse. 

Lepidium, Virginicum Wild Pepper-grass. 

L campestre Yellow Seed. 




Draba, verna Whilbow Grass. 

Nasturtium, palustre Marsh Watercress. 

Barbarea, vulgaris Winter Cress. 

Arabis, Canadensis Sickle Pod. 

A lyrata Wall Cress. 

A laevigata Smooth Wall Cress. 

A . . . . hirsuta Hairy Wall Cress. 

Cardamine, hirsuta Small Bittter Cress. 

C rhomboidea Spring Cress. 

C Pratensis P'ield Cardamine. 

Dentaria, diphylla Pepper Root. 

D laciniata Tooth Wort. 

Sisymbrium, officinale Hedge Mustard. 

Erysimum, cheiranthoides Wormseed Mustard . 

Sinapis, nigra Black Mustard. 

S arvensis Field Mustard. Charlock. 

Polanisia, graveolens . 


Viola, cucullata Hood-leaved Violet. 

V. . . . sagittaria Arrow-leaved Violet. 

v.... Selkirkii Selkirk's Violet. 

V. . . . palmata Palmated Violet. 

V. . . . pedata Pedate Violet. 

V . . . . blanda Sweet-scented Violet. 

V . . . . lanceolata Lance-leaved Violet. 

V . . . . rotundifolia Round-leaved Violet. 

V. . . . Canadensis Canadian Violet. 

V. . . . pubescens Common Yellow Violet. 

V . . . . Muhlenbergii Muhlenberg's Violet. 

V . . . . rostrata Beaked Violet. 


Drosera, rotundifolia Round-leaved Sundew. 

D longifolia Long-leaved Sundew. 

Parnassia, Caroliniana Grass of Parnassus. 


Lechea, major Larger Pinweed. 

L minor Smaller Pinweed. 

Helianthemum, Canadense Rock Rose. 

Hudsonia, Tomentosa Woolly Hudsonia. 

Elatine, Americana Mud Purslane. 


Hypericum, pyramidatum Giant Hypericum. 

H perforatum Common St. John's-wort. 

H cory mbosum Spotted St. John's-wort. 

H mutilum Small St. John's-wort. 

H Canadense Canadian St. John's-wort. 

Elodes Virginica Marsh St. John's-wort. 


Anychia, dichotoma Forked Chickweed. 

Spergula, arvensis Corn Spurry. 


Stellaria, media Chickweed. 

S longifolia Long-leaved Stitch wort. 

Cerastium, vulgatum Mouse-ear Chickweed. 

C viscosum Sticky Chickweed. 

C arvense Field Chickweed. 

C nutans Nodding Chickweed. 

Arenaria, stricta Straight Sandwort. 

A serpylUfolia Thyme-leaved Sandwort. 

Sagina, procumbens Creeping Sandwort. 

MoUugo, verticillata Carpet Weed. 

Silene, antirrhina Snap-dragon Catch-fly. 

Silene, noctiflora Night-flowering Catch-fly 

Lychnis, Githago Corn Cockle. 

Saponaia, officinalis Common Soapwort. 

Scleranthus, annuus Knaivel. 


Portulaca, oleracea Purslane. 

Claytonia, Caroliniana Spring Beauty. 

C Virginica Virginian Spring Beauty. 


Malva, rotundifolia Ijdw Mallow. 

Abutilon, Avicenna; Velvet-leaf Mallow. 


Linum, Virginianum Virginian Flax. 

L usitatissimum Common Flax. 


Geranium, maculatum Spotted Geranium. 

G Robertianum Herb Robert. 

G Carolinianum Carolina Crane's bill. 


Impatiens, pallida Touch-me-not. 

I fulva Jewel Weed. 


Oxalis, Acetosella Common Wood Sorrel. 

O violacea Violet Wood Sorrel. 

O stricta Yellow Wood Sorrel. 

Zanthoxylum, Americanum Prickly Ash. 


Rhus, glabra Smooth Sumac. 

R typhina Stag-horn Sumac. 

R. copallina Mountain Sumac. 

R . . . . venenata Poison Sumac. 

R . . . . Toxicodendron Poison Ivy. 

R . . . . aromatica Sweet Sumac. 

Tilia, Americana Linden. Bass Wood. 


Vitis, Labrusca Large-Blue Grape. 

V . . . cordifolia Frost Grape. 

V . . . cestivalis Summer Grape. 

Ampelopsis, quinquefolia Woodbine. Virginian Creeper. 


Acer, rubrum Swamp Maple. 

A. ... dasycarpum White Maple. 

A. ... saccharinum Sugar Maple. 


nigrum Black Maple. 

Pennsylanicum Striped Maple. 



Acer, spicatum Mountain Maple. 


Staphylea, trifolia Bladder Nut. 

Celastrus.scandens Climbing Bitter Sweet. 

Ceanothus, Americanus Jersey Tea. 


Polygala, verticillata Whorl-leaved Polygala. 

P Senega Seneca Snake-root. 

P paucifolia Fringed Polygala. 


Ervum, hirsutum Hairy Vetch. 

Apios, tuberosa Ground Nut. 

Amphicarprea, monoica Hog Nut. 

Tephrosia, Virginiana Goat's Rue. 

Trifolium, repens White Clover. 

T sevense Haresfoot Trefoil. 

T pratense Common Red Clover. 

T agrarium I<"ield or Hop Trefoil. 

Melilotus, officinalis Yellow Melilot. 

M alba White Melilot. 

Medicago, lupulina Nonesuch. 

Astragalus, Canadensis Canadian Vetch. 

Desmodium, nudiflorum Naked-flowered Desmodium. 

D acuminatum Pointed-leaved Desmodium. 

D canescens Hoary Desmodium. 

D Canadense Bush Trefoil. 

D cuspidatum Cuspidate Desmodium. 

D paniculatum Panicled Desmodium. 

D rotundifolium Round-leaved Desmodium. 

Lespedeza, capitata Bush Clover. 

L hirta Hairy Lespedeza. 

1 procumbens Trailing Lespedeza. 

L violacea Violet Lespedeza. 

L sessilUflora Sessile-flowered Lespedeza. 

Lupinus, perennis Common Lupine. 

Baptisia, tinctoria Wild Indigo. 

Cassia, marilandica American Senna. 

C Chamcecrista Dwarf-Cassia. 

C nictitans Wild Sensitive Plant. 


Prunus, serotina Black or Wild Cherry. 

P Virginiana Choke Cherry. 

P Pennsylvanica Wild Red Cherry. 

P pumila Sand Cherry. 

P Americana Wild Plum. 

Crataegus, coccinea White Thorn. 

C Crus-galli Cockspur Thorn. 

C punctata Thorn. 

Pyrus, arbutifolia Choke-Berry. 

P Americana Mountain Ash. 

Amelanchier, Canadensis Shad-Berry, Bill-berry. 

Rosa, Carolina Swamp Rose. 

R . . . . lucida Shining or Wild Rose. 

R. ... blanda Bland Rose. 

R. . ..rubiginosa Sweet Briei\ 

Rubus, villosus High Blackberry. 

R hispidus Bristly Blackberry. 

R Canadensis Low Blackberry. 

Rubus, odoratus Rose-flowering Raspberry. 

R strigosus Wild Red Raspberry. 

R .... occidentalis Black Raspberry. 

R . . . . triflorus Three-flowered Raspberry . 

Potentilla, Norvegica Norwegian Potentilla. 

P Canadensis Common Cinquefoil. 

P argentea Silvery Cinquefoil. 

P anserina Silver Weed. 

I' arguta White flowered Potentilla. 

P palustris .... Marsh Cinquefoil. 

Fragaria, Virginiana Wild Strawberry. 

F. Vcaca Alpine or Wood Straw - 


Dalibarda, repens False Violet. 

Waldsteinia, fragarioides Dry Strawberry. 

Geum, riyale Purple Avens. 

G strictum Yellow Avens. 

G Virginianum White Avens. 

Poterium, Canadense Burnet Saxifrage. 

Agrimonia, Eupatoria Agrimony. 

Spireea, tomentosa Hardhack. 

S salicifolia < Jueen of the Meadow. 

S Opulifolia Nine-bark. 

j Decodon, Verticillatum 

[ Epilobium, angustifolium Willow Herb. 

E Coloratum Colored Epilobium. 

E hirsutum Hairy Epilobium. 

I CEnothera, biennis Common Evening Prim- 

Oi pumila Dwarf Evening Primrose. 

Gaura, biennis Biennial Gaura. 

Circceu, Lutetiana Enchanter's Nightshade. 

C alpina Alpine Nightshade. 


Sicyos, angulatus Single-seeded Cucumber. 

Echinocystis, lobata Wild Balsam- Apple. 


Ribes, floridura Wild Black Currant. 

R . . . . prostratum Fetid Currant. 

R . . . Cynosbati Prickly Gooseberry. 

1 R . . . . rotundifolium Wild Gooseberry. 


Sedum, Telephium Common Live-forever. 

Penthorum, sedoides Virginia Stone-Crop. 


Saxifraga, Virginiensis Early Saxifrage. 

S Pennsylvanica Tall Saxifrage. 

Heuchera, Americana Alum Root. 

Mitella, diphylla Bishop's Cap. 

M. . . . nuda Leafless stemmed Bishop's 


Tiarella, cordifolia Mitre Wort. Gem Fruit. 

Chrysosplenium, Americanum. . . .Water Carpet. 

Hamamelis, Virginica Witch Hazel. 




Hydrocotyle, Americana Pennywort. 

H umbellata Umbellate Pennywort. 

Sanicula, Canadensis Canadian Sanicle. 

S Marilandica Long-styled Sanicle. 

Cicuta, maculata Water Hemlock. 

C bulbifera Narrow-leaved Hemlock. 

Slum, latifolium Water Parsnip. 

S lineare Linear-leaved Waler Par- 

Cryptotaenia, Canadensis Hone-wort. 

Zizia, Aurea Golden Alexander. 

Z . . . . integerrima Entire leaved Golden 


Archangelica, atropurpmea Angelica. 

A hirsuta Hairy Angelica. 

Caucus, Carota Wild Carrot. 

Pastmaca, sativa Common Wild Parsnip. 

Heracleum, lanatmn Cow Parsnip. 

Osmorrhiza, longistylis Sweet Cicily. 

O brevistylis Short-styled Cicily. 

Conimn, maculatum Poison Hemlock. 


Alalia, nudicaulis Wild Sarsapaiilla. 

A racemosa Spikenard. 

A hispida Bristly Aralia. [Ginseng. 

Panax, tritolium Ground Nut. Dwarf 

P quinquefolium Ginseng. 


Cornus, stolonifera White-berried Cornel. 

C sericea Red Osier. 

C circinata Round-leaved Dogwood. 

C alternifolia ...^. Alternate-leaved. 

C paniculata Panicled Dogwood. 

C florida Flowering Dogwood. 

C Canadensis Low Cornel, or Dogwood, 


Lonicera, hirsuta Hairy Honeysuckle. 

L parviflora Small-flowered " 

L ciliata Fly Honeysuckle. 

DierviUa, trifida Bush Honeysuckle. 

Triosteum, perfoliatum Fever-wort. 

Symphoricarpus, racemosus Snow-berry. 

Linnjea, borealis Twin-flower. 

Sambucus, Canadensis Common Elder. 

S pubens Panicled Elder. 

Viburnum, lantanoides Hobble-bush. 

V opulus High Cranberry. 

V acerifolium Dockmackie. 

V Lentago Sweet Viburnum. 

V nudum Swamp Viburnum. 

V dentatum Arrow-head. 

V pubescens Downy Viburnum. 


Galium, asprellum Rough Cleavers. 

G trifidum Small Bedstraw. 

G triflorum Sweet-scented Bedstraw. 

G Aparine Common Cleavers. 

G boreale Northern Galium. 

G circzezans Circcea-like Galium. 

Mitchella, repens Partridge Berry. 

Hedyotis, ccerulea Dwarf Pink. 

H longifolia Long-leaved Dwarf Pink. 

Cephalanthus, ocddentalis Button Bush. 


Eupatorium Trumpet- weed. 

E purpureum 

E sessilifolium Sessile-leaved Eupatoi ium 

E perfoliatum Thorough wort. Boneset. 

I-: ageratoides Nettle-leaved Eupatorium 

Tussilago, Farfara Colt's-foot. 

Aster, corymbosus Corymbed Aster. 

Aster, macrophyllus Large-leaved Aster. 

Aster, cordifolius Heart-leaved Aster. 

A undulatus Wave-leaved Aster. 

A patens Spreading Aster. 

A laevis Smooth Aster. 

A puniceus Red-stalked Aster. 

A Novse Angliae New England Aster. 

A Tradescanti Tradescant's Aster. 

A miser Starved Aster. 

A simplex Willow-leaved Aster. 

A tenuifolius Narrow-leaved Aster. 

A dumosus Bushy Aster. 

A ericoides Heath-like Aster. 

A niultiflorus Many-flowered Aster. 

A . . . . acuminatus Acuminate Wood Aster. 

Sericocarpus, conyzoides Broad-leaved Sericocarpus. 

Erigeron, bellidifolium Robin's Plantain. 

E Philadelphicum Narrow-leaved Robin's 


E annuum Common Fleabane. 

E strigosum Fleabane. White Weed 

E Canadense Canadian Fleabane. 

Solidago, lanceolata Grass-leaved Goldenrod. 

S squarrosa Ragged Goldenrod. 

S bicolor White Goldenrod. 

S latifolia Broad-leaved Goldenrod. 

S caesia Blue-stemmed Goldenrod. 

S nemoralis Gray Goldenrod. 

S arguta Sharp-toothed Goldenrod 

S Canadensis Canadian Goldenrod. 

S seriotina Late Goldenrod. 

S altissima Tall Goldenrod. 

Inula, helenium Elecampane. 

Heliopsis, Isevis Ox-eye. 

Rudbeckia, lanciniata Smooth Rudbeckia. 

R hirta Hairy Rudbeckia. 

Helianthus, annuus Common Sunflower. 

H decapetalus Ten-rayed Sunflower. 

H -divaricatus Spreading Sunflower. 

H strumosus Wild Sunflower. 

Helenium, autumnale American Sneeze-wort. 

Maruta, Cotula May-weed. 

Achillea, Millefolium Millfoil. Yarrow. 

Leucanthemum, vulgare Ox-eye Daisy. 

Bidens, frondosa Lealy-bur Marigold. 

B connata Trifid-bur Marigold. 

B cernua Water-bur Marigold. 

B chrysanthemoides Radiate-bur Marigold . 

Senecio, aureus Golden Senecio. 

Artemisia, vulgaris Mugwort. 

Gnaphalium, polycephalum Fragrant Life-everlasting. 

G decurrens Decurrent Life everlasting. 

i G uliginosum Mud Life-everlastuig. 




Antennaria, margaritacea Pearly Life-everlasting. 

A plantaginifolia Plantain-leaved Life- 

Erechthites, hieracifolia Fir-weed. 

Xanthium, strumarium Clot- weed. 

Ambrosia, trifida Tall Ambrosia. 

A artemisieefolia Hog-weed. 

Lappa, major Burdock. 

Cirsium, arvense Canada Thistle. 

C lanceolatum Common Thistle. 

C muticum Swamp Thistle. 

Onopordon, acanthiiim Scotch Thistle. 

Krigia, Virginica Dwarf Dandelion. 

Cichorium, Intybusth Succory. Chiccory . 

Lactuca, elongata Wild Lettuce. 

Hieracium, venosum Veiny-leaved Hawkweed. 

H paniculatum Panicled Hawkweed. 

H scabrum Rough Hawkweed. [tuce. 

Nabalus, albus Lion's-foot. White Let- 

N altissimus Tall Nabalus. 

N Fraseri Gall of the Earth. 

Taraxacum, Dens-leonis Dandelion. 

Sonchus, oleraceus Common Sow Thistle. 

S asper Rough Sow Thistle. 


Lobelia, cardinalis Cardinal Flower. 

Lobelia, inflata Indian Tobacco. 

L syphiltica Blue Cardinal Flower. 

L spicata Clayton's Lobelia. 

L Dortmanna Water Lobelia, 


Campanula, rotundifolia Hare Bell. 

C Americana American Bell-flower. 


Gaylussacia, resinosa Black Whortleberry. 

Vaccinium, corymbosum High Wiortleberry. 

V vacillans Low Blueberry. 

V Pennsylvanicum Dwarf Blueberry. 

V stamineum Dewberry. 

Oxycoccus, vulgaris Small Cranberry. 

O macrocarpus Large Cranberry. 

Arctostaphylos, Uva-ursi Bearberry. 

Andromeda, polifolia Marsh Andromeda. 

A ligustrina Panicled Lyonia. 

Cassandra, calyculata Leather-leaf. [berry. 

Gaultheria, procumbens Wintergreen. . Checker- 

Epigfea, repens Trailing Arbutus. May- 

Kalmia, latifolia Mountain Laurel. 

K angustifolia Sheep Poison. 

K glauca Swamp Laurel. 

Rhododendron, nudiflorum Swamp Pink. 

R viscosum Clammy Swamp Pink. 

Ledum, latifolium Labrador Tea. 

Pyrola, rotundifolia Round-leaved Pyrola. 

P chlorantha Green-flowered Pyrola. 

P elliptica Shin-leaf. 

P secunda One-sided Pyrola. 

Chimaphila, umbellata Prince's Pine. Pipsissewa, 

C maculata Spotted Wintergreen. 


Monotropa, uniflora Indian Pipe. 

M hypopitys Pine Sap. 

Pterospora, andromedea Giant Bird's Nest. 

Prinos, verticillatus Black Alder. Win ter-berry . 


Trientalis, Americana Chickweed Wintergreen. 

Lysimachia, stricta Loosestrife. 

L ciliata Ciliate-leaved Loosestrife. 

L quadrifolia Four-leaved Loosestrife. 

L thyrsiflora Tufted Loosestrife. 

Anagallis, arvensis Poor-man's Weather Glass . 


Plantago, major Common Plantain. Ribwort. 

P lanceolata Lance-leaved Plantani. 

P Rugelii Rugel's Plantain. 


Utricularia, vulgaris Common Bladderwort. 

U minor Smaller Bladderwort. 

U cornuta Horned Bladderwort. 


Aphyllon, uniflorum One-flowered Broomrape. 

Conopholis, Americana American Broomrape. 

Epiphegus, Virginiana Beech-drops. 


Verbascura, Thapsus Common Mullein. 

V Blattaria Moth Mullein. 

Linaria, vulgaris Toad Flax. Snap-dragon. 

L Canadensis Canadian Snap-dragon. 

Scrophularia, nodosa Figwort. 

Chelone, glabra Snake-head. 

Pentstemon, pubescens Beard-tongue. 

Mimulus, ringens Monkey Flower. 

I Gratiola, aurea Golden Hedge Hyssop. 

; G Virginiana Virginian Hedge Hyssop. 

] Veronica, Americana Brooklime. 

! V Virginica Culver's Physic. 

V scutellata Marsh Speedwell. 

V officinalis Officinal Speedwell. 

V peregrina Purslane Speedwell. 

V agrestis Field Speedwell. 

V serpyllifolia Thyme-leaved Speedwell. 

Gerardia, purpurea Purple Gerardia. 

G tenuiiolia Small Purple Gerardia. 

Dasy stoma, quercifolia Oak-leaved Dasystoma. 

D flava Downy Dasystoma. 

! D pedicularia Lousewort Dasystoma. 

[ Pedicularis, Canadensis Lousewort. 

Melampyrum, pratense Cow Wheat. 


Verbena, hastata Vervain, Simpler's Joy. 

V urticifoha Nettle-leaved Vervain. 

Phryma, leptostachya Phryma or Lopseed. 


Mentha, Canadensis Horsemint. 

M viridis Spearmint. 

M piperita Peppermint. 




Isanthus, caeruleus Blue Gentian. 

Lycopus, sinuatus Water Hoarhound. 

L Virginicus Bugle Weed. 

Monarda, didyma Mountain Mint. 

M fistulosa Horsemint, Wild Berga 


Origanum, vulgare Wild Marjoram. 

Hedeoma, pulegioides Pennyroyal. 

Melissa, officinalis Balm. 

Collinsonia, Canadensis Stone-root. 

Scutellaria, galericulata Common Scull-cap. 

S lateriflora Mad-dog Scull-cap. 

Brunella, vulgaris Self-heal. Blue-curls. 

Nepeta, cataria Catnip, Catmint. 

N Glechoma Gill-over-the-ground. 

Physostegia, Virginiana Lion's Heart. 

Lamium, amplexicaule Henbit. 

Leonurus, Cardiaca Motherwort. 

Galeopsis, Tetrahit Hemp Nettle. 

Stachys, aspera Hedge Nettle. 

Marrubium, vulgare Hoarhound. 

Trichostema, dichotomum Blue-curls. 

Teucrium, Canadense Wild Germander. 


Echium, vulgare Viper's Bugloss. 

Symphytum, officinale Comfrey. 

Lycopsis, arvensis Wild Bugloss. 

Onosmodium, Virginianum False Gromwell. 

Lithospermum, arvense Corn Gromwell. 

L. (Batschia), canescens Puccoon. 

Mertensia, Virginica Virginian Lungwort. 

Cynoglossum, officinale Hound's Tongue. 

C Morisoni Beggar's Lice. 

Echinospermum Lappula Burr-seed . 

Hydrophyllum, Virginicum Virginian Water-leaf. 


Convolvulus, arvense Small Bindweed. 

C purpureus Common Morning Glory. 

Calystegia, spithamsea Sweet Bindweed. 

C sepium Hedge Bindweed. 

Cuscuta, Gronovii. Dodder. 


Datura, Stramonium Thorn Apple. 

Hyoscyamus, niger t.'ommon Henbane. 

Physalis, viscosa Ground Cherry. 

Solanum, Dulcamara Woody Nightshade. 

S nigrum Common Nightshade. 


Gentiana, saponaria Soapwort Gentian. 

G quinqueflora Five-flowered Gentian. 

G crinita Blue-fringed Gentian. 


Apocynum, adrosaemifolium Dogbane. 

A cannabinum Indian Hemp. 

Asclepias, Cornuti Common Silkweed. 

Asclepias, phytolaccoides Poke-leaved Silkweed. 

A incarnata Rose-colored Silkweed. 

A quadrifolia Four-leaved Silkweed. 

A tuberosa Butterfly Weed. 

A verticillata Whorl-leaved Silkweed. 

A obtusifolia Obtuse-leaved Silkweed. 


Fraxinus, Americana White Ash. 

F sambucifolia Black Ash. 

F pubescens Red Ash. 

Asarum, Canadense Wild Ginger. 


Atriplex, Hortensis Garden Orache. 

A patula Spreading Atriplex. 

A rosea Rose Atriplex. 

Blitum, capitatum Strawberry Blite. 

Chenopodium, album Pig Weed. 

C hybridum Tall Goosefoot. 

C anthelminticum. . . .Worm Seed. 

C Botrys Jerusalem Oak. 


Amarantus, albus White Amaranth. 

A blitoides Low Amaranth. 

A retroflexus Pigweed. 

A viridis Green Amaranth. 


Polygonum, aviculare Knot-grass. 

P ereclum Knot-grass. 

P Hydropiperoides Water Pepper. 

P Persicaria Lady's Thumb. 

1' Pennsylvanicum Pennsylvanian Knot-grass 

P Virginianum Virginian Knot-grass. 

P articulatum Jointed Polygonum. 

P sagittatum Scratchgrass. 

P arifolium Hastate Knot-grass. 

P Convolvulus Knot Bindweed. 

P cilinode Hairy node Polygonum. 

P dumetorum False Buckwheat. 

Rumex, crispus Yellow Dock. 

R verticillatus Swamp Dock. 

R Britannica British Water Dock. 

R obtusifolius Bitter Dock. 

R Acetosella Field Sorrel, Horse Sorrel. 

Phytolacca, .decandra Poke, Garget Weed. 


Benzoin, Lindera Fever Bush, Spice Wood. 

Sassafras, officinale Sassafras. 


Comandra, umbellata Bastard Toadflax. 

Nyssa, multifiora Pepperidge. 

Dirca, palustris Leather-wood. 


Ulmus, Americana American Elm, White 

U f^va . . . • Slippery or Red Elm. 




Euphorbia, CoroUata Flowering Spurge. 

E Cyparissias Cypress Spurge. 

E Lalhyrus Caper Spurge. 

E hypericifolia Eye-bright. 

E maculata Spotted Spurge. 

Acalypha, Virginica Three-seeded Mercury. 

Platanus, occidentaUs Button Wood, Sycamore. 


Morjis, rubra Red Mulberry. 

Laportea, Canadensis Wood Nettle. 

Pilea, pumila Richweed, Stingless Net- 

Urtica, dioica Stinging Nettle. 

U urens Burning or Dwarf Nettle. 

Boehmeria, cylindrica False Nettle. 

Uumulus, Lupulus Common Hop. 

Parietaria, Pennsylvanica Pellitory. 


Juglans, cinerea Butternut. 

J nigra Black Walnut. 

Carya, alba Shag-bark Hickory. 

C tomentosa Mockernut Hickory. 

C porcina Hog Walnut. 

C amara Bitternut Hickory. 


Quercus, alba White Oak. 

Q macrocarpa Bur Oak. 

Q Prinus Swamp Chestnut Oak. 

Q bicolor Swamp White Oak. 

Q montana Rock Oak. 

Q rubra Red Oak. 

Q coccinea Scarlet Oak. 

Q tinctoria Black Oak. 

Q ilicifoha Scrub Oak. 

Q prinoides Chinquepin Oak. 

Castanea, vesca Chestnut. 

Fagus, ferruginea Beech. 

Corylus, Americana Hazel . 

C rostrata Beaked Hazel . 

Ostrya, Virginica Iron Wood . 

Carpinus, Americana Hornbeam. Water Beech. 


Betula, lenta Black Birch . 

B lutea Yellow Birch. 

B populLfolia White Birch. 

B papyracea Canoe Birch. 

Alnus, incana Common Alder. 

A . . . . serrulata Smooth Alder. 

Comptonia, asplenifolia Sweet Fern. 


Salix, discolor Bog Willow. 

S petiolaris Petioled Willow. 

S Sericea Silky Willow. 

S viminalis Basket Osier. 

S purpurea Purple Willow. 

Salix, cordata Heart-leaved Willow. 

S . . . . longifolia Long-leaved Willow. 

S lucida Shining Willow. 

S. . , . nigra Black Willow. 

S alba White Willow. 

S . . . . myrtilloides Myrtle Willow. 

S . . . . humilis Low Willow. 

S tristis Dwarf Gray Willow. 

S livida Livid Willow. 

Populus, tremuloides American Aspen, White 


P grandidentata Large-toothed Aspen. 

P dilatata Lombardy Poplar. 

P monilifera Necklace Poplar. 

P Candicans Balm-of-Gilead. 


Pinus, resinosa Norway or Red Pine. 

P rigida Pitch Pine. 

P Strobus White Pine. 

Abies, Canadensis Hemlock. 

Larix, Americana American Larch. 

Thuja, occidentaUs Arbor Vitee. 

Juniperus, communis Common Juniper. 

J Virginiana Red Cedar. 

Taxus, Canadensis .Dwarf Yew. 


Arisa^ma, triphyllum Jack-in-the-Pulpit. 

A dracontium Green Dragon. 

Peltandra, Virginica Arrow Arum. 

Calla, palustris Wild Calla. 

Acorus, Calamus Sweet Flag. 

Symplocarpus, fcelidus Skunk Cabbage. 


Typha, latifolia Cat-tail, Reed Mace. 

Sparganium, eurycarpum Bur Reed. 


Zannichellia, palustris Horn Pond weed. 

Potamogeton, Claytoni Clayton's Pondweed. 

P hybridus Pondweed. 

P lucens Shining Pondweed. 

P amplifolius Large-leaved Pondweed. 

P pusillus Small Pondweed. 


Alisma, Plantago Water Plantain. 

Sagitlaria, variabilis Arrowhead. 

S pusilla Puny Arrowhead. 

S heterophylla Various-leaved Arrow- 


Anacharis, Canadensis Waterweed. 

Vallisneria, spiralis Eel Grass. 


Microstylis, ophioglossoides Adder's Mouth. 

Liparis, liliifolia Tway -blade. 

Corallorhlza, odontorhiza Coral Root. 

C multiflora Many-flowered Coral 


Orchis, spectabilis Showy Orchis. 

O psycodes Purple Fringed Orchis. 




Platanthera, lacera Ragged Orchis. 

P Hookeri Hooker's Orchis. 

Arethusa, bulbosa Bulbous Arethusa. 

Pogonia, ophioglossoides Pogonia. 

Calopogon, pulchellus Grass Pink. 

Spiranthes, gracilis Ladies' Tresses. 

Goodyera, pubescens Raltlesnake Plantain. 

G repens Small Rattlesnake Plan- 

Listera, cordata Tway-blade. 

Cypripedium, acaule Purple Lady's Slipper. 

C parviflonim Yellow Lady's Slipper. 

C spectabile Showy Lady's Slipper. 

Tradescantia, Virginica Spider Wort. 

Xyris, Caroliniana Yellow -eyed Grass. 

Hypoxys, erecta Star-grass. 


Iris, versicolor Blue Flag. 

Sisyrinchium, anceps Blue-eyed grass. 


Smilax, rotundifolia Greenbrier. 

S herbacea Carrion Flower. 

Trillium, cernuum Nodding-flowered Trill- 

T erythrocarpum Smiling Wake-robin. 

T erectum Bath Flower Purple Trill- 

T grandiflorum Large White Trillium. 

Medeola, virginica Cucumber Root. 


Lilium, Canadense Yellow Lily. 

L superbum Turk's Cap. 

L Philadelphicum Field Lily. 

Erythronium, Americanum Yellow Erythronium. 

E albidum White Erythronium. 

Allium, tricoccum Lance-leaved Garlic. 

A Canadense Canadian Garlic, 

A vineale Crow Garlic. 

Smilacina, bifolia Two-leaved Solomon's 

S trifolia Three-leaved Solomon's 


S stellata Star Solomon's Seal. 

S racemosa Clustered Solomon's Seal. 

Clintonia, borealis Wild Lily of the Valley. 

Polygonatum, biflorum Smaller Solomon's Seal. 

P giganteum Giant Solomon's Seal. 

Uvularia, sessilifolia Bell wort. Wild Oats. 

U perfoliata Mealy Bellwort. 

U grandiflora Large-flowered Bellwort 

Streptopus, roseus Rose Twist-foot. 

Pontederia, cordata Pickerel Weed. 


Melanthium, Virginicum . .' Bunchflower. 

Veratrum, viride White Hellebore. 

The class of plants known as Cyperacea, or 
Sedges, are well represented in the county, but as 
they are in general little used for food or in the 
arts, no special notice or arrangement of the differ- 
ent species will be given. Their coarse herbage is 
often eaten by cattle, )-et they are quite destitute 
of the sweet and nutritious properties of the grasses. 
Of so little value, apparently, their abundance 
seems to authorize the belief that they subserve 
some important purpose in the economy of nature. 
The sedges grow in almost all localities, but are 
more common in the meadows, marshes and 

The GraminecB or Grasses, are universally dif- 
fused, having no other limits than those that bound 
vegetation in general. But the species and their 
characteristics are widely different as affected by 
climate and cultivation. This family of plants 
contribute more to the sustenance of man and 
beast than all others combined. Their sweet and 
nutritious properties reside both in the farinaceous 
albumen of the seed and in the herbage. To this 
order belong the several kinds of grain and grass 
that are cultivated in the county. The stems of 
many grasses contain sugar in variable quantities. 

The grains usually cultivated are Triticum 
sativum, Winter wheat ; T. aestivum, Spring wheat ; 
T. compositum, Egyptian wheat ; Secale cereale, 
Rye ; Hordeum vulgare. Barley ; H. distichum, 
Two-rnwed barley; A\ena sativa. Common oat ; with 
the varieties Black and Horse-mane oats ; Zea Mays, 
Maize or Indian corn; Sorghum saccharatum, 
Broom corn. 

The most important of the cultivated grasses are 
Phleum pratense, Timothy ; several species of Poa, 
Spear grass, Rough meadow grass, Blue grass. 
Meadow red-top, Dactylis glomerata. Orchard grass ; 
Agrostis, Red-top, White-top, Bent-grass, and some 
others. The genus Festuca gi\es Slender fescue, 
Tall fescue, ]\Icadow fescue, and Hard fescue grass. 
Other common grasses are Hair grass, Red or 
Blue-Joint, Fox-tail, Finger grass. Wild tifnothy, 
Seneca or S7vect Vernal grass, and Chess or cheat. 

Filiccs or Ferns are a large and interesting order 
of flowerless plants — admired for their elegant, 
graceful and plume-like foliage and distinguished 
by their remarkable method of reproduction, the 
organs of which, e.xamined with the aid of a good 
lens, cannot fail to interest the student. Their 



locality is scarcely limited by geographical lines. 
The more common species grow upon hard moun- 
tain soil and in swamps or moist woods. Their 
economic uses are limited, so far as now known, 
to their medicinal properties. They are much 
sought and cultivated for ornament. 

Poly podium vulgare. Common polypod ; P. Phe- 
gopteris. Triangular polypod, Aspidium acrostich- 
oides, Christmas fern ; A. Thelypteris, Marsh shield 
fern ; A. marginale. Marginal shield fern ; A. 
dilatatum. Broad shield fern ; Asplenium ebeneum. 
Ebony spleenwort ; A. Trichomanes Dwai/ spleen- 
wort A. Angustifolium, Narrow-leaved spleen- 
wort ; A. Ruta-muraria, Wall-rue spleenwort; 
A. Filix-foemina, Lady fern ; Woodsia llvensis. 
Rusty Woodsia, Pteris aquilina, Conmion brake ; P. 
atropurpurea, Rock brake; Adiantum pedatum. 
Maidenhair; Dicksonia pilosiuscula. Fine-haired 
mountain fern ; Osmunda cinnamomea. Cinna- 
mon - colored fern ; O. regalis. Royal-flowering 
fern ; Cystopteris bulbifera Bulb-bearing Cystopteris ; 
C. fragilis. Brittle fern ; Onoclea sensibilis. Sensitive 
fern — are among the ferns found in Albany County. 

The: EquisetacecB or Horsetails, (Rushes), an order 
of vegetables growing in wet grounds, on river 
banks and borders of moist woods, are represented 
in the county by Equisetum hyemale. Scouring 
rush , K. arvense. Field horsetail ; E. limosum, 
Pipes and E. sylvaticum. Wood horsetail. 

Of the Lycopodiaccw or Club mosses, we have Lv- 
copodium cla\'atum, Common club moss ; L. com- 
planatum. Ground pine , L. Dendroideum, Tree 
club moss ; Selaginella rupestris, Rock club moss. 

Quadrupeds. — Two hundred and seventy-five 
years ago, in ascending the noble river that bears 
his name, Henry Hudson saw upon its banks a 
race of people clad in rude garments and armed 
with the ancient bow and arrows. They were na- 
tives of the forest ; and, like the animals about 
them, wild, fierce and savage. The earlj' immi- 
grants to this country met the same wandering na- 
tives of the woods, and with them the wild beasts 
that roamed both hill and valley, a terror and dread 
by day and by night. Where are they now .? The 
laws of civilization, the a.K and the plow, have 
wonderfully interfered with their rights and des- 
troyed their freedom of domain. No more is 
heard in our county of die savage war-whoop of 
. the Indian, the ferocious bark of the wolf, the 
piercing cry of the wild cat, the growl of the bear, 
or the plaintive bleat of the deer. These animals, 
once common in the county and familiar to the 

early settlers, have disappeared. No longer does 
the beaver aflFord profit or amusement to the 
hunter. The otter, too, has gone, and with it the 
hedge-hog and the porcupine. Two years ago, 
near the farm of Hon. Erastus Corning, a porcu- 
pine was shot, which is preserved as a specimen 
in the Museum of Natural History, at Albanv. 
1 he noble bison and elk, monarchs of the forest, 
if they once roamed our forests in freedom, as 
some believe, have sought more secure and favored 

Among the primitive quadrupeds yet to be found 
in the county are the fox, raccoon, woodchuck, 
skunk, grey and white rabbit, muskrat, mink, 
weasel, grey and red squirrel, striped and flying 
squirrel, mole, mice of several kinds ; all insig- 
nificant as compared with those proud occupants 
of our old forests. 

Birds. — The birds form no small part of the 
natural history of the county. Many of them, 
with their jo}'ous songs, are welcome harbingers ot 
spring, assuring us that the icy fetters of winter 
are broken, that the mild rays of the vernal sun 
will soon warm the earth. The husbandman is 
made glad when he hears the first note of the blue- 
bird, the rapturous music of the robin, or the 
mellow call of the whip-poor-will. 

Among our rapacious birds are the great hen- 
hawk, goshawk, pigeon-hawk, shrike or butcher- 
bird, the grey, horned and barn owl, crow, great 
blue heron, small heron, bittern and kingfisher. 
But few game birds are found in the county, and 
these are protected by stringent laws. During the 
few months in which they can be legally killed, 
the huntsmen seem to have no thought for the 
future, but are so reckless that few remain for the 
ne.xt season's reproduction. Partridge, woodcock, 
snipe, plover and, rarely, a quail, with an occa- 
sional meadow lark, comprise the list. 

Among the song birds are the robin, golden and 
orchard oriole, brown and wood thrush, cat-bird, 
bobolink, bluebird, grey and hedge sparrow, 
chirp and yellow bird, titmouse, red and black- 
winged phoebe, bluejay, kingbird, blackbird, 
barn, chimney and mason swallows, several kinds 
of woodpeckers, crested tit, house wren, cuckoo, 
dove, whip-poor-will, night-hawk and several vari- 
eties of the humming-birds, and the cedar or 
cherry bird. The habits of these birds are as 
various as the classes they represent. The greater 
number are migrator)-, arriving here during the 
spring months. The first to leave is the bobo- 
link ; others follow at irregular intervals. Almost 
the last to leave for a more genial clime is the 



robin. The indiscriminate and wanton destruction 
of our harmless birds by the ruthless sportsmen 
is having a marked effect upon the increase of 
insects and worms, injurious to vegetation. 

Fishes. — The creeks running through the 
county, as well as the Hudson, early abounded in 
fish. Pike and sturgeon were caught even in Fox 
Creek, now filled up or used as a covered sewer. 
A sturgeon was sold for a knife in that early day. 
Salmon has rarely been found in our river, the fish 
preferring clearer, rocky rivers, like the Connecticut 
and Kennebec. Herring once made Saratoga 
Lake their grand rendezvous, and were in plenty. 
The dams have turned them away. Shad and 
bass are not plentiful so far up stream as our county 
for lack of suitable accommodations ; but they are 
abundant in the river, as are also the usual variety 
of small fish. Trout was once very abundant in 
the clear streams of the county. 

The sharp-nosed sturgeon, caught in the Hud- 
son, is from four to eight feet in length, and varies 
in weight from loo to 450 pounds. A few years 
ago one was caught weighing 486 pounds. The 
annual catch commences in April and continues 
into the autumn. This fish is caught in most of 
the- fishing places from New York bay to Troy, 
and is a great favorite in the river towns. It is 
sometimes called "Albany beef" Its oil is used 
for the same purpose as sperm oil, and in the treat- 
ment of cuts and bruises. A favorite place for 
spawning was once at the bottom of Cohoes Falls. 
Its roes or eggs furnish one of the most alluring 
bates to the angler, as bass and man}' other fish 
delight in them for food. 

Reptiles. — Of snakes there are very few, and of 
the poisonous class none. The rattlesnake, once 
so common in the county, is no more to be 

The list comprises the black-snake and chaser, 
milk, water, garter and green snakes. Some 
lizards, newts and toads of several varieties are 

Entomology. — Varied as are the subjects con- 
nected with the Natural Histor}' of Albany County, 
that of entomology is not the least. Many insects 
are known to be injurious to trees, shrubs and 
plants under cultivation ; many are destructive to 
domestic fabrics, and in many ways are pests in 
the house, in the garden, and in the field and for- 
est A knowledge of their histor}-, habits, charac- 
ter, propagation and natural enemies, with practical 
suo-gestions for their control, and the best means 
and remedies for their destruction, should be of 
much interest and value. 

The Entomological History of New York State 
was under the supervision of Dr. Fitch for many 
years, who made very extensive collections in 
Albany and Washington counties. For ten years 
after Dr. Fitch's death no work was done by the 
State in that branch of natural history, and much 
valuable time was lost. 

In 1870, the work was resumed by Dr. J. A. 
Lintner, who was appointed State Entomologist. 
For the last fifteen years, large and extensive col- 
lections have been made by him and his associates 
for the State collection, for private cabinets, and 
for distribution in various parts of the United 
States and in Europe. 

Albany County has a favorite insect-collecting 
ground at the "Center," on the N. Y. Central R. R., 
a few miles North West from Albany. This also 
affords many plants for the botanist not obtained 
anywhere else. The Scientific American says, ' ' The 
butterflies — Lepidoptera —collected in this place are 
more extensive than in any other locality." This 
is one of the localities in the State where the 1 7 
year locusts. Cicada- Septemdecim, will appear in 

Dr. Lintner has given special attention to the 
many injurious species, in order to counteract their 
ravages and confine their area of depredations by 
proper remedies, and to the best means for their 
eradication. The subject is one of great interest 
to the farmer and the cultivator of every species of 
plant-life. Flies, beetles, moths, worms, etc., are 
the bane of the progressive agriculturist, who is con- 
stantl}' subjected to the ravages of these pests. Our 
space allows only a brief notice of a few of the 
more injurious pests that are common in the county. 

The wheat-midge, Diplosis Iritici, was formerly 
ver}- destructive, but of late }-ears its effect upon 
the wheat crop has not been perceptible. 1 he 
apple-tree borer, Saperda Candida, and the peach- 
tree borer, jEgeria exitiosa, are so common to the 
orchardist that they need no special description. 
Unless they meet with constant warfare, the trees 
in time succumb to their work. In May and 
October every tree should be carefully examined, 
and if an}- bark-dust or gnaioings are seen at the foot 
of the tree, use a sharp knife and destroy the grub ; 
or, with a wire, follow the channel made, and put 
an end to further progress. 

To prevent eggs being deposited, a shield of tin 
or tarred paper may encircle the tree for 18 inches 
in height. 

The injuries of the currant \\orm, Nematus ven- 
tricosus, have been quite se\-ere with the currant and 
gooseberry crop; but it has had a vigorous attack 


made upon it by a minute parasite, which oviposits 
in its eggs and destroys them, and has thereby done 
very much towards arresting its ravages. Among 
the remedies most potent for the destruction of the 
currant worm is Persian insect powder, or Pyre- 
thrum, and powdered Hellebore dusted upon the 
leaves when moist with dew or rain. The Helle- 
bore may be used mixed with water, and sprinkled 
from a water-pot having a fine 

The Colorado potato-beetle, Doryophora lo-lin- 
cala, made its appearance in Albany County in 1874, 
since which time it has been a plague to the farmer. 
With perseverance and occasional application of 
Paris-green incorporated with ground plaster, or 
thoroughly mixed with water, the ravages of the 
grub can be controlled. It has many enemies ; 
nearly 30 other insects prey upon it. 

The carpet beetle, Anthrenus scruphularue, re- 
ceived its first scientific notice in this country by 
Dr. Lintner, of Albany, in the year 1876. From 
examples taken in Schenectady, its true character 
was first ascertained, and its habits and life- 
history established. It has been very abundant 
and destructive in Schenectady and Albany, in the 
latter city abounding in the early summer upon 
umbelliferous plants in Washington Park. lis dis- 
tribution through the State and other States is rapidl)' 
extending. Every effort should be made to arrest 
its spread b\- the free use of benzine in its haunts. 

The white-marked tussock moth, Orgyia kucos- 
tigma, has been a great pest in Albany and Schen- 
ectady for a number of j-ears, having, at times, 
almost deioliated the elms and horse-chestnuts of 
our streets, and the plum-trees of our gardens. It 
is believed that the great increase of this pest in 
recent years is due to the introduction of the Eng- 
lish sparrow, which makes war upon and drives 
away the few birds that feed upon the hairy cater- 
pillars, of which the Orgyia is one. 

Another pest that has been quite destructive of 
late years, is the rose-bug, ot Macrudac/ylus subspm- 

The cabbage worm — larva of a butterfl)', order 
Lepidoptera — was first noticed in Albany County by 
Dr. Lintner, in July, 1870. It was introduced into 
this country about 1857. It came to Alban}- and 
vicinity in July 1870. This butterfly is the ban^.X)f 
every cabbage grower, and its larva is the dread of 
every cook. It is a voracious eater, and griW^ 
numbers of worms are often found in a single nead 
of cabbage. The natural enemy of the chrysalides 
is the larva of a minute parasitic fly, known as 
Pteromaliis puparum. Another parasite of the cab- 
bage worm is known as Apanteles congregata. 

Another parasite is the larva of a two-winged fly, 
belonging to the genus Tachina. This Tachina has 
been bred in considerable numbers by Dr. Lintner. 

The following remedies for the cabbage worm 
are used; hot water, 130° Fahrenheit, the water to 
be boiling hot, when put in the watering-pot ; 
Pyrethrum, or Persian insect-powder, half-ounce, 
with two gallons water, or half an ounce mixed 
with some dry substance, and sprinkled on the 

There are many hedges of spruce in Alban\' 
County, and the tree is extensively planted for shade 
and ornament; therefore, it ma)- be well to notice 
an enemy, recently discox'ered, which has proved 
to be very destructive to the spruce and fir trees. It 
is called elsewhere the Spruce-hud Tortrix 
Fumiferana. Besides climatic causes, the spruce 
is likely to meet with the ravages of this new enemy ; 
and if once introduced, our hedges will be at their 
mere}'. It has appeared in the State already. The 
defoliation of spruce-trees is sufficient either to kill 
the trees outright, or so weaken them, that bark- 
boring beetles can complete the work of destruction. 
Trees attacked by these caterpillars look as if a 
light fire had passed through them. It feeds upon 
the leaves or needles of the terminal shoots, and 
while at its work scarcely alters the appearance of 
the tree, and its presence is known only when the 
worms are abundant enough to defoliate the trees. 

The imported elm-leaf beetle, GaUeruceUa Xan- 
thotnelcETia. — The depredations of this pest have 
become widely extended throughout the North 
eastern States, preying upon the elms. The eggs 
are deposited in an upright position upon the under 
side of the leaves, generally in two, more or less 
irregular rows. The eggs are close together and 
firmly fastened to the leaf; they vary in number 
from four or five to twenty-five ; in shape, oblgjig, 
oval, obtusely pointed at the tip, and of a straw- 
3-ellow color. The duration of the egg-state is 
about one week. Th6 larvae are destructi\%to the 
foliage from May to August, and haj:e aliout two 
weeks of active life betwe.en the" egg and pupa 
state. During this^jime they devour the leaves, 
which become sJi©letonized. The beetle assists 
the worms iiftts destructive work, but the worms 
do thg3Baost damage. In the month of September 
^tteoeetles prepare for hibernation, seeking shelter 
in hollow trees, in the ground, under old leaves, 
and remain dormant until the following spring. 
The remedies recommended are many — such as 
tarring the trees, oil and tar gutters around the base 
of the tree, hot water and tobacco juice, arsenical 
preparations, Paris-green, London purple, in pro- 



portion, one-half pound, flour three quarts, and 
water 40 gallons. 

In the wide range of insect life few forms 
possess a greater vitality than is found among the 
bark-lice, and none are more readily transported 
upon plants from place to place, and from one 
country to another. Among the remedies the 
following is one which was proved in practice 
useful when a moderate quantity of emulsion is 
required : 

Kerosene two gallons, common soap or whale- 
oil soap one-half pound, water one gallon. Heat 
the solution of soap and add it boiling hot to 
the kerosene. Churn the mixture thoroughly, 
which, when cool, forms a thick cream ; dilute, 
before using, one part of the mixture with nine 
parts of cold water. The above gives three 
gallons of emulsion, and makes, when diluted, 30 
gallons of wash. The percentage of oil can be 
considerably increased, as can also the amount of 
soap, without danger to most trees or plants. 
Kerosene differs from most other remedial agents 
in being entirely harmless to tender young growths, 
blossom buds and young fruit, if properly diluted. 
It may therefore be applied to bearing trees at 
seasons when other insectcides would cause more 
or less loss of growth and of fruit. The most 
favorable season for appl)-ing kerosene washes is, 
undoubtedly, early spring, as soon or as all danger 
of frost is past 

The reports of Prof Riley, of the Department of 
Agriculture, and of Prof J. A. Lintner, State 
Entomologist, have been ver}' helpful in the prepara- 
tion of this section. Much more might be added, 
if our space would allow. 


The principal timber or trees yet growing upon 
the hills and in the small patches of forest are 
pines, white, yellow and pitch ; oaks, several vari- 
eties ; maples, birch, beech, elm, hemlock, chest- 
nut and hickory ; on the sandy regions, dwarf 
species of evergreen trees. Red cedar grows to a 
limited extent in several localities, particularly 

upon rocky wastes. The law of demand has 
asserted its prerogative in the general physical 
characteristics of the county, which is well illus- 
trated by the rapid denudation and recent 
destruction of forests for the requirements of 
modern progress and internal improvements. 
While these add largely to the wealth of the 
country, agriculture is in a measure deprived of 
its greatest need, an abundant rainfall. The one 
thing essential to fertility is a constant supply 
of water, and this is supplied by condensation from 
the atmosphere, which appears in the form of snow 
or rain, depending upon the temperature and 
surrounding ph)'sical condition of the locality. 
When we estimate the number of acres of forest 
that are required for fuel and building material, 
and the almost unlimited demand made to supply 
the railroads, we can readily see how, in a few 
j-ears, the whole character of the climate and 
productions of a region ma}- be changed by the 
destruction of its forests. Trees, with forest 
vegetation, perform an important function in the 
great economy of nature. They furnish natural 
barriers against sudden floods; their roots permeate 
the soil, and thus prevent torrents from sweeping 
away the soil and conveying the accumulated debris 
m heaps upon the cultivated land. The foliage of 
the trees, which present such an immense surface, 
condenses the atmospheric moisture, which would 
otherwise be taken on the aerial currents and 
carried awa}'. Physical geography demonstrates 
this fact, that the destruction of forest growth 
diminishes the amount of rainfall in that region. 
In accordance with natural laws, the fertility 
depends, in a great degree, upon this. Therefore, 
to destroy the forests is to diminish one of the great 
sources of productiveness of the soil. It is clear, 
therefore, that the destruction of the forests has a 
direct influence upon agriculture, by diminishing 
the quantity of rainfall, inducing drouth by 
uninterrupted raj-s of the sun, and by the wind 
currents which meet with no obstructions and 
cause less deposit of moisture. 

Under this head other facts of interest will be 
given in the histor}- of the City of Albanv. 



Table showing monthl}'- rainfall and mean temperature, for each month of the year, from 1874 to 1884, 
inclusive, as obtained from the records of the "United States Signal Service," at Albany, kept 
by Major John O. Barnes. 



1875. 1876. 














































1. 14 






April , 













Total for year . 












The greatest rainfall for any year was in 1878. The least rainfall in 1880. The greatest rainfall 
for any month was October, 1877. The least for any one month was October, 1882. The total rainfall 
for the full ten years was 380.38 inches, and the average yearly rainfall for 10 years was 38.038 inches. 














Average for each 

Highest in the 











17. 1 

23 I 








56. 5 



71 8 










31 3 




















47 -o 














6i .2 









Average temperature for ten years, 48.23 degrees. The highest temperature for any year was 188 1, 
and the lowest, 1875. The coldest month was January, 1875. The coldest days were in 1875 and 
1878. The hottest month was July, 1880. The hottest day was in 188 1. 




The early history of Albany County, like that of 
every section of our country, is more or less in- 
timately connected with that of the aboriginal In- 
dian. When the Half-moon first entered the 
"great river" which gives, "as long as water 
runs," immortality to the name of Hudson, it met 
hostility and murder from the savages that dwelt 
around its lower waters. Sailing up the river, a 
few days later, with the same ship and crew, it is 
recorded of the savages that "we found very loving 
people and very old men, where we were well 
used." These Indians belonged to two great 
families. The former were of the Algonquins or 
Adirondacks, of which the Manhattan and the 
Delaware tribes occupied the territory about New 
York City and the valley of the Delaware River. 
With these the early settlers upon Manhattan and 
Long Island and the lower Hudson Valley had 
much trouble, involving destruction of property 
and barbarian devastation and murder. The lat- 
ter were called 1 roquois by the French ; Five, 
afterward Six Nations, by the English ; and, by 
themselves, Aquanuschioni, signifying a united 
people, or Ongue-houwe, a superior people. These 
were divided into tribes, under the separate names 
of Mohawks, Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayugas and 
Senecas, to which were added later the Tuscaroras. 

At the time the early traders came up the Hud- 
son, these tribes claimed most of the territory now 
constituting the State of New York and a portion 
of Pennsylvania, as their hunting grounds. Here 
they had their villages, and the lands they claimed 
as their own. No one could tell how they came 
here or when. They were distinguished above all 
other Indians of North America for intelligence, 
eloquence, endurance and cruelty. But they re- 
ceived the early Dutch traders in the most friendly 
manner, and for a great many years retained with 
them most peaceful relations in trade, even while 
carrying on war with others in a spirit of inplacable 
revenge, with all the varieties of torture and bar- 
barity of which the race was capable. 

A firm and lasting treaty of alliance and peace, 
it is said, was made between the great confederacy 
of the Five Nations and the Dutch, in 1618, as be- 
fore suggested, on the hill Tawasagunshee, near the 
banks of the Tawalsontha Creek, now Norman's 
Kill, just south of Albany. There was no love be- 
tween these contracting parties, any more than is 
usual between nations who make politic treaties of 
amity and commerce. It was a contract of selfish- 
ness and shrewdness. And as long as it was 
mutually advantageous it was unbroken. 

Let us explain the circumstances. The Dutch 
came here for money-making. They saw a rich 
mine in the fur trade. The Indians knew the 
places of the beaver and the otter, and how to 
place their furs in the hands of these eager traders. 
They, in turn, desired the European trinkets, the 
white man's fire-water, and his fearfully destructi\e 
fire-arms. These mutual interests would best be 
secured by mutual peace and helpfulness. 

These Five Nations — made Six Nations b)' the ac- 
cession of the Tuscaroras in 17 14 — had formed a 
confederacy of tribes long before this date. The 
Mohawks were the most powerful ; the Onondagas 
kept the great council fire ever burning, near where 
now is the City of Syracuse. They all had their 
villages and patches of ground, where dwelt their 
squaws, who cultivated corn, peas, beans, po- 
tatoes, melons, and cared for the infant papooses. 
They also had rude castles, made with palisades 
and brush work. The jNIohawks, as told to us, 
had five castles in 1630, viz. : Moenemines Casde, 
situated on Haver Island, at the mouth of the 
Mohawk River ; one at Schenectad)' ; one at 
Fort Hunter, at the outlet of Schoharie Creek, 
called Ticonderoga ; one in the present town ot 
Mohawk, called Caughnawaga ; one, the great 
casrie, in the present town of Danube, called Cana- 
joharie. At this time they numbered about 600 
warriors. \\'hile their castles were on or near the 
Mohawk, their ownership in the soil extended, on 
the west side of the Hudson, as far south as the 
Catskills,' north to the Canadas, and west includ- 
ing the present counties of Saratoga, Schenectady, 
Montgomery, Herkimer, Schoharie, Otsego, Greene 
and Albany. The Oneidas and Cayugas were 
understood to be the younger members of the con- 
federacy. The Senecas dwelt farthest west, and 
were remarkable for their fierce and implacable 
nature. When first known to Europeans, they 
were unitedly engaged in war with nearly all the 
surrounding tribes. 

These confederates did not unite in the interest 
of peace and progress, but for w-ar and revenge. 
Of all employments, war was their delight. Noth- 
ing was sweeter to them than revenge. They were 
cunning and daring, alert and brave, unfeehng 
and cruel. With the war club, the tomahawk, 
the bow and the arrow, rude weapons of war, 
they had carried terror to the wilds of Canada ; 
had gained victories on Lake Huron ; had made 
tributary the Delawares and the Mohegans, and 
had, with unfeeling arrogance, brought into sub- 
mission the weaker tribes in their reach, and, by 
reckless courage and formidable numbers, com- 



manded the respect and awe of most of the power- 
ful tribes from the Mississippi to the Atlantic. Such 
was the state of things when Samuel Champlain 
came up the beautiful lake that bears his name, 
only about two months before the Mohawks so lov- 
ingly welcomed Hudson. At this time the 
Iroquois were waging relentless war with the 
Hurons and Adirondacks. Entering into an al- 
liance with these Canada tribes, Champlain fur- 
nished them with fire-arms and taught their use. 
The astonished Iroquois found themselves defeated 
in almost every encounter. They were humbled. 
Smarting under disgraceful defeat, they hailed the 
advent of the Dutch with delight, as a new people 
coming among them with the terrible enginery of 
powder and guns, as against the arrow and the 
tomahawk. They cultivated their friendship, and 
aided their enterprises with alacrity. Such were 
the circumstances that led to that treaty on the 
banks of the Norman's Kill, which, as tradition has 
it, was early made between the Dutch and the Iro- 
quois. By this treaty, the Dutch secured for them- 
selves the quiet possession of the coveted Indian 
trade, and the Six Nations obtained the means to 
assert that ascendancy which they long after main- 
tained over neighboring tribes, inspiring terror, far 
and near, among the other savages of North Amer- 

Delighted with their improved weapons of death, 
the Iroquois put them in immediate use. They 
had at least 3,000 warriors ; they were free men 
and united ; they were at home in their well-trod- 
den warpaths, hunting grounds and wilderness 
fastnesses. Champlain was compelled to retreat 
from his invasions into the Mohawk territory. The 
Hurons were pursued without mercy, and entirely 
dispersed ; the Eries were extirpated, leaving as 
their monument their name only upon the beauti- 
ful lake on the shores of which they dwelt ; and 
the more formidable Andastes were blotted from 
existence. New France, with its allies, for many 
years suffered from their menaces, incursions and 
sanguinary conflicts. Even Quebec, its leading 
city, was threatened with devastation. 

The policy followed by the early Dutch traders 
of Albany was well adapted to attach the Indians 
to them. It appealed to their self-interests. It 
aided them in their favorite pursuits of hunting and 
war. It gratified their love of trinkets and orna- 
ments ; it gave them strong water to drink, 
powder and guns, knives and hatchets. It re- 
strained none of their vices or habits of cruelty 
when they did not interfere with the profits of 
trade. The English successors of the Dutch con- 

tinued their policy. The unprovoked attack of 
Champlain upon the Iroquois in 1609 engendered 
intense hatred towards Canada and the whole 
French race and its allies for long years. No op- 
portunity for revenge was neglected. In the con- 
tests for territory that followed, with slight inter- 
ruptions, until the fall of Quebec in 1759, ^^'^ ^^^ 
surrender of the North American possessions of 
the French to the English, the Six Nations were, 
with few exceptions, faithful friends to the English 
colonies, shielding them on many occasions from 
hostile attacks, and aiding them in the hour of 

Whatever, then, relates to their history is perti- 
nent to the history of Albany County. 

During all this period — extending over 150 
years, until the Revolution — the Mohawks gener- 
ally continued the friends of Albany, remembering 
the belt of peace, the token of eternal union, 
given and received on the banks of that romantic 
stream. As the oldest, bravest and most powerful 
of the confederate tribes, the}' shaped their general 
policy and conduct. Most warlike, rapacious, 
treacherous and cruel, they were, it must be seen, 
kept on terms of peace and friendship only from 
motives of fear, want, self-preservation and vanity. 

They were a protection against the warlike tribes 
on the north, east and south, because all stood in 
fear of them. To them these tribes were in sub- 
jection ; to them they paid tribute as a token of 

It is well known that the Mohawks of Caughna- 
waga were seduced b)' the French about the year 
1 671, and renioved to Canada. It was these In- 
dians who visited Schenectady with the French, 
February 8, 1690, desolated the village in the 
night by fire, and murdered and carried captive its 
peaceful inhabitants. This event deeply stirred 
the people of Albany, and taught them more fully 
how little reliance they could place upon these 
savages, uncontrolled by self-interest, unrestrained 
by fear. Nothing but a belief that the city was well 
protected and prepared against them prevented 
these vandals from making a like attack upon Al- 
bany. Indeed, it is believed that the expedition 
was planned in Canada and undertaken against 
Albany. But the severe cold, deep snows, long 
march and hunger, led them to change their plan 
and fall upon the nearer and weaker town of 

Except these few, then, who were led by the 
French Jesuits to remove to Canada and join the 
interests of the French, the Iroquois were true to 
the Dutch ; and, after the government passed into 



the hands of the English, they adhered to the 
' ' Corlear " or British interests against the ' ' Yonon- 
dio "or French nation. They continued to do all 
in their power against the Canadian Indians and 
the Canadian towns until the fall of Quebec brought 
them in subjection to Great Britain. Thus they 
proved serviceable to the colonies up to the time 
of the American Revolution. During this dark 
and painful struggle with the Mother Country 
many of them, under the influence of Sir John 
Johnson, Guy Johnson, Joseph Brandt, the But- 
lers and other Tories, became a terror to their for- 
mer friends, and carried fire, devastation and 
murder into many new settlements. The story of 
Cherry Valley and of the Valley of Wyoming re- 
cords their savage cruelty ; and many homes in 
the Valley of the Mohawk, of Schoharie, of the 
Delaware and the Minnisink witnessed their base 
treachery and pitiless murders. "The whole con- 
federacy,'' says De Witt Clinton, "except a little 
more than half the Oneidas, took up arms against 
us. They hung like the scythe of death upon the 
rear of our settlements, and their deeds are in- 
scribed with the scalping knife and the tomahawk, 
in characters of blood, on the fields of Wyoming 
and Cherry Valley, and on the banks of the Mo- 
hawk. " 

The Mohawks, once sustaining the most inti- 
mate relations with the Dutch and English col- 
onial fur traders, were the most active and cruel 
enemies of the Americans in these bloody scenes. 
Thayendanega, known as Col. Joseph Brant, a 
Mohawk chief, educated by Sir William Johnson 
in the Lebanon school, under the wise and pious 
Wheelock, was their leader. They were obliged, 
at the close of the Revolution, to leave the State 
and take refuge in Canada. Most of the Oneidas 
were true to the Colonies through the influence of 
that wise and good man, Rev. Samuel Kirkland, 
who came among them from Connecticut as a mis- 
sionar}-, in 1769. He was aided by the chief 
Shenandoa, who was greatly attached to him. 
Some of the Tuscaroras also took sides with the 
Colonies. The fragments of the great confederation 
that remain are entirel}' changed in character and 
habits. They have lost their ancient power and 
their prestige. 

These New York Indians, who were led by Tory 
gifts, promises and lying statements, to take sides 
against the colonists in favor of the King of Great 
Britain, gained no advantage. They lost most of 
their best warriors and their lands, and have since 
been poor outcasts. This they saw at the close of 
the war, and expressed deep regrets at their folly. 

Brant died on the west shore of Lake Ontario in 
1807, expressing regrets at many of his deeds of 
cruelty, and endeavoring to persuade the historian 
to remember that he was far better than his Tory 
and British associates. Shenandoa died in the 
Christian faith in 1816, at the age of no, and was 
buried by the side of his beloved Kirkland, that he 
might "go up with him at the resurrection." 
Red Jacket, Corn Planter, Farmer's Brother, Half 
Town and Big Tree, after the Revolution, were 
true and faithful allies to the United States. Their 
conduct inspired respect, and brought much sym- 
pathy and favor towards their nation, the Senecas. 

The aggregate number of the Iroquois confed- 
eracy at the time when the Hollanders first began 
trade on the Hudson is estimated at about 40,000. 
Of their descendants probably not more than 
5,000 remain. A very small remnant, weak, de- 
pendent and peaceable, remain in this State. In 
the State Census of 1875, only one was found in 
Albany County, and none in Rensselaer, Saratoga, 
Schenectady, Montgomery and Schoharie. 

It is worthy of remark that the County of Albany 
was exempt from depredations by Tories and In- 
dians during the entire War of the Revolution, 
while all around, in the old Tryon and Schoharie 
Counties, the settlers were kept in almost constant 
fear of sudden invasion and carnage. The only 
exception occurred in the present town of Berne, 
near Schoharie County, where the Dietz family of 
eight persons were murdered or taken captives by 
the Indians. This was done, it is presumed, by a 
misunderstanding, or from private revenge. 

This deliverance is generally attributed to the fact 
that the county abounded in Tories, who had here 
their rendezvous in caves and out-of-the-way 
houses, and were in constant communication with 
the Tory leaders of these savage bandits. By the 
aid they rendered them, good will and personal 
safety were secured. Along and near the valleys 
of the Mohawk and Schoharie were twenty-four 
forts environing the county. These were only a 
partial defense. The City of Albany was well pro- 
tected by forts and arms. 


As the only object of those who first came to 
this region, as is well known, was trade with the 
Indians, no land was called for except what was 
needed for trading posts. We have no mention of 
any purchases of territory here before the initiatory 
steps to the settlement of Rensselaerwyck were 
taken. Before this the natives attached no value to 
land, if so be that their own pursuits were not im- 



peded. We take it that they were dehghted to see 
the trader's cabin, his trading house and his rude 
fort, and never thought of invasion of their own 
rights so long as trade was free and profitable — so 
long as they could obtain clothing, rum, guns and 
trinkets in return for corn and beans, venison 
and beaver. The forts on Castle Island, on the 
Tasawantha and Fort Orange were, we think, 
erected without formal consent and held by peace- 
able possession. They were obtained by good 
will, good hopes and politic presents. The servants 
of the Netherland companies came on hire, not to 
stay — came only as agents of adventurers, and had 
no need to own land. They were temporary squat- 
ters. Their shelters were traders' tents and hunters' 

Thus it was, probably, until about 1630. When 
the charter of privileges and e.xemptions was made 
in 1629, for the encouragement of colonization in 
New Netherlands, by making conditional grants to 
patroons who would take certain lands and occupy 
them with settlers, Kilian Van Rensselaer pur- 
chased the titles of the Indians as his potent and 
wise policy dictated. The territory selected by 
him occupied twenty-four miles on each side 
of the Hudson River, and extended twent3'-four 
miles up and down the river, including all of Albany 
County and most of Rensselaer and a part of 
Columbia Count}', as they now exist. This grant 
was understood by the patroon to include also Fort 
Orange and Beverwyck, and so it was subse- 
quently decided by the English Crown. This 
claim was given up by the patroon before Albany 
was chartered as a city in 1686. All other land 
titles in this county, it is believed, are derived 
from the manorial rights thus purchased from 
the agents of Kilian Van Rensselaer. By the 
terms of this grant they extinguished all Indian 


As early as 1642, a French Jesuit visited the 
Mohawk settlements with the pious design of 
introducing the Christian religion, and the patri- 
otic purpose of bringing over the IMohawks to the 
interests of the French. Several other of these 
persevering missionaries followed this pioneer dur- 
ing the succeeding 40 years, and labored with a 
fair measure of success, amid great hardships. As 
previously stated, in 167 1 a large number left the 
Caughnawaga Castle and removed to Canada, where 
their descendants may be found to this day in an 
Indian village a little above jMontreal. They still 

speak the Mohawk dialect, and have devotional 
books printed in that language. 

French missionaries were found among all the 
Indian tribes at an early date after the discovery of 
Canada, many of them talented, learned, devoted 
and pious. They endured much from destitution, 
wearying toil and even suffered death, while en- 
deavoring to convert these savages to the religion 
of Jesus. These were in a condition of heathen- 
ism, and capable of inflicting pitiless revenge and 
barbaric cruelty upon their prisoners. Many 
were reckoned as converted and received baptism. 
But few learned to forgive their • enemies or to 
leave off, for a long time, the vices and habits of 
their usual lives of degradation and wickedness. 
Yet, it is believed that some did, indeed, receive 
the benignant influences of the lessons of the 
Saviour of Men into their hearts, and lived better 

The Dutch and English clergy, also, endeavored 
to teach Christianity to the Indians, but their suc- 
cess was no better than that of the Catholics, unless 
it was preceded by civilization, education and good 
examples. Unfortunately, but little was thought 
of making the Indian a better man by most of the 
mercantile men of colonial daj-s. To make him 
serviceable in tiade and in war seems to have been 
the. leading policy of the European colonists of 
every nation and religion. 

Says Peter Kalm, in 1749, speaking of Indian 
conferences at Albany; "Sometimes their delib- 
erations turn upon their conversion to the Christian 
religion." Then he goes on to tell — as an indi- 
cation of the Indian feeling at that time — that 
Gov. Hunter, on one of these occasions, after he 
had presented the Indians with many clothes and 
other gifts in the name of Queen Anne, told them 
that their good mother, the Queen, had not only 
generously provided them with clothes for their 
bodies, but likewise intended to adorn their souls 
by sending them good ministers to teach them the 
gospel. Upon this announcement one of the oldest 
sachems arose and replied that, in the name of all 
the Indians, he thanked their gracious mother, the 
Queen, for the fine clothes she had sent them, but 
as to the ministers, they had already had some of 
them, who, instead of preaching the holy gospel 
to them had taught them to get drunk, to cheat 
and to quarrel. He then entreated the Governor 
to take from them these preachers and some other 
Europeans who dwelt near them ; for before they 
came among them the Indians had been honest, 
sober and innocent ; but now most of them had 
become rogues. If he would do them any favor, 



he would ask him to send two or three blacksmiths 
among them to teach them how to work iron. 

As further illustrating the estimation which many 
of the leading Indians placed upon the kind of Chris- 
tianity which was manifested in the conduct of the 
early settlers and teachers of this vicinity, we give 
the following as told by Dr. Benjamin Franklin. 
Canassatego was an Onondaga chief, living about 
1740: "Conrad Weiser, our interpreter, had 
been naturalized among the Six Nations, and 
spoke well the Mohawk language. In going 
through the Indian country to carry a message 
from our Governor to the council at Onondaga, he 
called at the habitation of Canassatego, an old 
acquaintance, who embraced him, spread furs for 
him to sit on, placed before him some boiled beans 
and venison, and mixed some rum and water for 
his drink. When he was well refreshed and had 
lit his pipe, Canassatego began to converse with 
him ; asked how he had fared the many years 
since they had seen each other ; whence he then 
came, what occasioned the journe}', &c. Conrad 
answered all his questions. The Indian, to con- 
tinue, said: 'Conrad, you have lived long 
among the white people and know something of 
their customs. I have been sometimes at Albany, 
and have observed that once in seven days they 
shut up their shops and assemble in the great 
house. Tell me what that is for .? What do they 
do there.?' 'They meet there,' said Conrad, 'to 
hear and learn good things.' 'I do not doubt,' 
said the Indian, ' that they tell you so. They have 
told me the same ; but I doubt the truth of what 
they say ; and I will tell you my reasons. I went 
lately to Albany to sell my skins and buy blankets, 
knives, powder, rum, &c. You know I used gen- 
erally to deal with Hans Hanson, but I was a little 
inclined this time to try some other merchants. 
However, I called first upon Hans, and asked him 
what he would give for beaver. He said he could 
not give more than four shillings a pound ; "but," 
says he, "I cannot talk on business now. This is 
the day when we meet together to learn good 
things, and I am going to the meeting." So I 
thought to myself, since I cannot do any business 
to-day, I may as well go to the meeting too, and 1 
went with him. There stood up a man in black, 
and began to talk to the people very angrily. I 
did not understand what he said, but, perceiving 
that he looked much at me and at Hanson, I 
imagined he was angry at seeing me there. So I 
went out, sat down near the house, struck fire and 
lit my pipe, waiting until the meeting should break 
up. I thought, too, that the man had mentioned 

something of beaver, and suspected it might be 
the subject of their meeting. So when they came 
out I accosted my merchant. "Well, Hans," says 
I, "I hope you have agreed to give more than four 
shillings a pound." "No,' says he, "I cannot give 
so much. I cannot give more than three shillings 
and sixpence." I then spoke to several other 
dealers, but they all sung the same song — three and 
sixpence, three and sixpence. This made it clear 
to me that my suspicion was right, and whatever 
they pretended of meeting to learn good things, 
the purpose was to cheat Indians in the price of 
beaver. Consider a little, Conrad, and you must 
be of my opinion. If they met so often to learn 
good things, they certainly would have learned 
some before this time. But they are still ignorant. 
You know our practice. If a white man, in travel- 
ing through our country, enters one of our cabins, 
we all treat him as I do you. We dry him if he is 
wet, we warm him if he is cold, and give him meat 
and drink that we may allay his thirst and hunger, 
and we spread soft furs that he may rest and sleep 
on. We demand nothing in return. But if I go 
into a white man's house at Albany, and ask for 
victuals and drink, they say, "Get out, you Indian 
dog." You see they have not learned those little 
good things that we need no meetings to be 
instructed in, because our mothers taught them to 
us when we were children. And therefore it is 
impossible that their meetings should be, as they 
say, for any such purpose, or have any such effect. 
They are only to contrive the cheating of Indians 
in the price of beaver.' " 

Megapolensis, the first Dutch minister in Al- 
bany, speaks of the Mohawks as "entire strangers 
to all religion." " \^■hen we pray," he writes, 
"they laugh at us. When we have a sermon, 
sometimes ten or twelve of them, more or less, 
will attend, each having a long tobacco pipe, made 
by himself, in his mouth, and will stand awhile and 
look, and afterwards ask me what I was doing and 
what I wanted, that I stood there and made so 
many words, while none of the rest might speak. 
I tell them that I admonish the Christians that 
they must not steal, nor commit lewdness, 
nor get drunk, nor commit murder, and that 
they, too, ought not to do these things, and that 
I intend, in process of time, to preach the 
same to them, and to come to them in their 
own country and castles when I am acquainted 
with their language. They sa}- I do well to teach 
the Christians, but immediately add : ' Diatennon 
jawij Assyreoni hagiowiskr'' — ;'. e., 'Why do so many 
Christians do these things ?' " And then he adds : 



"But though they are so cruel, and live without 
any punishments for evil-doers, yet there are not 
half so many villainies or murders committed 
amongst them as amongst Christians.'' 

There was, at different times, much effort made 
to convert the Indians to Christianity by French, 
Dutch and English. It was done by Government 
approval, and with aid from corporate companies 
and Indian agents, as a matter of policy. Often 
the missionaries were men of talent, piety and wis- 
dom, and quite as often they were wanting in these 
gifts. Sometimes they were unprincipled, dishon- 
est and self-seeking. Sometimes the best efforts of 
the wise and good were hindered by the conduct 
of so-called Christian traders, Governors and mili- 
tary men. Wild war and greedy traffic are not 
means of grace. Schoolcraft well says: "The 
pernicious examples of the whites in the Indian 
trade, their injustice, treacherj', licentiousness and 
greed created a deep disgust toward the European 
race in the minds of the Indians. ' 

In and near Albany County, Reformed Dutch, 
Episcopalians, Presbyterians and Lutherans all did 
missionary work among the Six Nations during the 
colonial period. The Mohawks, being nearest the 
white settlements, received special attention. De- 
nominational jealousies often appeared. There 
were few missionaries of so devoted and exalted 
character as was that of Samuel Kirkland. Hence 
few had such faithful disciples as Shenandoa. Few 
understood as did the New England John Eliot, 
the translator of the Indian Bible, and Eleazer 
Wheelock, the founder of the Indian Charity 
School of Dartmouth College, the power of earl}- 
practical education and pure Christian example as 
foundations of a lasting Christian civilization. 
Hence there were few "praying Indians," and no 
Sampson Occum among the Six Nations who 
brought their trade to Albany and killed their ene- 
mies. While the Colonial Government spoke fa- 
vorably of efforts to Christianize the Six Nations, 
they did nothing beyond paying a small stij)end to 
the clergymen of Albany to attend to the wants of 
such as might come to them. Dominie Dellius 
baptized many, but his scandalous conduct in the 
matter of Indian lands showed how false he was to 
his own teachings. Dominies Lydius and Van 
Driessen tried to convert some. Rev. Messrs. 
Barclay, Freeman, Andrews and others labored 
amid great discouragements, testifying that the con- 
duct of those who professed to have received Chris- 
tianity was so evil that they could scarce be reputed 
Christians. Sir William Johnson was friendly to the 
missionaries as far as they contributed to his advan- 

tage ; but his own shocking licentiousness was too 
well known to give him any influence in favor of 
temperance, purity, or any other form of practical 
godliness. The Society for Promoting the Gospel 
in Foreign Parts, managed by the Church of Eng- 
land, made attempts to convert the savages. But 
little real good was accomplished by the best of 
men, who understood but little of the language 
and character of the Indian, and considered too 
little the influence that their own habits and those 
of their "Christian" neighbors had upon them. 
For they counted all the whites as Christians, and 
judged of the Christian religion by their conduct. 

The following anecdote from O'Callaghan well 
illustrates the usual results of m ssionary efforts in 
those days: "A clergyman had succeeded in 
teaching one young savage the prayeis so that he 
could repeat the responses in the church, and also 
to read and write well. He was then furnished 
with a Bible and sent to evangelize the heathen. 
But he pawned the book for brandy, became a 
thorough beast, and did more harm than good." 

Rev. Mr. Barclay, an Episcopal missionary, 
giving up his work in 1710, writes to the society in 
England that employed him : "I am afraid the 
missionaries that are coming over will find hard 
work of it, and if the commander of that fort (in 
Albany) be not a person of singular piety and vir- 
tue, all their endeavors will be ineffectual. These 
here that trade with them are loath that any re- 
ligion get any footing among them. Besides, these 
savages are so given to drinking that nasty liquor, 
rum, that they are lost to all that is good. " 

But little was attempted by the early colonists of 
the Hudson and Mohawk toward educating the 
Indian children. 

It is well known that Rev. Eleazer Wheelock, 
about the middle of the last centur}-, had a school 
for the education of Indian youth in Lebanon, Conn. 
His benevolent design was to take the young Indian 
away from the surroundings of his tribe and inter- 
est him in learning and Christianitv, and train hm 
to become a teacher and preacher to his own peo- 
ple. Sir William Johnson, among other leading 
men, favored his plan and sent him pupils, among 
whom was the celebrated Joseph Brant. Of these 
pupils Dr. Wheelock writes in 1763 : "Joseph 
and the rest of the boys from your quarter are well, 
and make good progress in learning. Joseph is, 
indeed, an excellent youth. He has endeared 
himself to me as well as to his master and to 
everybody else by his good behavior. " 

This school was removed to Hanover, N. H., 
in 1769, and made a part of the working plan of 



Dartmouth College — "vox clamantis in deserto " 
— a leading idea of the good first President being 
to educate Indian boys there, and much of this 
work has been done in this institution. 

In 1762, Sir William Johnson writes to Mr. 
Wheelock : "I agree with you in the opinion that 
the Indian children will not improve in their 
studies near so much from the method proposed of 
erecting schools in their nations as they would do 
according to your plan of education, whereby they 
are kept out of the way of and uninfluenced by 
bad example." 

For some years, near the close of the French 
war in 1763, it was proposed to change the loca- 
tion of this school from Lebanon to some place 
nearer the Indian population, where there were 
more lands and less people. Several places in 
this State were considered. Among other loca- 
tions the City of Albany was considered. A free 
correspondence was held with the Mayor from 
1766 to 1768 in regard to the school. The corpo- 
ration had offered to give ^^2, 300 to Dr. Wheel- 
ock, on condition that he would remove his insti- 
tution from Lebanon to Albany. VolkertP. Douw 
was Mayor and favored the movement. 

Other attempts were made, by good men, to 
teach the Indians to read and write, and other 
lessons of science and civilization, at sundry times 
and in sundry places ; but these attempts had little 
success, and were of brief duration. Nothing was 
done that accomplished results so good, so broad 
and so lasting as what was done by Eleazer 
Wheelock. We let him tell his own story : ' ' Among 
those whom I have educated there have been near 
forty who were good readers and writers, and were 
instructed in the principles of the Christian religion 
as their age and time would admit, and were suf- 
ficient masters of English grammar, arithmetic, 
and a number considerably advanced in Greek and 
Latin, and one of them carried through college 
and was a good scholar, and others carried through 
a course of learning with not less expense for each 
of them than would have been necessary to have 
supported an English youth through a course of 
collegiate studies, and they have generally behaved 
well while they were with me, and left my school 
with fair and unblem'shed characters, and under 
the influence of every motive I could set before 
them to a good improvement of the distinguishing 
talents which God had committed to them, and 
many of them have gone immediately from my 
school with good and reputable business, and such 
business as they were equal to, and generally to 
serve as schoolmasters, but some as interpreters, 

&c., and nothing has prevented their being em- 
ployed usefully and reputably in various capacities 
until this day but the want of fortitude to resist the 
power of those fashionable vices which were ram- 
pant among all their tribes. * * * Of all the 
number before mentioned I don't hear of more 
than half who have preserved their characters un- 
stained, either by a course of intemperance or un- 
cleanness, or both, and some who, on account of 
their parts and learning, bid the fairest for useful- 
ness, are sunk down into as low, savage and brut- 
ish manner of living as they were in before any 
endeavors were used with them to raise them up ; 
and there are some of whom I did and do still 
entertain hope that they were really the subjects of 
God's grace who have npt wholly kept their gar- 
ments unspotted amongst the pots. And six of 
these who did preserve a good character are now 
dead. " — Wheelock' s Narrative, 1 7 7 1 . 

As a specimen of the language spoken by the 
Six Nations that once frequented Albany County, 
we give the Lord's Prayer, copied from " Smith's 
Hist. New York " : 

So-ung-wau-ne-ha cau-ro-unk-3-au-ga, teh-see- 
ta-ro-au, Sauk, son-e-you-sta, esa, saw-an-e-you, 
o-ket-tauh-se-la, eh-ne-au-wong, na, cau-ronunk- 
yawga, naugh-wou-shauga, ne-at-te-weh-ne-sa-lau- 
ga, taug-wau-nau-to-ro-na-an-tough-sick, to-an- 
tang-we-lee-whe-3'ou-staung, che-nee-yeut, cha- 
qua-ta-leh-whe-you-staun-ne, tough-sau, taugh- 
wam-sa-re-neh, ta-waut-ot-ten-au-gal-ough-toung- 
ga, nas-aw-ne, sa-che-au-tang-was co-an-teh-sal- 
oh-aun-za-ick-au, esa, saw-au-ne-you, esa, sash- 
autz-ta, esa, soung-wa-soung, chen-ne-auh-a-aug- 
wa, au-wen. 


Indian affairs were from the very first, by com- 
mon consent, managed by the citizens of Albany. 
They were nearly all Indian traders, and were in 
constant intercourse with them. The acquaintance 
thus formed, their business interests, and their 
frontier situation, fitted them for the duties in- 

There was only one beaver dam, so far as we 
have learned, in Albany County, and that in the 
town of Berne ; at least there is no trace or record 
of any other. But beaver skins and other furs and 
peltry were brought from a widely extended terri- 
tor}'— from the whole State of New York as occu- 
pied by the Iroquois, far away from the wilds of 
Pennsylvania and Ohio, and even from the Canadas, 
and from New England. The unscrupulous zeal 



of the bosch-loopers or runners, knew no bounds. 
They invaded, when they could do so without too 
much risk, the territorial rights of the Frenchman 
and the New Englander, regardless of anything but 
gain. The Indians were met on their way to the 
city by these primitive drummers, and bargains 
were made in advance of the market. Albany 
claimed a monopoly in the fur trade as against 
other people or other localities. Their claim was 
confirmed by the Dongan Charter of 1686. But 
squatters all about, and especially the early settlers 
on the Mohawk flats, caused great trouble and 
grief to Albany traders. 

Philip Pieterse Schuyler came from Amsterdam, 
Holland, and settled in Beverwyck as early as 
1647. He was a trader far above the average in 
ability and character, and his dealings with the 
Indians were fair and honorable. They became 
much attached to him, and chiefs often visited him 
at his farm-house, four miles up the Hudson, and 
he had a house built especially for their entertain- 
ment near his residence in Albany. In 1665, he 
attended a council held with the Mohawks, as 
delegate from Albany, after which he had much to 
do with the frequent negotiations with the Five 
Nations. He assisted in inaugurating what became 
the settled policy of the province — to treat the 
Indians as friends and allies. His son Peter, who 
continued the same policy after his father's decease 
in 1683, acquired a great influence over these pecu- 
liar people. 

Under the Dutch Government, the Director- 
Genetal and Council of New Netherland managed 
the Indian affairs. As the relations with the 
tribes became more complicated and varied after 
the English conquest in 1664, it became nec- 
essary that some persons residing at Albany 
should be appointed to receive communications in 
regard to them, and to treat with them in emer- 
gencies. The Governor's residence at New York 
was inconveniently distant. Hence, the origin of 
the Indian Department, in 1684. The magistrates 
of the Cit}' of Albany were first appointed. In 1690, 
a distinct Board was constituted, acting under the 
Governor in all matters of this department, without 
salary. As most of its members were traders, and 
had the handling of moneys and other presents, the 
office of Indian Commissioner became one of great 
importance and profit. Their records are missing, 
and are said now to be in Canada. In 1755, the 
English Crown assumed control of Indian affairs, 
dividing the colonies into northern and southern 
departments,- and appointing Sir William Johnson 
as northern Superintendent, who, at his death in 

1774) was succeeded by his nephew. Col. Guy 

"The diplomacy, statesmanship, and good faith 
exhibited in the earliest management of Indian 
affairs reflect the highest credit on those charged 
therewith, and laid the territorial foundations of the 
Commonwealth on the secure basis of honorable 
treaties honorably kept. The inspiration and guid- 
ance in these relations came largely from the Schuy- 
lers, under whom Sir William Johnson was trained. " 

The adoption of the Federal Constitution super- 
seded the State supervision, which now has to do 
only with certain lands and some other matters 
connected with the reservations in the State. 


These officers were once, perhaps, the most im- 
portant in their functions, of any in Albany County 
and the territory extending a great distance around 
it. The men who held it were leading men of the 
time, and their names should here be recorded. 

Mayor and Magistrates of Albany. 

October 19, 1690. 
Joachim Staats, Peter Bogardus, 

Johannis Wendell, Ryer Jacobz Schermerhorn, 

Johannis Bleecker, Mayor of Albany. 

Matthew Shanky, 
George Bradshaw, 


Peter Schuyler, 
John Tuder, 
Dirck Wessels. 

August 10, 1696. 
Peter Schuyler, Evert Bancker, 

Godfrey Dellius, Dirck Wessels, 

Mayor, or the Mayor for the time being. 

July, 1698. 
Mayor, Recorder, Aldermen and Commonalty. 
Dirck Wessels, Hendrick House. 


Peter Schuyler, 
Capt. Weems, 
The Mayor, 
Johannis Abeel, 
Kiliaan Van Rensselaer, 

Myndert Schuyler, 
Johannis Cuyler, 
Evert Bancker, 
Henry Holland, 
Peter Van Brugh, 

Hendrick Van Rensselaer. 

April 25, 1710. 
Kiliaan Van Rensselaer, Johannis Cuyler, 

John Abeel, John Schuyler, 

Evert Bancker, Myndert Schuyler, 

Hendrick Hansen, Peter Van Brugh, 

Johannis Roseboom. 

Peter Schuyler, Johannis Schuyler, 

Kiliaan Van Rensselaer, Hendrick Hansen, 

Richard Ingoldsby, Myndert Schuyler, 

Peter Van Brugh, 



July 23, 1715. 
Peter Schuyler, John Schuyler, 

Kiliaan Van Rensselaer, Myndert Schuyler, 

Peter Matthews, Robert Livingston, Jr., 

Hendrick Hansen, John Cuyler, 

Peter Van Brugh. 

November. 12, 1720. 

Peter Schuyler, 
Hendrick Hansen, 
John Cuyler, 
Peter Van Brugh, 
Evert Bancker, 

Henry Holland, 
Peter Van Brugh, 
John Collins, 
John Cuyler, 
Evert Bancker, 

Capt. Cornwell, 
Capt. Norris, 
Philip Livingston, 
Henry Holland, 

Henry Holland, 
Philip Livingston, 
John Collins, 
John Wendell, 
John Bleecker. 


Philip Livingston, 
Johannis Wendell, 
Evert Wendell, 
Hendrick Van Rensselaer, 
David Van Dyck. 


John Cuyler, 
Peter Van Brugh, 
Evert Bancker, 
John Collins, 
Henry Rensselaer. 

September 13, 1728. 

Philip Livingston, 
Myndert Schuyler, 
Evert Bancker, 
Rutger Bleecker, 
Henry Holland, 
Stephanus Groesbeck, 
Peter Van Brugh, 
Johannis Cuyler, 
Abraham Cuyler, 

Hermanus Wendell, 
Johannis Roseboom, 
Jeremiah Van Rensselaer, 
Nicholas Bleecker, 
Evert Wendell, 
Philip Schuyler, 
Ryer Gerritse, 
Parent Sanders, 
Johannis Lansing, 

November, i, 1732. 

The preceding with 
Johannis Schuyler, 

Philip Livingston, 
William Dick, 
Myndert Schuyler, 
John Schuyler, 
Hendrick Van Rensselaer, 
Rutger Bleecker, 
Stephanus Groesbeck, 
Philip Schuyler, 
Jeremiah Van Rensselaer, 
Edward Holland, 

Henry Van Rensselaer, 
Dirck Ten Broeck. 

13. 1734- 
Nicholas Bleecker, 
Ryer Gerritse, 
Dirck Ten Broeck, 
Johannis Lansing, Jr., 
John De Peyster, 
Jacob Glen, 
Cornelius Cuyler, 
John Schuyler, Jr., 
Edward Collins, 
Abraham Cuyler. 


Philip Livingston, Edward Clarke, 

Commandant at Albany, 

MemlKrs of Assembly for Albany, Rensselaerwyck and 


Mayor, Recorder and Sheriff of Albany. 

The Council, 
Commandant at Albany, 
Mayor and Recorder of Al 

Jeremiah Van Rensselaer, 
Peter Winne, 

December 5, 1739. 

Stephanus Groesbeck, 
Rutger Bleecker, 
John De Peyster, 
John Schuyler, Jr., 
Jacob Glen, 

Edward Collins, 
Myndert Schuyler, 
John Schuyler, 

Philip Livingston, 
John Rutherford, 
Myndert Schuyler, 
Abraham Cuyler, 
Nicholas Bleecker, 
Johannis Lansing, Jr., 
Cornelius Cuyler, 

Arent Bradt, 

Cornelius Cuyler, 
Johannis Lansing, Jr., 
Hendrick Ten Eyck. 

Mayor Dirck Ten Broeck, 
Recorder Hendrick Ten Eyck, 
Rutger Bleecker, 
John De Peyster, 
Stephanus Groesbeck, 
Ryer Gerritse, 
Edward Collins. 

The preceding with Stephen Van Rensselaer, 

Commissary for Indian Affairs, William Johnson. 
November, 1752. 
Commissioners, The Council, Commandant at Albany, 
Members of Assembly of Albany, Rensselaerwyck, Sche- 
nectady and Livingston Manor, 
Mayor and Recorder of Al- Hendrick Bleecker, 

bany, John Buchanan, 

Myndert Schuyler, Peter Groenendyck, 

Cornelius Cuyler, Johannis Lansing, Jr. , 

Jacob C. Ten Eyck. 
June 15, 1754. 
Mayor and Recorder of Al- Cornelius Cuyler, 

bany, John Buchanan, 

Commandant at Albany, Jacob C. Ten Eyck, 

Myndert Schuyler, John Rensselaer, 

Peter Winne, Sole Superintendent, April 15, 1755. 
February, 1756. 
William Johnson, Sir Wm. Johnson, Bart. 

July, 1774. 
Guy Johnson, Volkert P. Douw, 

State Commissioners, Timothy Edward, 

Philip Schuyler, Oliver Wolcutt, 

James Duane. 

It has not been our purpose to discuss the 
Indian speculatively in regard to his origin ; nor 
in regard to his personal appearance, his dress, 
food and habits, his manner of life, or his 
views upon government and religion. We have 
confined ourselves to his relations to the early 
settlers of Albany County and vicinity, and their 
successors, and to the characteristics developed by 
the educational, moral and religious influences to 
which they were subjected here in the affairs of 
peace and war. We have the Indian of the Six 
Nations only before us as he was in our local 
history; as he mingled with our people as a fur- 
trader, in treaties of peace, in our county, in our 
wars, in our records of treachery and carnage. 

More will be said of Indian treaties, trade and 
other local matters in the history of Albany City. 

There are geographers who believe that Giovanni 
da Verrazano, a Florentine navigator, commanding 
a French crew, sailing across the Atlantic, and. 



cruising up the Eastern coast of what is now the 
United States, entered the Bay of New York in the 
spring of 1524. After a brief tarry, he made 
no farther sail up the great river, no farther exam- 
ination of its beautiful shores, but went on his 
wa3^ Coasting along New England, and returning 
to France, he made a report of his hurried and 
comparatively unimportant trip to Francis I., King 
of France, in July following. If this is true, the 
Dauphin was the first European vessel that 
touched the waters of our Hudson River. But 
the French monarch, so far as appears, took no 
notice of this discovery. Subsequent French 
navigators paid no regard to it. Cartier, in 1534, 
and others near his time, did not follow in his 
track, but went to the more chilly latitudes and 
more inhospitable shores of the St. Lawrence to 
found New France. Could they have been ignorant 
of the voyages of Verrazano .? And Champlain 
sailed up the lake that bears his name almost to 
the upper waters of the Hudson in 1609, entirely 
ignorant of French claims, or oblivious of them if 
he even heard of them. This neglect of the alleged 
Verrazano report, in an age of discovery, and 
when the eyes of all Western Europe were turned 
toward these shores, and all its monarchs were 
eager to increase wealth and power by territorial ex- 
tensions in America, is not easily explained. Hence, 
many regard the report as a historic fraud, and the 
whole matter as a fable. We give the facts, but 
express no opinion in this place. One thing is 
certain, that there is no credible evidence that any 
subsequent settlements or trade ever resulted from 
this alleged discovery of Verrazano; nor is "the 
city and county of Albany " indebted to it for its 
planting and growth. Nothing came of it ; hence 
it probably has no place worthy of special discussion 
in this history.* 

* See note, page i. Furthermore, it is here proper to quote again 
from " Discoveries in America to 1525," by A. J. Weise, pp. 361, 362 : 

"The fact that the French had ascended the Grande River (Hudson 
River, to the height of its n.ivigation, to trade with the Indians, Ion? 
before Henry Hudson explored it, is corroborated by still stronger 
testimony than that already presented. One of the earliest maps 
representing the territory of Nieu Nederlandt (New Netherland), or 
that part of New France which the French had called La Terre 
d'Anormee Berge, is the Figurative Chart presented to their High 
Mightinesses, the Lords States General of the United Netherlands, on 
the nth of October, 16(4, by a number of Dutch merchants, praying 
for a special license to navigate and traffic within the limits of this 
part of North America. [Says John R. Brodhead, the historian : 
'This map (made in 1614) is undoubtedly one of the most interesting 
memorials we have. It is about three feet long, and shows, very 
minutely, the course of the Hudson River from Manhattan to above 
Albany, as well as a portion of the sea-coast ; and contains, likewise, 
curious notes and memoranda about the neighboring Indians. The 
work, perhaps, of one of the companions of Hudson himself, and made 
within five years of the discovery of our river, its fidelity of delinea- 
tion is scarcely less remarkable than its high antiquity.'] One of 
these explanatory notes contains the undeniable testimony that the 

At the convention at Albany in the year 1754, 
held by the Indian Commissioners, as reported 
among the papers of Sir William Johnson, a speech 
was made by one of the Indians, in which he gives 
the following account of the first advent of the 
white race to the Hudson River. "Our fathers 
had a castle on this river. As one of them walked 
out he saw something on the river, but was at a 
loss to know what it was. He took it at first for a 
great fish. He ran into the castle and gave 
notice to the other Indians. Two of our forefathers 
went to see what it was, and found it a vessel with 
men in it. They immediately joined hands with 
the men in the vessel and became friends. The 
white people told them they should not come up 
the river any farther at that time; and said to them 
they would return from whence they came, and 
come again in a year's time. According to their 
promise they returned in a year's time, and came as 
far up the river as where the old fort stood. Our 
forefathers invited them ashore and said to them, we 
will give you a place to make you a town. It shall 
be from this place up to such a stream (meaning 
Patroon's Creek), and from the river back up to 
the hill." 

In an able document sent by "The People of 
New Netherlands" to "The High and Mighty 
Lords States General of the United Netherlands," 
on the 28th July, 1649, occurs the following, the 
insertion of which seems pertinent here : 

"In the year of Christ 1609 was the country, of 
which we now propose to speak, first found and 
discovered at the expense of the General East India 
Company — though directing their aim and design 
elsewhere — by the ship de Halve Afane, whereof 
Henry Hudson was master and factor. It was 
afterward named New-Netherland by our people, 
and that very justly, for it was first discovered and 
taken possession of by New Netherlanders and at 
their expense, so that even at the present day the 
natives of the country, who are so old as to 
remember the event, testify that, on seeing the 
Dutch ships on their first coming here, they knew 
not what to make of them, whether they came 
down from heaven or were devils. Some of them 
on its first approach, even imagined it to be a fish or 

French were the discoverers of the Grande River, and that they had 
been trading with the Mohawks long before the Hal/-Moon sailed up 
the river. The plain language of the inscription makes all explanation 
of ils meaning unnecessary : * But as far as one can understand by 
what the Maquaas (Mohawks) say and show, the French come with 
sloops as high up as their country to trade with them.' A fac si77cile 
of this map is in the State Library, and the inscription above referred 
to is as follows : ' Ma so vele men heeft connen verstaen uy t i seggen 
ende beduyen van de Maquaas so comen de Francoysen met sloupen 
tot bovcm aen haer land met haerluy handeln.' " G. R. H. 



some sea-monster, so that a strange rumor con- 
cerning it flew through the whole country. We have 
heard the Indians also frequently say that they 
knew of no other world or people previous to the 
arrival of the Netherlanders here. " 

Henry Hudson first made known to the civilized 
world "the great river of the North," which we 
now call Hudson in honor of this bold discoverer. 
He was an English navigator, an intimate friend of 
the famous Captain John Smith, who had been 
employed by London merchants in the vain search 
for a passage to India by the Northern seas. The 
pursuit being abandoned by them, as is said, it was 
continued by the Dutch East India Company. On 
the 4th of April, 1609, he sailed from Amsterdam, 
with a crew of about 20 English and Dutch sailors, 
in the Hal/'-Mbon, ayachtof about So tons. Impas- 
sable ice turned his prow. Steering across the 
Atlantic, touching the shores of the Penobscot Bay 
and Cape Cod, he proceeded to the capes of the 
Chesapeake, which he reached early in August. 
Thence he sailed northerly along the coast, 
entering rivers' mouths, until he anchored in 
New York Bay early in September. On the 
1 2th, he commenced sailing up the river, advancing 
as far as he found it safely navigable, probably to a 
point near the present site of Hudson City. Anchor- 
ing here on the 1 9th, he sent a boat with his mate 
and four men further up the river, which, no doubt, 
passed the site of Albany. He may have proceeded 
the whole length of the present count}', as far as the 
sprouts of the Mohawk. On the 23d, convinced 
that this "River of the Mountains" furnished no 
shorter route to China and the Indies, he leisurely 
returned down the stream, sailing out to sea, and 
reaching England November 7th. He had many 
interviews with natives along the shores, generally 
of the most friendly character. They came to him 
in boats laden with fruit, meat, furs, and their own 
manufactures; they received trinkets in return with 
great delight. He found the inhabitants below the 
highlands more savage and faithless than those far- 
ther north. Delighted with the noble stream, its 
banks rich in autumnal foliage, fertile in fruits, 
splendid in varied scenery, and coursing through a 
region evidently abounding in large resources for 
adventure and wealth, his report to the Dutch 
Company was most favorable. It was not forgotten 
by them. The next year, another vessel was sent 
out by shrewd merchants of Amsterdam, which 
made a successful adventure in the fur trade along 

the Mauritius, as the Dutch tirst named the Hudson. 
Other vessels followed in 161 1, 161 2, 1613 and 
1614, on voyages of discovery andtrade. Captains 
John DeWitt, Hendrick Corstiaensen, Adrian Block, 
and Cornelius Jacobsen Mey were foremost in these 
enterprises. The coast, with contiguous islands, 
river mouths and bays, all along from Nahant to 
Delaware Bay, were visited by them. The Fresh 
or Connecticut, and other rivers were ascended so 
far as they could be navigated. Manhattan Island 
was made the chief depot of trade, and Corstiaensen 
was appointed agent for the Holland fur traffickers. 
In this same year, 161 2, he began laying the foun- 
dations of the future commercial metropolis of this 
now great Republic in the construction of a small 
fort with a few rude buildings, on the southern 
extremity of the island. 


In 1614 the territory extending from Cape Cod 
to the Delaware River was called New Netherlands, 
and claimed as under the States General of Hol- 
land. Its limits were not well defined, but it was 
understood to include all the coasts and islands 
herein and adjacent, and the lands upon the Dela- 
ware, Hudson and Connecticut rivers, so far as 
the Dutch needed them for settlements and trade. 
But the claim was not admitted by England. The 
English Cabots had — as was then believed — been 
the first of Europeans to discover the coast of North 

The whole territory in North America, lying be- 
tween the 34 th and 45th parallels of latitude, was 
claimed by England by right of prior discovery. 
The claim extended from the Atlantic to the Pacific. 
In 1606, on April loth, two patents were granted 
by James I., King of Great Britain, dividing this 
territory into North Virginia and South Virginia — 
the former was given for the-purpose of colonization 
to the Plymouth Company ; the latter to the Lon- 
don Company. The settlement of Jamestown in 
1607, and Plymouth, in 1620, resulted. 

It was in 16 13 that the English made their first 
demonstration against the Dutch possessions. 
Governor Samuel Argal, of Virginia, on his return 
from a hostile expedition against the French settle- 
ments in Acadia, "found at Manhattan Isle four 
houses built and a pretended Dutch governor," 
says Captain Smith. Says Chalmers, there was only 
' ' a trading house " there. Be this as it may, Argal 
visited the Governor and demanded possession, 
alleging that Hudson, an English subject, could 
not alienate from the English Crown what was 



properly a part of Virginia. Incapable of resistance, 
Corstiaensen, then in command, peaceably submitted 
himself and his colony to the King of England. 
It is well known that New England never had any 
respect for the Dutch claim. The Holland com- 
panies kept possession for fifty years longer, and laid 
their foundations, some of which still remain in the 
New York of to-day. From the western part of 
Long Island, and up the Hudson to the Mohawk, 
including Albany and adjacent settlements, it re- 
mained New Netherlands, with little disturbance 
from the English, until 1664, when might decided 
the question of right. 


The importance of establishing a trading post near 
the head of the navigable waters of the Mauritius 
early attracted the attention of Hendrick Corstiaen- 
sen and other enterprising Hollanders. A general 
charter of concessions to discoverers of new coun- 
tries was passed by the Holland Government, at 
Hague, March 27, 1614. A special charter was 
granted by the States General, under date of Oct. 
II, 16 14, to a company of Amsterdam merchants 
and others of the United New Netherlands Co., giv- 
ing them the monopoly, until January i, 1618, of 
all travel and trade in the New Netherlands, during 
which time they were authorized to make four voy- 

In 16 14, with a few trappers and traders, Cors- 
tiaensen sailed up the river, and erected a fort and a 
store house, upon what was then named Kasteeul, 
or Castle Island, just below the site of the later Fort 
Orange, and carried on a brisk trade in furs and 
peltry with the Indians. The fort was called 
Nassau. The island, now called Van Rensselaer, 
is situated in the town of Bethlehem. Corstiaensen 
was murdered shortly after by a malicious Indian 
in his employ, and Jacob Jacobsen Elkins, his 
lieutenant, succeeded him as agent for the com- 
pany. Nothing was done for the settlement or de- 
velopment of the lands. 

The spring floods so disturbed the works on the 
island that Elkins removed them, some time after, 
to the mouth of the Tawasentha, now Norman's Kill, 
where there is said to have once been a Mohawk 
castle and burial place. Here, tradition has it, as 
stated elsewhere, was concluded, about this time, 
the first formal treaty of friendship and alliance with 
the Indians. 

Their charter expiring January i, 16 18, this 
company unsuccessfully petitioned for its renewal. 
Either the returns made to the Holland capitalists 
had been unsatisfactory, or a more powerful in- 

fluence was at work towards getting up another 
company to occupy their hunting grounds. 

During the more than five years of interval be- 
tween 16 1 8 and 1623, tradition has it that Elkins 
and some of his traders still remained and carried 
on, with the aid of the Holland ships, a lucrative 
trade, there being none to dispute. It is thought that 
some of these adventurers remained and joined 
themselves with those who came under the new 
company in 1623. During these five years there 
might have been free trade. But those who had 
been longest on the ground had, of course, the ad- 
vantage. Elkins evidently was not pleased with 
his treatment by the States and the West India 
Company, as appears further on by his return, in 
1633, with an English ship. 


June 3, 1621, the congress or government of 
Holland, called the " States General, " incorporated 
the Dutch West India Co., investing it with almost 
regal powers for carrying on tiade and planting 
settlements from Cape Horn to Newfoundland, for 
a period of 24 years. Its jurisdiction over the 
Province of New Netherlands, the special object of 
its enterprise, was exclusive. It was authorized to 
appoint governors with the approval of the "States," 
to colonize territory, erect forts and administer jus- 
tice. Its executive management was given to a 
Board of nineteen Directors, one to be appointed 
by the "States," the remaining eighteen by the 
company, to be distributed through five separate 
chambers, in five different cities of Holland. The 
Province of New Netherlands was assigned to the 
Amsterdam Chamber. The company was not fully 
organized until the spring of 1623, when it vigor- 
ously entered upon extensive operations. At this 
time the English ambassador at The Hague, for- 
mally protested against these encroachments of the 
Dutch fur traders ; but no armed force was moved 
to prevent carrying out their plans. 

In April, 1623, a vessel under command of 
Cornelisen Jacobsen Mey, as Director, came over 
from Holland with thirty families, chiefly Walloons, 
or French Protestants, and landed at New Amster- 
dam. Of these, it is said, that eight families came 
up the Hudson as far as the present site of Albany, 
where they built Fort Orange, about two miles 
above Fort Nassau — the location being near the 
present steamboat square. 

Maurice, of Nassau, Prince of Orange, who, at 
the age of 18, had succeeded his murdered father 
in the government of the Low Countries, was the 
Washington of his country. By his wisdom. 



bravery and industry he strengthened and confirmed 
the new republic of Netherlands, and ranked among 
the first generals and statesmen of his age. He was 
much beloved and esteemed by his countrymen. 
In his honor they named the river Mauritius, and 
the forts Nassau and Orange. Another Fort Nas- 
sau was built near this time on the Delaware River. 

The Walloons were French Protestants who re- 
sided on the borders between Belgium and France, 
and were distinguished for industry and valor. 
From this race descended many families in this 
State. The first white child born in New Nether- 
lands was Sarah Rapelje, daughter of one of the 
Walloon settlers, whose birth occurred June 7, 
1625, and whose descendants are still to be found 
on Long Island and vicinity. 

Catelyn Trico, born in Paris, France, is claimed 
to have been the first white woman in Albany. 
This claim is based on her own testimony, made in 
1688, when she was 83 years old, which makes her 
born in 1605, and coming to Albany in 1623, when 
she was 1 8 years old. She testifies that she came to 
this country in the first ship, called the Unity, com- 
manded by Adrien Jorise, that came from Holland 
to New Netherlands for the West India Company. 
She tells us that two families and six men were sent 
to Hartford, Connecticut ; two families and eight 
men to Delaware River ; eight men were left at 
Manhattan, and the rest went as far up as Albany, 
which they called Fort Orange. She says that 
those who came to Albany and made a small fort 
were eighteen families ; that they made themselves 
some huts of bark. Adrien Jorise remained all 
winter and sent his son home with the ship. She 
represents the Indians as very peaceable, and car- 
rying on a very active trade in beaver and peltry. 
After three years she left Albany and went to New 
York, and afterward to Wallabout. She states that 
the other women on board, four in number, were 
married and went to the Delaware River. Consid- 
ering her age and the interval of time, her state- 
ment, while it may be correct in the main, is to be 
taken with some allowance. It is remarkable that 
only one woman came up to Fort Orange at that 
time and remained as the first and only female 
here for three years. The number of " eighteen 
families " differs from all other statements in our 

The Commissaries at Fort Orange or Beverwyck, 
now Albany, were Vice-Directors of the West 
India Company. They were commanders, also, of 
the fort. We find the names of the following : 

Daniel Krieckkebeeck, Peter Barentsen, Bastian 
Jansen Krol, Jorissen Houten, Hannan Mynderts 

Van der Bogaert, Carl Van Brugge, Jan Labadie, 
John Dyckman, John De Decker, John La Mon- 

The Dutch Directors-General, otherwise called 
Commanders and Governors, under the West 
India Company and the States General of Holland, 
from 1623 to 1674, were as follows : 


Adrien Jorise 1623 

Cornelius Jacobsen Mey 1624 

William Verhulst 1625 

Peter Minuit May 4, 1626 

Wouter Van Twiller April, 1633 

William Kieft March 28, 1638 

Peter Stuyvesant, May 11, 1647, to September 8, 

1664, when the city was surrendered to the 

Anthony Colve, September 19, 1673, when the city 

was retaken by the Dutch, to November 10, 

1674, when, by treaty, it was again given over 

to the English. 

These ofiicers had their seat at the Manhattans or 
New Amsterdam, now New York, which was rec- 
ognized as th§ capital of New Netherlands, and 
the centre not only of civil power, but of trade. 
All emigrants from Europe landed here, and all 
who returned took ship here. Here were collected 
all furs, peltries, grain, &c., and from this port 
transhipment was made to Holland ; and all goods 
intended for the use of the colonists, or for trade 
among them or the Indians were here received, 
duly entered, and from thence sent forth to their 

The first two Governors were skippers of vessels 
that took over some of the first immigrants under 
the West India Company, and had something to 
do with locating Fort Orange, in the year 1623, or 
as some of the early documents say, in 1624. The 
former date is supported by the best authorities. 
Of Verhults we find nothing. 

Minuit, the first fully empowered Director-Gen- 
eral, jjurchased of the Indians the Island of Man- 
hattan, in 1626, for a sum equal to about |24.' He 
was a deacon in the Church of Wesel, whence he 
came, and, so far as we learn, was a peace-loving 
man and a just public officer. His correspondence 
with Governor William Bradford, of Plymouth, was 
dignified, courteous and honorable. It related to 
territorial jurisdiction. About 1627, Bradford, hear- 
ing that the Dutch were encroaching by sending 
ships to Narragansett Bay to trade, sent Mr. Edward 
Winslow to remonstrate. Soon after, Minuit sent a 
very friendly letter to Governor Bradford, congrat- 
ulating Plymouth Colony upon its prosperity, and 
proposing trade and friendly relations in the future. 



. To this the Governor of Plymouth replied in most 
friendly terms, alluding to the hospitality which the 
Pilgrims had received in Holland a few years pre- 
vious, and assuring the Governor of New Nether- 
lands that they and their children after them would 
never forget the same. At the same time he as- 
sured Governor Minuit that he must respect the 
rightful claims of the Pilgrims of Plymouth, and 
not allow his skiffs to come to Narragansett for 
beavers. He also complained that the Dutch were 
selling muskets, powder and shot to the Indians. 
Other courtesies of the most pleasing character 
were kept up during the time of Minuit, in which 
each manfully asserted what he regarded as right, 
while there arose no unfriendly words. Minuit 
erected Fort Amsterdam near the site of the present 
Battery, and directed all his energies to founding a 
State similar to that in Fatherland. By his concili- 
ating disposition, he kept on pleasant terms with the 
Indians. After his recall, he went to Sweden, and 
afterward appeared as the leader of 50 Swedish im- 
migrants who, in April, 1638, landed on the site of 
New Castle and founded New Sweden, which was 
broken up by the rapacious Stuyvesant in 1655, 
and subjected to the West India Company. 

Van Twiiler married into the Van Rensselaer 
family, and came to New Netherlands in conse- 
quence, as the patroon's agent in selecting and 
locating lands. He afterward was one of the 
executors of the estate of Kiliaan Van Rensselaer, 
and, with John Van Weely, a guardian of his son 
Johannis, during his minority. As Governor he 
was faithful to the West India Company, but noted 
for his want of good judgment and executive 
abihties. His dealings with the English, who took 
up claims upon the Connecticut River in 1640, 
were characterized by ridiculous bluster and ignoble 
failure to carry out his threats. He was equally 
unsuccessful in his attempt upon the fort at Beeren 
Island. He was greedy of gain and successful in his 
greed ; great in paper protests, timid in action. 
He lived peaceably with the Indians, and had little 
trouble with his subordinates. 

It was in 1633, during the time of Van Twiiler, 
that the first English ship, the William, sailed up the 
Hudson River. It was commanded by Elkins, 
who had spent some years in trading with the In- 
dians in this vicinity under the United New Neth- 
erlands Company. In spite of the refusal of the 
Dutch Governor at New Amsterdam to give him a 
license, he, asserting the English claim to the terri- 
tory, defiantly proceeded to a place about a mile 
below Fort Orange, where he landed, pitched his 
tent, and, for a few weeks, pursued a lucrative 

trade in furs. The traders at Fort Orange protested, 
and soon after, with the aid of ships and crews sent 
up from Fort Amsterdam, compelled the bluff 
captain to strike his tent, re-ship his goods and 
take his furs down the river. His ship was con- 
voyed to sea, and he, utterly discomfited, returned 
to London. 

Kieft was avaricious, rash and unscrupulous. 
He kept himself and his colony in constant excite- 
ment and trouble. He quarreled with his under 
officers; he was vindictive toward those who dif- 
fered from him in matters of public policy; he was 
oppressive and arbitrary among the people. With 
the English in Connecticut, the Swedes on the 
Delaware, the Indian tribes on every side, and the 
colonists at his own door, he was in continual 
strife. By his own abandoned folly he aroused the 
Indians in the vicinity of New Amsterdam, who 
had been friendly under his predecessors, to deeds 
of fiery hatred and savage vengeance. His thirst 
for blood seemed to equal that of the savages, and 
he expressed himself determined upon a war of 
extermination of the natives. Neither life nor 
property was safe. War raged for }ears. Fields 
were devastated; homes desolated ; and the blood 
of the innocent citizen and the ferocious savage 
flowed freely on every side. The very existence of 
the colonies in and near Manhattan was menaced. 
Help finally came from New England under Capt. 
Underbill, for Kieft had no leader. The war 
ceased. Kieft, recalled for his offences, gathered 
his treasures and took ship for Europe. He was 
never heard of more. His vessel was wrecked 
on the coast of Wales, and the bad man was en- 
gulfed in the angry waves with all his ill-gotten 

The Indian wars had lasted about five of the 
eight years' reign of this infamous wretch, during 
which he had, like an arrant coward as he was, 
stayed in his fort and exulted in the ruin around 
him and his own personal safety. At the begin- 
ning of these wars the population of New Nether- 
lands was about 3,000; at its close, less than 
1,000. New Amsterdam contained only about 100 
people when peace came, August 31, 1645. His 
unlamented end was regarded as an act of retribu- 
tive divine justice. 

We find no evidenee in the record of these times 
that the savage wars of the lower Hudson seriously 
disturbed the dwellers about Fort Orange. No 
doubt they had accessions from those who fled 
from the cruel carnage. No doubt they had fears 
of similar outbreaks, which, probably, were hin- 
dered by their pleasant relations in trade to the 



powerful Mohawks!, who were a wall, for many 
years, to this weak frontier people. 

Much may be seen of the character of Stuyve- 
sant under our Rensselaerwyck heading. He was 
a brave man — decided in his convictions, persistent 
in carrying them into action. He aimed to be 
true to his trust. He restored peace, and dealt 
prudently with his Indian neighbors. When these 
savage tribes broke out in their savagery he was 
equal to the emergency. They found him not 
wanting in courage and energy, nor in prompt 
justice. There were then no settlements from Fort 
Amsterdam to the Catskills, except at Esopus, now 
Kingston. The restless and blood-thirsty Indians 
about here were effectually reduced and put in sub- 
jection under his management in 1663. He was a 
man of military experience ; honest, but im- 
perious ; a believer in prerogatives ; arbitrary in 
action. He was strangely inclined to arresting 
and shutting up in prison those who opposed his 
views, and to confiscating their estates as if guilty of 
treason against the government. He quarreled 
with his Vice-Director and other officers ; he, as will 
appear farther on, was in a continual contention 
with the officers of the patroon at Beaverwyck. 
He was feared, but not beloved. He did not 
make friends with the Yankees, the Swedes, or the 
Dutch. The States General disapproved his 
course, and the West India Company, which ap- 
pointed him and long sustained him, doubted the 
wisdom of many of his transactions. 


The first settlement of Albany County has been 
written down under the date of 1609, when Hud- 
son's boat, probably, passed the site of our city; in 
1610, when certain Holland skippers were prospect- 
ing along our shores ; in 1614, when Captain Cor- 
sliaensen and his hunters and trappers planted 
themselves, for trade in furs, on Kasteel Island ; in 
1621, when the Dutch West India Company was first 
established; and in 1623, when, according to the 
best evidence we now have, this same compan}- 
actually landed a few Hollanders upon the territor}- 
now called Albany, to engage, as their factors and 
servants, in the collection and transmission of furs 
and peltries. None of these events can be reckoned 
as dating the first settlement of our county. 

Probably not a drop of the blood of any of 
those early adventurers courses in the veins of any 
white citizen of this State or nation. Few, if any, 
had families. Some died here and turned to dust ; 
others returned to their native land when their 
service was over. They did not come to stay. None 

came as colonists, occupying land and cultivating it. 
Fish, deer, wild fowl and other game abounded. 
Native fruits. were plenty. Possibly, a few vegeta- 
bles, and some corn and other grain, were raised in 
patches near the fort. Some food was brought 
over in ships. For a few trinkets the rest was 
purchased from the Indian squaws, who cultivated 
them. They were no more "first settlers," than 
were the first adventurers that went out from our 
States to the mines of California, 40 years ago, the 
first settlers of that gieat State and its San Fran- 
cisco, now the gem of the Pacific. 

"It never began to be settled until every one had 
liberty to trade with the Indians, inasmuch as up 
to this time no one calculated to remain there 
longer than the expiration of his bounden time, 
and therefore did not apply themselves to agricul- 
ture." Thus says a Dutch writer of that day. The 
"Free Trade Liberty" began about 1640. 

These fictions of history are not the solid facts 
for us to build upon. Those "first famihes" did 
not give us our "blue blood." They who did this 
came later. Our real history began later. Indeed, 
it is, at the best, a vain boast for any individual or 
people to boast of a misty antiquity or of blood 
that has flowed down from moneyed and titled sires 
of the old times. To deserve well of our children's 
children, to earn and transmit a heritage of noble 
aims and noble deeds, is a far better ambition. It 
is told in old Grecian history of an idiot, who was 
boasting of his noble sires, when a bystander per- 
tinently silenced him by asking, "What are you 
doing to honor the memory of your sires .?" 

The States General of Holland saw how little 
progress was making in colonizing the New Neth- 
erlands ; what an unstable and unreliable people 
went out and came back ; how poor in kind and 
few in number was the population. 

The first reference to population which we find 
is made in October, 1628, in a work published in 
Amsterdam, which says, " There are no families at 
Fort Orange * * * they keep five or six and 
twenty persons, traders, there. " 

In October, 1626, the Ship Arms of Avisterdam 
reached Amsterdam from New Netherlands. Its 
cargo shows the variety and amount of its trans- 
ported products at that time, which con.sisted of 
7,246 beaver, 853^ otter, 81 mink, 36 wild cat and 
34 rat skins ; also, ' ' samples of summer grain, such 
as wheat, rye, barley, oats, buckwheat, canary 
seed, beans and fiax." 

The Assembly of XIX. reports to the Slates 
General, in 1629: "All who are inclined to do 
any sort of work here procure enough to eat 



without any trouble, and are, therefore, unwilHng 
to go far from home on an uncertainty." This 
from Holland, and is written to explain the diffi- 
culty of sending out persons suitable, from the 
country, for colonizing New Netherlands. It is 
added, " The people conveyed by us thither, have 
therefore found but scanty means of livelihood up 
to the present time, and have not been any profit, 
but a drawback, to this (West India) companj'. 
The trade carried on there in peltries is right ad- 
vantageous ; but one year with another, we can, 
at most, bring home only fifty thousand ($20,000) 

A new scheme was planned and adopted, singu- 
lar, indeed, in its provisions ; unlilce anything be- 
fore attempted in the New World. It was approved 
and carried out by men of wealth and sagacity, 
and of experience in trade and government. Its 
prime object was to increase mone)' and power. It 
included the colonization of farmers and artisans 
— providing a new home and belter prospects for 
the boors of the Belgic race, and a field for the 
ambitious and enterprising, who had no room at 
home. It was partially successful. It brought 
over all classes. But not a few industrious, high- 
minded, discreet families came to stay. Thej' laid 
foundations broad and deep. We are to-day 
enjoying the benefits of their wisdom and energ)'. 
In the men who came here from Holland 
during the middle years of the 17th century, were 
exhibited elements of character which have been 
found in many of their descendants ; men of ex- 
alted patriotism, inflexible integrity and cultivated 
intelligence, who have helped to upbuild, preserve 
and adorn our Republic. We say this with a full 
knowledge of the faults of the manorial system, of 
the men who lorded it, and of the men who have 
suffered from it, or contended against it. 


The history of Rensselaerwyck, in all its rela- 
tions, is so largely the history of this County and 
of the State even, that we give it much space, but 
no more than its importance demands. With it 
begins the real settlement of the city and county 
of Albany, in 1630, when a company of real set- 
tlers came over with a purpose, under the patron- 
age of Kilian Van Rensselaer, the first patroon. 

We have followed Dr. O'Callaghan in the record 
of what follows during the exciting struggle for 
wealth and power between the agents of the 
patroon and of the West India Company, in the 
27 yefirs from Kieft, in 1637, until 1664, when that 
arrogant tyrant, Peter Stuyvesant, reluctantly 

yielded to the EngUsh power and ceased to war 
upon the patroons. The people were weary of 
him, and the patroon was glad to have no more 
of the West India Company. 

In 1629, a charter of privileges and exemptions 
was passed for the encouragement of patroons to 
settle colonies. In the following year, several 
wealthy and influential Directors of the Dutch 
West India Company hastened to avail themselves 
of its advantages. Bastiaen Jansen Krol, Com- 
missary, and Dirck Cornelissen Duyster, Under 
Commissary, at Fort Orange, having learned that 
a tract of land called Sannahagog, lying on the 
west side of the North River, extending from Bee- 
ren Island, by the Indians called Passapenock, up 
to the Smackx Island, and in breadth two days' 
journey, was for sale, purchased the same from 
the native proprietors, for Kilian Van Rens- 
selaer, a pearl merchant in Amsterdam and one of 
the Directors of the West India Company. Three 
months afterward Gillis Hoosett purchased, in the 
presence of jansen Myndertsen, Wolfert Gerritsen 
and Jan Tyssen, trumpeter, for the same gentle- 
man, the lands lying south and north of Fort 
Orange, and extending to within a short distance 
of Moenimines Castle, then situated on what is 
now called Haver Island, at the mouth of the 
Mohawk, and from one of the chiefs, his grounds, 
called Semesseeck, stretching on the east side of the 
river from opposite Castle Island to a point facing 
Fort Orange, and thence from Poetanock, the Mill 
Creek, north to Negagons. These conveyances 
were subsequently ratified by the respective parties, 
in the presence of the Director-General and Coun- 
cil of New Netherland, who signed an instrument 
to that effect, ' ' sealed with the seal of New Neth- 
erland in red wax, " on the same day that the char- 
ter of 1629 was proclaimed at Fort Amsterdam. 
Nearly seven years afterward — namely, on the 13th 
April, 1637 — all the intervening district, called 
Papsickenekaas, or Papsekanea, as the name is 
now pronounced, lying also on the east side of the 
river, and extending from opposite Castle Island 
south to the point opposite Smackx Island, and 
including the adjacent islands and all the lands 
back into the interior, belonging to the Indian 
owners, was purchased " for certain quantities of 
duffels, axes, knives and wampum," also for Mr. 
Van Rensselaer, who thus became proprietor of a 
tract of country twenty-four miles long and forty- 
eight miles broad, containing, as is estimated, over 
seven hundred thousand acres of land, which now 
compose the counties of Albany, Rensselaer, and 
part of the county of Columbia. 



On the I St of October, 1630, a copartnership 
was entered into between Kilian Van Rensselaer, 
Samuel Godyn, Johannis de Laet and Samuel 
Bloemaert, with whom were associated Adam 
Bissels and Toussaint Moussart, who, by the terms 
of the contract, were constituted co-directors of 
Rensselaer wyck. The common stock of this asso- 
ciation was divided into five shares, of which Van 
Rensselaer held two ; De Laet, one ; Godyn, one ; 
and Bloemaert and his associates, one. The man- 
agement of the affairs of the ' ' colonie " was com- 
mitted to a board consisting of four persons or votes, 
of which Van Rensselaer represented or held two ; 
Bloemaert, or Bissels, one ; and De Laet, or 
Moussart, one. Van Rensselaer was, however, 
not to have any rank or authority in the " colonie" 
superior to his associates, except the title of Pa- 
troon, which, with all its feudal honors, was vested 
in him alone, the partners binding themselves to 
do fealty and homage for the fief on his demise, in 
the name and on the behalf of his son and heirs. 

Preparations were also made to expedite farmers 
and cattle to Rensselaerwyck ; and everywhere, at 
home and abroad, things wore the aspect of pros- 

The condition of the Dutch settlements on the 
North River, at this time, is thus alluded to by a 
contemporary English writer : "This which they 
have settled in New England, upon Hudson's 
River, with no extraordinary charge or multitude 
of people, is knowne to subsist in a comfortable 
manner, and to promise fairlie both to the State 
and undertakers. The cause is evident. The 
men whom they carrie, though they be not many, 
are well chosen and known to be useful and ser- 
viceable, and they second them with seasonable and 
fit supplies, cherishing them as carefully as their 
owne families, and employ them in profitable 
labors, that are known to be of speciall use to their 
comfortable subsisting." So said The Planlers' 
Plea, London, 1630. 

The inhabitants of Rensselaerwyck in 1640, 
who numbered at the time as many traders as in- 
dividuals, noting the avidity with which the Mo- 
hawks sought after fire-arms, willingly paying the 
English twenty beavers for a musket, and from 
ten to twelve guilders for a pound of gunpowder, 
were desirous to share so profitable a trade. 
They commenced, accordingly, to furnish fire- 
arms to these Indians. The profits which accrued 
became soon known, and traders from Holland 
introduced large quantities of guns and other muni- 
tions of war into the interior. 

The Mohawks, thus provided with arms for four 

hundred warriors, swept the country from Canada 
to the sea-coast levying tribute on the surrounding 
terror-stricken tribes. 

The Patroon's Charter of 1629 having provided 
that every "colonie" should contain, within 
four years after its establishment, at least fifty 
persons over fifteen years of age, one-fourth 
of whom should be located within the first 
year, the parties interested in the settlement 
of Rensselaerwyck lost no time in complying 
with these conditions. Early in the spring of the 
following )'ear, 1630, a number of colonists, with 
their families, provided with farming imple- 
ments, stock and all other necessaries, sailed from 
the Texel, in the company's ship, the Endracht, 
Capt. Jan Brouwer, commander, and arrived in 
safety at the Manhattans, after a passage of sixty- 
four days. In a short time afterward they landed 
at Fort Orange, in the vicinity of which they were 
furnished with comfortable farm- houses and other 
dwellings at the expense of the patroon and his 
associates. Other settlers followed, with addi- 
tional stock, each succeeding season, and thus were 
laid the foundations of those wealthy and prosper- 
ous settlements which we now behold in and 
around the present City of Albany. 

Invested, as well by the Roman law as by the 
Charter, with the chief command and lower juris- 
diction, the patroon became empowered to ad- 
minister civil and criminal justice, in person" or by 
deputy, within his "colonie ;" to appoint local of- 
ficers and magistrates ; to erect courts and to take 
cognizance of all crimes committed within his 
limits ; to keep a gallows, if such were required, 
for the execution of malefactors, subject, however, 
to the restriction that if such gallows happened, 
by any accident, to fall, pending an execution, a 
new one could not be erected, unless for the pur- 
pose of hanging another criminal. The right to 
inflict punishments of minor severity was necessa- 
rily included in that which authorized capital con- 
victions. Accordingly, we find various instances, 
throughout the record of the local court, of per- 
sons who had, by breaking the law, rendered them- 
selves dangerous to societ}', or obnoxious to the 
authorities, having been banished from the "col- 
onie," or condemned to corporal chastisement, 
fine, or imprisonment, according to the grade of 
their offences. 

In civil cases all disputes between man and man, 
whether relating to contracts, titles, possessions, 
or boundaries ; injuries to property, person, or 
character ; claims for rents and all other demands 
between the patroon and his tenants, were also 



investigated and decided by these courts ; from 
the judgment of which, in matters affecting life and 
limb, and in suits where the sum in litigation ex- 
ceeded iwenty dollars, appeals lay to the Director- 
General and Council at Fort Amsterdam. But the 
sagacious local authorities, it must be added, were 
so jealous of this privilege that they required the 
colonists, on settling within their jurisdiction, to 
promise not to appeal from any sentence of the lo- 
cal tribunal. 

The laws in force here were, as in other sections 
of New Netherland, the Civil Code, the enactments 
of the States General, the ordinances of the West 
India Company, and of the Director-General and 
Council when properly published within the "col- 
onic," and such rules and regulations as the patroon 
and his co-directors, or the local authorities, might 
establish and enact. 

The government was vested in a General Court, 
which exercised executive, legislative, or municipal 
and judicial functions, and which was composed 
of two Commissaries and two Councilors, who 
answered to modern justices of the peace. 

Adjoined to this court were a Colonial Secretary, 
a Sheriff or Schoul-fiscaal, and a Court Mes- 
senger or Constable. Each of these received a 
small compensation, either in the shape of a 
fixed salary or fees ; the Commissaries and Magis- 
trates, fifty, one hundred, or two hundred guild- 
ers, annually, according to their standing; the 
Secretary, one hundred guilders, and the Court 
Messenger, one hundred and fift)', with the addition 
of trifling fees for the transcript and service of papers. 
The magistrates of the ' ' colonie " held office for a 
year, the court appointing their successors from 
among the other settlers, or continuing those already 
in office, at the expiration of their term of service, 
as it deemed proper. 

The most important functionary attached to this 
government was the Schout-fiscaal, who, in dis- 
charge of his public functions, was bound by in- 
structions received from the patroon and co-di- 
rectors. No man in the "colonie" was to be 
subject to loss of life or property unless by the sen- 
tence of a court composed of five persons, and all 
who were under accusation were entitled to a speedy 
and impartial trial. The public prosecutor was 
particularly enjoined not to receive presents or 
bribes, nor to be interested in trade or commerce, 
either directly or indirectly ; and, in order that he 
might be attentive to the performance of his duties, 
and thoroughly independent, he was secured a fixed 
salary, a free house, and all fines amounting to ten 
guilders {$4.oo), or under ; besides the third part 

of all forfeitures and amends over that sum were 
his perquisites. 

Jacob Albertsen Planck was the first sheriff of 
Rensselaerwyck. Arendt Van Curler, who originally 
came out as Assistant Commissary, was appointed, 
soon after his arrival, Commissary-General, or 
Superintendent of the "colonie, " and acted as 
Colonial Secretary until 1642, when he was suc- 
ceeded by Anthony de Hooges. Brant Peelen, 
Gerrit de Rens, Cornells Teunissen van Broeck- 
elen, Pieter Cornelissen van Munickendam, and 
Dirck Jansen were, if not the first, at least among 
the earliest magistrates of the settlement. 

The population of the "colonie" consisted at 
this remote period of three classes : Freemen, 
who emigrated from Holland at their own expense ; 
farmers and farm-servants, who were sent out by 
the patroon, who judiciously applied his large 
resources in promoting the early settlement of the 
country, and in assisting the struggling industry of 
his people. To accomplish this laudable object, a 
number of farms were set off, on both sides of the 
river and the adjoining islands, on which he caused 
dwelling-houses, barns and stables to be erected. 
These farms were suitably stocked with cows, horses 
or oxen, and occasionally sheep, and furnished 
with plows, wagons and other necessary agricul- 
tural implements, all which preliminary expenses 
were defrayed by the proprietor, so that the farmer 
entered on the property unembarrassed by the want 
of capital. Some of those farms were then valued, 
and an annual rent was fixed, equivalent, in some 
sort, to the interest of the capital expended on their 
improvement, and payable semi-annually in grain, 
beavers and wampum. Other farms were let out 
for one-half or for the one-third of their produce. 
The patroon was entitled, at the same time, to half 
the increase from the stock ; he reserved to himself 
one-tenth of the produce of each farm, and, in 
various instances, stipulated for a yearly acknowl- 
edgment of a few pounds of butter. The tenant 
was privileged, however, to compound by the 
payment of a fixed annual sum for the tenths 
of the farm, or for his halves or thirds. He was 
bound, at the same time, to keep the fences, 
buildings or farming implements in repair, and to 
deliver them up in the same good order in which 
he had received them, subject, in all cases, to ordi- 
nary wear and tear. But the patroon bore all risks 
of destruction of the buildings, cattle, and other 
property, which might accrue from war or mis- 
understandings with the Indians. Wild or unim- 
proved land was usually leased for a term of ten 
years free of rent, or for tenths, subject, however, 



to be improved by the lessee, all improvements 
falling to the patroon on the expiration of the lease. 

In addition to the facilities above enumerated, 
each of the settlers, on leaving Holland, was 
generally furnished vifith clothing and a small 
sum in cash, the latter to be repaid on some 
future occasion in produce or wampum with an 
advance on the principal of fifty per cent. This, 
however disproportionate it may now seem, cannot 
be considered unreasonable or extravagant when it is 
understood that the difference at the time between 
colonial and Holland currency was nearly forty per 
cent., while between the latter and wampum, it was 
vastly larger. The patroon was bound, at the same 
time, to supply his colonists with a sufficient num- 
ber of laborers to assist them in the work of their 
farms. As compensation for his trouble in engag- 
ing these, and for his advances in conveying them 
to America, he was entitled to the sum of sixteen 
guilders, or six dollars, per annum for each laborer, 
over and above the yearly wages which the farmer 
was to allow such servants, and which ranged from 
forty to one hundred and fifty guilders and board. 

This sum provided these servants with necessary 
clothing, and, in the course of time, placed at their 
disposal the means to enter on a farm on their own 
account. It is to be remarked, however, that the 
first patroon seriously complained that his settlers 
not only threw altogether on him the payment of 
these wages, but took large quantities of goods 
from his store, for which they made no returns 
whatever, though they were bound to settle at the 
end of each year, and to hand in an account of the 
produce of the farm, distinguishing the patroon's 
tenths, halves or thirds, the amount paid for wages 
and their own expenses, so as to allow him to 
ascertain what his own profits and losses were at the 
close of each year. 

In return for his outlay and trouble, the Civil 
Code, which, it must be always borne in mind, was 
the fundamental law of this "colonic,'' vested in 
the patroon several privileges common to the feudal 
system. At the close of the harvest, the farmer was 
bound to hand in a return of the amount of grain 
which he had for sale, after deducting what was due 
to the landlord by the lease, and offer to him or his 
commissary the pre-emption of such produce. In 
case he refused to buy it, then the farmer was at 
liberty to sell the same elsewhere. The like rule 
obtained in regard to cattle. When these were to 
be sold, the first offer was also to be made to the 
patroon, in order, we presume, that he should 
have an opportunity of retaining the stock within 
the "colonic.'' Every settler was, likewise, obli- 

gated to grind his corn at the patroon's mill, and 
the latter was equally obligated to erect and keep 
such mill in repair at his own expense, for the 
accommodation of his colonists. No person could 
hunt or fish within the limits of the "colonic," 
without license from the patroon, who, on the ex- 
change, sale and purchase of real estate within his 
jurisdiction, was entitled to the first offer of such 
property ; or, if he declined to assume it, to a cer- 
tain portion of the purchase money, except such 
mutation occurred in the natural line of descent. 
Finally, it was his right, as "lord of the manor," 
to succeed to the estate and property of all persons 
who might die intestate within his "colonic." 

Under the fostering care of its first patroon, and 
the prudent management of its local magistracy, 
the ' ' colonic of Rensselaerwyck" progressively, 
though slowly, advanced. Portions of its inhabi- 
tants occasionally returned to "Fatherland" to 
spread the tidings of their prosperitj^, and to invite 
their friends and relatives to join them in their new 
houses, which, from the abundance and cheapness 
of provisions, deserved truly to be called "a land 
flowing with milk and honey." A hamlet gradu- 
ally arose. On account, it is said, of the crescent 
form of the bank of the river at this point, this 
hamlet was first called the Fuyck, or Beversfuyck, 
and afterwards Beverwyck, by which name the 
present City of Albany was legally known until 
1664, though it was familiarly called the Fuyck by 
the Dutch for many years after the entire country 
had passed into the hands of other masters. 

Mr. Van Rensselaer, some allege, visited the 
"colonic" in persoli in 1637. This, however, is 
not certain. 

Adrian Van der Donck, "a free citizen of 
Breda," and a graduate of the University of 
Leyden, was selected as the successor of Sheriff 
Planck. He entered on the performance of his 
duties as Schout-fiscaal of Rensselaerwyck in the 
course of a month or two after his appointment. 

One of the principal aims of the first founders of 
Rensselaerwyck seems to have been to secure for 
themselves the valuable trade in furs, the chief 
mart for which centered at the point where they 
made their purchase and commenced their settle- 
ment. To engross this the more effectively, all 
foreign and unlicensed traders were rigidly ex- 
cluded from the colony. The patroon and his 
partners were the only privileged importers of 
European merchandise, the West India Company 
having, in consequence of the Indian War about 
Fort Amsterdam and other causes, ceased to keep 
Fort Orange supplied with foreign goods. All 



settlers were bound under oath not to purchase 
any peltries from the Indians, on pain of forfeiting 
their goods and wages, unless duly licensed to 
carry on such trade ; for such a privilege was ex- 
clusively vested in the patroon. The majority of 
the settlers subsequently obtained such permis- 
sion, received goods on credit from the patroon's 
store, and " every farmer, " as De Vries observes, 
"became a trader." They were, however, obliged 
to bring in all the furs which they purchased to 
the patroon's magazine, to be sent over to Holland 
to him, he retaining as his share half the profits. 
This condition was afterward modified so far as to 
allow him to retain only the sixth beaver and one 
guilder recognition, or duty, on each of the re- 
maining five-sixths. Competition raised the price 
of peltries nearly one hundred per cent. Prior 
to 164^ the price of a merchantable beaver, which 
averaged about an ell square, was six hands, or 
fathoms, of wampum. In the course of that 
year the article commanded from seven to seven 
and a half; but when the traders found that the 
agents of the patroon, as well as the officers at 
Fort Orange, did not refuse paying that price, they 
immediately offered nine, and in the following 
year advanced the rate to ten fathoms of white 
wampum for each skin. A joint proclamation was 
hereupon issued by the authorities of Rensselaer- 
wyck and those of the Fort, fixing the price of furs 
at nine fathoms of white, or four and a half of 
black wampum, and forbidding all persons whatso- 
ever, whether servants of the company or residents 
in tfie colony, from going into the woods to trade 
in advance with the Indians, on pain of seizure of 
all their goods. Another proclamation was, also, 
issued, prohibiting all traders to come with their 
sloops within the limits of the colony, under the 
penalty of forfeiting the same. And on the follow- 
ing court day a third proclamation followed, for 
the better securing the monopoly of the import 
trade to the patroon, by which the inhabitants of 
the colony were absolutely forbidden purchasing 
any goods from the local traders. 

At this time, between Sherifl'' Van der Donck 
and Van Curler and the other officers of the colony, 
considerable jealousy and ill-feeling existed. The 
representations of Van der Donck had, eventually, 
such an effect on the public mind that a con- 
spiracy was formed against Commissary-General 
Curler among several of the colonists, who drew up 
a strong protest against that officer, which, in 
order that they might remain undiscovered, the 
ringleaders signed in the form of a "round robin," 
affixing to the paper their signatures in "a 

circle." This done, they next denounced Van 
Curler in the most vehement terms. Some pro- 
posed driving him from the colony as a rogue ; 
others, more vindictive and turbulent, in-isted on 
taking his life. These threats, fortunately for the 
character of the settlers, were not followed up by 
any overt act. Van der Donck professed, all the 
while, an honest desire to promote the wishes of 
the constituted authorities. But, when the time for 
testing his sincerity arrived, he was found wanting. 

It became apparent from the ill feeling which 
existed between Sheriff Van der Donck and the 
other functionaries in the colony, which had 
already caused, in two instances, an exchange of 
blows, that the former could not comfortably pro- 
long his stay in Rensselaerwyck, or hold his office 
very agreeably much longer. He determined to 
return to Holland in the course of the next 3'ear. 

In September, 1643, there was conveyed to New 
Netherland by the patroon's ship, The Arms of 
Rensselaerwyck, an assorted invoice of merchandise, 
consisting of woolen, linen and cotton goods, ready- 
made clothing, silks, glass, crockery, leather, fruit, 
cheese, spices, brandy, gin, wines, cordials, tobacco, 
pipes, nets, looking-glasses, beads, axes, adzes, 
razors, knives, scissors, bells, nails, spoons, 
kettles, thimbles, pins, needles, threads, rings, 
shoes, stockings, gloves, combs, buttons, mus- 
kets, pistols, swords, shot, lead, canvas, pitch and 
tar, candles, stationery, and various other commod- 
ities, valued at twelve thousand eight hundred and 
seventy guilders, to be bartered with the Indians 
and other inhabitants of the country for tobacco, 
furs, and other produce. To insure entire success 
for this venture, the skipper, supercargo and pilot 
of the ship were allowed a direct pecuniary interest 
in the proceeds of the voyage. 

The system of license introduced by the pa- 
troon, and the profits which resulted, had already 
incited a number of private individuals to embark 
in the fur trade. As a consequence, this staple was 
altogether taken out of the hands both of the pa- 
troon's and the company's servants, who could pur- 
chase scarcely a skin, while private traders exported 
thousands of peltries. A number of unlicensed 
traders now resorted to the colony, who drew the 
Indians away into "secret trading places," where, 
by means of higher prices, they obtained posses- 
sion of the most valuable furs, "not caring whether 
or not the trade was so injured as to render the 
patroon unable to meet the expenses of his colo- 
nie." Having thus "debauched" the savages, 
these interlopers succeeded, by means of "wine 
and strong drink, which they sold at an usurious 



rate," in perverting many of the colonists, from 
whom they got not only peltries, but even large 
quantities of grain, which the farmers disposed of 
without either respecting the patroon's pre-emption 
right, or paying the tenths, or accounting for the 
halves or thirds which they were bound by lease to 

To arrest these illicit proceedings, the patroon 
adopted two measures which would, he expected, 
put a stop to the injuries which his interests were 
sustaining from the competition that was then ex- 
hausting and impovishing his colony. One of 
these was the erection of a fortified post and 
trading-house on Beeren Island, the southern 
boundary of his estate, which, by commanding 
the channel of the river, would exclude all vessels, 
but his own and those of the West India Company, 
from the upper waters of the Hudson. The other 
was to send out a stock of goods sufficient to sup- 
ply, through his establishments at Beverwyck 
and Beeren Island, the Mohawks and River In- 
dians, and all the neighboring settlers, with what- 
soever they might require in barter for their pro- 
duce, whether furs or corn. It was with a view 
to carry out the latter part of this project that the 
ship Arms of Rensselaerwyck now sailed from 
Holland with the above mentioned valuable cargo. 

She arrived at the Manhattans while the war 
with the Indians was at its height, and at the mo- 
ment when Director Kieft was sorely distressed for 
clothing for the troops which he had enlisted. A 
requisition was immediately made on Pieter Wyn- 
coop, the supercargo of the ship, for a supply of 
fifty pairs of shoes to be distributed among the sol- 
diers, payment for which was offered "in silver, 
beavers, or wampum, at such price as the super- 
cargo might demand." But Wyncoop, perceiving 
that he could sell these goods to more advantage 
to the inhabitants than to the Director, injudicious- 
ly refused to comply with this requisition. A 
forced levy was the result, and as man}' soldiers 
were equipped with shoes from the ship as "killed 
five hundred of the enemy." The evil conse- 
quence of Wj'ncoop's refusal did not stop here. 
The ship was immediately overhauled by author- 
ity of the Director and Council, and a consider- 
able quantity of powder and a number of guns 
found on board, which were not enumerated in 
the manifest, and which Wyncoop was charged 
with intending to sell to the savages. These ar- 
ticles having been made contraband by law, and 
their introduction forbidden on pain of death, 
were, together with the ship, forthwith confiscated. 
The vessel sailed soon after for Holland, whither 

Van Curler also proceeded to give an account of 
his stewardship. 

In the meantime Nicolaus Coorn, " Wacht Mees- 
ter" or commander, in the service of the patroon, 
had completed his fort on Beeren Island, on which 
he mounted a number of cannon, suflScient not 
only for its defence, but for the complete command 
of the river. A claim to "staple right" was then 
boldly set up — a toll of five guilders, or two dollars, 
imposed on every trading-craft passing up or down, 
which were also obliged to lower their colors in 
honor of Rensselaer Stein. And thus a sovereign 
jurisdiction was asserted over this navigable high- 
way against all persons, save and except the ser- 
vants of the West India Company. 

It was the summer of 1644 that the yacht Good 
Hope, of which Govert Lookermans was master, 
sailed from Fort Orange for New Amsterdam. 
Passing Beeren Island, the craft was hailed, and 
peremptorily ordered ' ' to lower his colors. " On 
being asked for whom, the commander replied, 
"For the staple right of Rensselaerwyck." But 
the skipper refused, with an oath, to strike his flag 
" for any individual save the Prince of Orange and 
the lords, his masters." Whereupon Coorn fired 
several shots at the vessel, "one of which, "says the 
record, "perforated our princely flag," about a foot 
above the head of the skipper, ' ' who kept the colors 
constantly in his hand." 

Such an outrage as this could not fail to create 
excitement in New Amsterdam, when the particu- 
lars became known. Coorn was summoned to ap- 
pear immediately at Fort Amsterdam, to answer 
for his conduct. He pleaded the authority of his 
patroon. But this was considered no justification. 
He was condemned in damages, and forbidden to 
repeat the offence on pain of corporal punishment. 
He was further required to obtain Van Rensselaer's 
approval of the sentence, which should be executed 
on him without fail, if that approval were not 
forthcoming. This proceeding was followed, 
soon after, by a strong protest from Attorney- 
General Van der Huygens, against the establish- 
ment on Beeren Island, which was declared to be 
inconsistent with the privileges granted to pa- 
troons and lords of manors. No patroon, it 
was maintained, could extend his colony more 
than sixteen miles along the bank, or eight 
miles on both sides of the river, while Beeren 
Island was more than eight miles from the limit of 
the colonies. The bold attempt to construct a fort 
there, to command the river and to debar Fort 
Orange Irom free navigation would, it was added, 
be ruinous to the company. It was, therefore, 



peremptorily ordered that no building whatsoever, 
much less a fortification, should be constructed be- 
yond the limits of Rensselaerwyck. 

But Nicolaus Coorn, Commander of Rensselaer- 
Stein, was not to be intimidated by the paper 
bullets of Director Kieft's Attorney-General. "As 
the Vice-Commander of the honorable Van Rens- 
selaer," he replied, "I call on you, Cornelis Van 
der Huygens, Attorney-General of New Nether- 
land, not to presume to oppose and fiustrate my 
designs on Bear's Island, to defraud me in any 
manner, or to cause me any trouble, as it has been 
the will of their High Mightinesses, the States-Gen- 
eral and the privileged West India Company, to 
invest my patroon and his heir with the right to 
extend and fortify his 'colonie,' and make it 
powerful in every respect. If you persist in so 
doing, I protest against the act of violence 
and assault committed by the honorable Lords- 
Majors, which I leave them to settle, while 
this undertaking has nothing else in view than to 
prevent the canker of free-traders entering his 
' colonic.' " 

In the spirit in which this protest was drafted 
were the feudal pretensions of the Lord of Rensse- 
laerw3'ck asserted and maintained during the re- 
mainder of the patroon's life. The same policy 
was steadily continued by his executors for several 
years after his death, which event took place in 
Amsterdam, in the year 1646. 

With the demise of the first patroon terminated 
also Van der Donck's connection with the 
"colonie." He was succeeded in his office of 
fiscaal by Nicolaus Coorn. He did not, however, 
quit Rensselaerwyck before experiencing a heavy 
loss in the destruction of his house on Castle 
Island, by fire, in consequence of which he and 
his wife temporarily removed to Van Curler's resi- 
dence, the hospitalities of which were generously 
offered to him by its proprietor. Diflferences of 
opinion now arose between him and Van Curler, 
as to the party on whom the loss of the house 
should fall — one maintaining that the property was 
at the risk of the patroon, the other of the lessee. 
A quarrel ensued, ^^an der Donck gave Van 
Curler the lie, whereupon the latter ordered him 
out of his house. Van der Donck removed imme- 
diately to Fort Orange, where he remained until 
the opening of navigation, whence he pro- 
ceeded to Manhattan. 

Rensselaerwyck was the only' " colonie " which 
remained uninjured by Kieft's Indian war. As a con- 
sequence, its population generally prospered, and 
sundry farms were taken up. Beverwyck continued, 

however, in swaddling-clothes ; for the city which, 
in 1885, holds about 100,000 inhabitants, con- 
tained, in 1646, no more than ten houses. Several 
farmers had, at an early date, begun another settle- 
ment south of Beverwyck, to which they gave 
the name of Bethlehem. A few • bouweries were 
also cultivated on the east side of the river, oppo- 
site Fort Orange, in what is now Greenwich. 
Kalskill and its fertile bottoms had engaged, at 
an early date, the attention of the settlers at Rens- 
selaerwyck, but the pretensions of opposite parties 
prevented any planting of consequence in that 
quarter; and Van Slyck, who had received a 
patent for lands there, had as yet made no com- 
mencement. The country between Rensselaer- 
wyck and ]\Ianhattan, on both sides of the river, 
still remained a wilderness. It is true that the 
Hollanders had built a fort at Esopus, in the 
year 1 6 14, contemporaneously with the erection of 
their post on Castle Island. This possibly might 
have been followed by the clearing of some small 
portions of land in that vicinity ; but it is very 
doubtful whether any such settlements survived the 
destructive Indian war of 1644-5. 

Such was the state of public affairs in Rensselaer- 
w3-ck and vicinity when General Peter Stuyve- 
sant assumed the government of New Nether- 
land in 1647. 

Johannes Van Rensselaer, heir to the patroonship 
of Rensselaerwyck, being a minor at his father's 
decease, the care of his interests devolved on his 
uncle, Johannes Van Wely, and Wouter Van 
Twiller, executors to the last will and testament of 
the first patroon, who immediately rendered fealty 
and homage for "the colonie" to their High 
Mightinesses, in the name and on the behalf of 
their ward. 

The immediate management of this estate was 
entrusted to Brant Arent Van Slechtenhorst, of 
Nieukerke, in Guilderlandt, who was appointed 
Director of the Colony, President of the Court of 
Justice and Superintendent of all the bouweries, 
farms, mills and other property belonging to the 
patroon, at a salary of seven hundred and fifty flo- 
rins ($300) per annum, to reckon from the date of 
his arrival out, together with a house, four milch 
cows, two horses, eight acres of tillage and eight 
acres of pasture land. He was specially charged 
to uphold, maintain and defend the freedoms and 
privileges with which the colony was invested ; to 
promote the interests and advance the settlement 
of Beverwyck and its immediate neighborhood ; 
and to acquire, by purchase, the lands around Kats- 
kill, for the greater security of the colony, inas- 



much as the colonists, through a notion of acquiring 
property in that quarter, were forming companies 
or associations to remove thither and abandon 
Rensselaerwyck. He was further ordered to ex- 
plore the country for minerals, and to report to his 
superiors in Holland whatever success might crown 
these labors. Thus commissioned and instructed, 
the newly- appointed Director sailed with his family 
and servants and arrived in the colony in the latter 
part of March. His son, Gerrit Van Slechten- 
horst, was to act as Ofificier or Schout-iiscaal, at 
a salary of six hundred florins ; but he filled the 
office only two months, when it was merged in 
that of the Director. 

From the moment that colonies began to be 
planted by patroons in New Netherlands the Di- 
rectors of the Amsterdam Chamber became jealous 
of their existence and opposed to their continuance. 
They considered them injurious to the settlement 
of the country and the increase of its population. 
By the repurchase of Pavonia and Zwanendaal, in 
1634, they took the earliest and easiest means to 
check the evil. In the prosecution of their policy, 
they endeavored to induce the patroon of Rens- 
selaerwyck also to cede to them his rights, privileges 
and possessions ; but, having failed in effecting 
this, they now changed front, and determined to 
circumscribe a jurisdiction and weaken a power 
which they could not buy oft", and which they 
wished to destroy. Gen. Stuyvesant and Brant 
Van Slechtenhorst were the champions of these 
hostile interests and opposing views. The former 
claimed to be supreme ruler of the whole country, 
irrespective of the special rights and feudal privi- 
leges granted — as well by the Charter of 1629 as by 
the civil law — to the local authorities of independ- 
ent fiefs. The latter, thoroughly conversant with 
the immunities claimed for manors and municipal- 
ities in continental Europe, recognized the exercise 
of no authority within his limits, save that of his 
patroon, or such as was approved and sanctioned 
by his legal representatives. Whatever orders or 
placards the Director-General of New Netherlands 
might issue were, he maintained, null and power- 
less, unless endorsed and countersigned by his 
commander and executed by the officers of his 
court. It was easy to foresee that pretensions so 
opposite could not fail to lead to collision ; and 
Slechtenhorst had not been much more than a 
month at his post when an explosion took place. 

A copy of a proclamation ordering the first Wed- 
nesday in May, 1648, to be observed as a general fast, 
and the performance of public worship in the several 
churches of New Netherlands, was duly forwarded 

to Rensselaerwyck. It was received by the authori- 
ties of this place, not in that spirit of submissive 
obedience which the Director-General demanded 
for all his orders ; but as an invasion of the rights 
and authority of the Lord of the Manor, against 
which Van Slechtenhorst forthwith protested. 

This proceeding did not comport with Stuy- 
vesant's ideas, either of law or propriety. To cor- 
rect the abuse, he resolved to visit the "colonic," 
where, accompanied by a military escort, he soon 
after landed, his arrival being most loyally greeted 
by salvos from the patroon's artillery. Summoning 
Van Slechtenhorst, he called in question his pre- 
tensions, and charged him with infringing the West 
India Company's sovereignty. But the sturdy 
commander retorted: "Your complaints are un- 
just ; I have more reason to complain on behalf of 
my patroon against you." The Director-General 
fulminated thereupon a lengthy protest, in which 
Van Slechtenhorst was accused with having con- 
veyed lots and authorized the erection of buildings 
in the immediate vicinity of Fort Orange, in disre- 
gard not only of the sovereign authority, but in 
contempt of the Director-General's commission, 
thus infringing the privileges granted by their High 
Mightinesses and destroying the security of the 
fort. Such proceeding was totally repugnant to 
"military discipline and tactics." He therefore 
ordered, " in a friendly manner," a stop to be put 
to all building within range of cannon shot, un- 
less specially ordered by the Lords Majors. He 
further commanded that no new ordinances affecting 
the sovereign authority, or relating to commerce or 
the public welfare, be issued without the previous con- 
sent of their High Mightinesses or their representa- 
tive in New Netherland, and that no exclusive 
right to any branch of trade be rented, nor any 
grain, masls or other property belonging to the 
Company's servants be seized, unless the prosecu- 
tions on such suits were disposed of without delay. 
The practice of compelling the inhabitants of the 
colony to sign a pledge that, as defendants, they 
should not appeal to the Supreme Court of New 
Netherland from judgments rendered by the Court 
of Rensselaerwyck was pronounced "a crime," 
an infraction of the law of the land, and a subver- 
sion of the Charter. To prevent the recurrence of 
this illegal practice, an annual return to the Direc- 
tor and Council of all the affairs transacted in the 
colony and of the proceedings of the court was in- 
sisted on. And, as Van Slechtenhorst claimed, in 
direct contradiction to the charter and the Director- 
General's commission, to the vilification of the 
latter's office and in disrespect of the Lords 



Majors, not to be responsible to the govern- 
ment at Fort Amsterdam, he was called on to 
produce his authority, either from the States- 
General or the Directors of the Chamber at Amster- 
dam, for such pretension. Failing in this, the 
Director-General protested against him for disobe- 
dience of orders. 

Commander Slechtenhorst was, in the estima- 
tion of his opponents, " a person of stubborn and 
headstrong temper. " He was, besides, fully con- 
fident that he had law and custom on his side ; he 
was sure that he had the instructions of his super- 
iors in his pocket, ■ and was therefore determined 
not to abandon the rights of ' ' his orphan patroon. " 
He answered protest by protest. He charged, in 
his turn, the Director-General with having pro- 
claimed a day of fasting and prayer in Rensselaer- 
wyck, ' ' contrary to ancient order and usage, as if 
he were the lord of the patroon's colonie. " 

He accused the company's servants at the fort, 
with having cut without permission the best tim- 
ber and firewood in the patroon's forests, " as if 
these were their own;" and with having ranged 
through the whole colonic; along with people 
from Manhattans, "with savages by their side to 
serve as brokers," trading publicly with the abori- 
gines, as if the place were their property ; all this 
without license from the patroon or his authorized 
agents, and without paying either duties or recog- 
nitions. As for the order not to build within a 
prescribed distance of Fort Orange, it was an ag- 
gression which could not be justified. The pa- 
troon's trading house stood, " a few years ago," 
on the border of the moat which surrounded that 
fort That soil, with all around, belongs still to the 
patroon ; he was never disturbed in its possession 
until Director Stuyvesant sought now ' ' by unbe- 
coming means" to oust "his orphan heir," to 
deprive him of the benefit thereof, and to appro- 
priate the soil to himself; threatening to destroy 
the patroon's buildings by cannon shot. Van 
Slechtenhorst is hereby prevented erecting "even 
a hog pen " on the patroon's own land ; 'and 
Stuyvesant has become a judge in his own case. 
The assertion that the objectionable buildings en- 
dangered the security of the fort was a mere pre- 
text. They were more than five hundred rods 
from the fort or trading-house ; and it was added, 
eight houses already intervened between them and 
Fort Orange. 

In keeping with that spirit here displaj'ed did 
Van Slechtenhorst continue his improvements in 
Beverwyck. Another protest from the Director at 
Manhattan followed, warning the patroon's agent 

that force should be used if he did not desist. 
But this had the effect only of calling forth "a 
counter blast." No suit, he insisted, could be in- 
stituted, nor execution issued in another district, 
without previous consent of the Schout-fiscaal or 
Court of that jurisdiction on the pain of nonsuit and 
arbitrary correction, and therefore the present pro- 
ceeding was informal. The pretensions now put 
forth were, moreover, at variance with those which 
had already been promulgated and in contradiction 
to practice even at New Amsterdam. The Director- 
General claimed, in July, that all the territory 
within range of cannon shot belonged to Fort 
Orange ; now he reduces the circle to the range of 
a musket ball, within which he will not allow a 
house to be built, "notwithstanding he permits 
whole streets to be filled with houses in view of 
Fort Amsterdam." 

This continued contumacy served but to irritate 
the New Amsterdam executive. The freshets of 
the past winter had nearly destroyed Fort Orange, 
and the West India Company's Commissary had 
received orders to surround that fort with a solid 
stone wall in lieu of the wooden fence by which it 
had hitherto been encompassed. But scarcely 
had a rod of the work been finished, when Van 
Slechtenhorst forbade Carl Van Brugge "in an im- 
perious manner" to quarry stone within the col- 
ony, or to fell a tree either for the repair of the 
fortification or for firewood. The farmers and in- 
habitants were also ordered, contrary to the prac- 
tice of former magistrates, to convey any such ma- 
terials thither. The Company was thus deprived 
of articles necessary to build forts, or other edifices, 
and compelled either to beg them from their vas- 
sals, or, "what is worse," to purchase them at 
enormous prices. Whilst thus opposing repair of 
the public works. Van Slechtenhorst actively con- 
tinued his own buildings "even within pistol shot 
of Fort Orange. " 

On receipt of this intelligence. General Stuyves- 
ant resolved to maintain his authority by force. 
Six soldiers were dispatched to Van Brugge's as- 
sistance, with orders to demolish the offending 
house; to arrest Van Slechtenhorst " in the most 
civil manner possible," should he offer any opposi- 
tion, and to detain him in custody until he delivered 
a copy of his commission and his instructions, and 
had declared that he had no other. He was finally 
summoned to appear at Fort Amsterdam to answer 
for his conduct. Orders were at the same time 
issued, prohibiting the importation of guns into the 
"colonie " without license from the Lords Majors. 
Such arms, when imported, were to be sold only to 



the West India Company at a fixed price of two 
beavers each. 

The excitement produced in the hitherto peace- 
ful hamlet of Beverwyck on the appearance of 
this armed posse may be easily conceived. The 
oldest inhabitant had not seen a soldier nor heard 
the sound of a drum in that place until the Direc- 
tor-General's visit in the course of the last summer. 
And now, when another armed band arrived, with 
the hostile design of razing the houses of quiet and 
inoffensive settlers, they were sorely amazed and 
much alarmed. 

Those whom the Director-General had dispatched 
to enforce his orders, were not, in trutii, the best 
qualified for the performance of this delicate mis- 
sion. They were very zealous " when the patroon's 
timber was to be cut, or his deer killed," and were 
not slow to exhibit their insolence by grossly in- 
sulting the commander " when walking the public 
street" in company with his deputy, Andries de 
Vos, cursing them and "abusing God's holy 
name," because "they had not bade them good 

This rude conduct, and the unconcealed avowal 
of their mission, aroused the indignation, not only 
of the settlers, but even of the Indians. These 
assembled in a tumultuous and angry manner, and 
demanded if ' ' Wooden Leg, " in whom they had 
confided as their protector, intended to tear down 
the houses which were to shelter them in stormy 
and wintry weather .? When they learned that all 
the trouble was about a few rods of land, they told 
the commander to accompany them home, and 
they would give him plenty of land ' ' in the Ma- 
quaas country;" so that "more kindness was 
evinced by the unbelieving savages than by our 
Christian neighbors, subjects of the same sovereign, 
bound by their oaths to protect us against insult 
and outrage. " 

The soldiery were disposed to celebrate what- 
ever victory they obtained by firing a feii-de-joie. 
They accordingly discharged three or four volleys. 
This brought the Indians again together. Slech- 
tenhorst succeeded, however, in soothing their irri- 
tation, and persuaded them to depart. They 
returned shortly in increased numbers, and 
inquired in angry terms, "If Wooden Leg's 
doo^s were gone ? " They were assured that all 
would yet be well ; that they had been mis- 
informed, that the houses should not be pulled 
down. -A threatening storm was thus happily 
averted ; for the Director-General's rash conduct 
had well-nigh produced bloodshed, "and the ruin, 
not only of the ' colonic,' but of the Manhattans 

and of the Christians within this land, who are all 
at the mercy of the savages " — especially had these 
been joined by some Christians, ' ' as might have 
been the case." 

Van Slechtenhorst's indignation at this encroach- 
ment on the patroon's privileges was not so easily 
removed. He gave vent to his feelings in a long 
and angry protest. The demand for a copy of his 
commission, and the summons to appear at Fort 
Amsterdam, he answered by calling for a copy in 
writing of the Director-General's claims and com- 
plaints. "The noble pat'roon had obtained his 
possessions and immunities, was invested by the 
States-General with high and low jurisdiction and 
the police of the most privileged manors; and were 
he, as his agent, now so base as to crouch before 
the present unwarrantable proceedings, and to pro- 
duce his commission, before he had received orders 
to that effect from his lords and masters, not only 
would they be injured, but he be guilty of a viola- 
tion of his oath and honor, a betrayal of his trust 
and a childish surrender of the rights of his pa- 
troon." He could not, therefore, obey such de- 
mands, the illegality of which was only rendered 
the more flagrant by the unusual and insolent man- 
ner in which they were made. 

Such illegal conduct betrayed a deep contempt of 
the patroon and his court, as well as of the sover- 
eign whom they represented. Those who have been 
guilty of similar violations of law in Fatherland 
"had often been apprehended, and condemned to 
bread and water for the space of five or six weeks ; 
yea, were sometimes brought to the block," so 
jealous was every local jurisdiction of the least en- 
croachment on its privileges. 

As for preventing timber being cut within the 
colonies, "Is the patroon," he demanded, "not 
master on his own land } Is he not free to cut his 
timber as well as his corn .? And can he not arrest 
these, when cut by others without his permission .? 
It is notorious that all the present proceedings em- 
anated from party spirit, had no foundation in reason, 
and' were as justifiable as the complaint in ^sop's 
fable of Cousin Gysbert, who, whilst drinking on 
a hill from a waterfall, quarreled with a lamb, who 
stood below, for disturbing the water and making 
it muddy." 

This protest produced a long replication from 
Director Stuyvesant and Council, whose power, it 
was maintained, "extended to the colony of 
Rensselaerwick, as well as to the other colonies." 
Stringent orders were issued to Van Brugge and 
Labadie to prosecute and complete the repairs of 
the fort ; to procure, for that purpose, timber 



anywhere within the limits of New Netherland ; 
to quarry stones from the mountains, rocks and 
plains, and have them conveyed from any place, 
and in the most convenient manner, except from 
farms and plantations which are fenced and culti- 
vated, or about being so." The jurisdiction of 
the company, and "the ancient and uninterrupted 
use of the gardens and fields near the fort," were 
to be rigidly maintained, and the destruction of the 
buildings within musket or cannon shot proceeded 
with forthwith. 

The Schout-fiscaal of New Netherland averred 
that it was long since notorious that the Director 
and Council had been treated with disrespect by Van 
Slechtenhorst. Van Slechtenhorst was summoned to 
appear at Fort Amsterdam. He could have obeyed 
without inconvenience as ' ' the river remained open, 
the winter pleasant, and several vessels sailed up 
and down during the whole month of Novem- 
ber." Now, however, to remove all doubt, the cita- 
tion was again renewed, and the commander was 
peremptorily ordered to appear at Fort Amsterdam 
on the 4th of April next ensuing, by the first sailing 
vessel, "when he will be informed of the com- 
plaint against him. " The prospect from Fort Orange 
ought, in his opinion, to be unobstructed, at least 
within circle of cannon shot. There were plenty 
of vacant lots along the river, on which the in- 
habitants could construct their dwellings, yet they 
persist, "through pride," in building near the 
walls. But the truth was, it was neither through 
pride nor obstinacy that the colonists at this early 
day persisted in clinging to Fort Orange. This 
post supplied them in their feebleness with security 
against the Indians, and they were loath to forego 
its protection. 

Removed from the contentions which were dis- 
tracting the capital of New Netherland, Com- 
mander Van Slechtenhorst was actively extending 
the limits of Rensselaerwyck by the purchase of the 
Mohegan lands to the south of that "colonie." 
On the 4th of September, 1648, he had acquired 
for the patroon the tract called Paponicuck, in 
exchange for some thirty ells of duffels and a 
few handfuls of powder ; and this spring pur- 
chased Katskill and Claverack. On the other side 
of the Atlantic, Wouter Van Twiller was boldly 
laying claim to the control and monopoly of the 
upper waters of the Hudson River in behalf of his 
ward, the orphan patroon, and publicly announcing 
his determination not to permit any merchant ves- 
sel to pass Beeren Island, or to trade in the vicinity 
of Rensselaerwyck. For he maintained that Fort 
Orange had been built on the patroon's territory. 

and that none — -"not even the West India Com- 
pany" — had a right to permit others to erect houses 
or to pursue any branch of business thereabout. 
Feudal law and feudal privileges thus brought along 
with them, into these parts, the old feudal quarrels 
of Europe for the free navigation of nature's high- 
ways to the ocean, and the question was, whether 
the North River should be open to all their High 
Mightinesses' subjects, or whether these should be 
debarred from its use by the garrison on Beeren 
Island, now named "in such a lofty way, 'The 
place by right of arms.' " 

The absurdity of the claim to the soil on which 
Fort Orange stood was clearly established by the 
fact that the fort was built and garrisoned by 
the West India Company full 15 years before 
the existence of Rensselaerwyck ; that up to 
the year 1644 the West India Company had 
the exclusive enjoyment of the fur trade, which the 
company intended to reclaim ' ' whenever it shall 
be able to provide its magazines with a sufficient 
store of goods." In view, therefore, of all these 
circumstances, and in order to correct a state of 
things of which the merchants generally com- 
plained, the Directors determined to use their sov- 
ereign rights — to the confusion of Van Twiller, 
"that ungrateful individual, who had sucked his 
wealth from the breasts of the company which he 
now abuses." They accordingly dispatched orders to 
remove all obstructions to the free navigation of the 
North River and commercial intercourse with Fort 
Orange. If Van Twiller should again plant guns 
near that river, they were to be seized ; and if any 
person dared to exact tolls, or salt duty on any 
rivers, islands or harbors within the company's 
limits, to the injury of the inhabitants or traders 
generally, such were to be prevented by all means 
possible — even by force if necessary — as it was the 
firm determination of the Directors never to part with 
these pre-eminences or jurisdictions to any colonists 

Previous to this date Van Slechtenhorst had 
granted several leases for land in Katskill. But 
the Directors refused to admit the patroon's pre- 
tensions to that section of country, as it had 
already been granted to another. In conformity 
with his instructions, Stuyvesant now protested 
against those leases, and announced his resolution 
to oppose these encroachments. The authorities 
of Rensselaerwyck were consequently much em- 
barrassed, and therefore remonstrated that they had 
only obeyed the orders of their superiors in Hol- 
land. They therefore requested the Diiector- 
General to defer further proceedings in the matter 



until they should communicate with their superiors, 
and promised, in the meanwhile, neither to send 
nor allow to be sent any settlers or cattle to the 
land in dispute. Thus was impeded the early set- 

In 165 1, the call for a subsidy from Rensselaer- 
wyck brought on another collision between the au- 
thorities of that colony and the New Amsterdam 
Provincial Government. The latter had already 
peremptorily demanded the excise on wines and 
strong liquors consumed in the patroon's district, 
which was refused. It was considered an invasion 
of the freedoms, and in direct opposition to the 
custom, of Fatherland. The patroon had de- 
frayed, from his own resources, the salaries of the 
minister and other public servants, as well as the 
general expenses attendant on the settlement of 
the country. These had amounted, on the 30th of 
June, 1650, to the sum of twenty-five thousand 
seven hundred and seventy-three guilders, or more 
than ten thousand dollars, no part of which had 
been paid either by the company or the Co-direct- 
ors of the colony. It would be, therefore, sub- 
mitting to a wrong to consent to the demand 
now put forth. As it was a matter, however, that 
concerned the common interests of the country 
and the privileges of the colony. Commander Van 
Slechtenhorst was commissioned to proceed to 
New Amsterdam to remonstrate with the Director 
and Council against it. 

He arrived at the Manhattans towards the close 
of the month of April, and took the earliest oppor- 
tunity to represent how contrary to reason, law and 
usage were the proposed exactions. But Stuyvesant 
was inexorable, and Slechtenhorst on his side was 
equally unyielding, "for it was a matter of great 
importance, which may cause not only tumult, but 
bloodshed in the country. " The parties separated ; 
but Slechtenhorst had not yet finished his dinner, 
when a messenger summoned him before the Di- 
rector-General and Council. Immediately on his 
appearance the authorities proceeded to pronounce 
sentence against him, animadverting in strong 
terms on his conduct, especially in reference to the 
settlement of Katskill. Slechtenhorst, no wa3's 
daunted, demanded if a man could be condemned 
unheard f The only answer he received was an 
order for his arrest. He was detained four months 
at the Manhattans, notwithstanding he repeatedly 
protested against his detention, and the authorities 
of Rensselaerwyck made several applications for 
his release. Finally, seeing no prospect of obtain- 
ing permission to depart, he embarked in a sloop, 
and returned to Fort Orange, having given a guar- 

anty to the skipper to see him harmless, should he 
be prosecuted for having received him on board. 
It was well for the skipper that he had taken this 
precaution, for, on his return to the Manhattans, 
his vessel was arrested, and he was fined two hun- 
dred and fifty guilders and costs. Van Slechten- 
horst estimated his expenses in consequence of 
these proceedings at about four hundred dollars. 

Three years had now elapsed since Director 
Stuyvesant set up a claim for a separate jurisdiction 
for Fort Orange, distinct and independent from 
that of Rensselaerwyck. Yet the question remained 
still unsettled. Lines were not drawn in those 
days with as much precision as in our times. The 
Indians measured by the day's journey, Stuyvesant 
by the cannon-ball. The jurisdiction of the fort, 
as claimed by him, extended over a circumference 
within the range of gunshot, which he esti- 
mated at six hundred paces of five feet to 
a pace, a distance subsequently estimated at 
one hundred and fifty rods. As the hamlet of 
Beverwyck, now becoming every day more popu- 
lous and valuable, would, by this operation, be 
severed from the colony, and as the West India 
Company could not fail, in consequence, to secure 
the greater part of the fur trade, to the serious in- 
jury of the patroon, considerable opposition was 
manifested against Stuyvesant's pretension. The 
authorities of Rensselaerwyck maintained that the 
fort stood on the patroon's soil ; that the whole 
territory, from Beeren Island to the Cohoes, was 
his, and that consequently the fort could have no 
jurisdiction beyond its walls. As for trading in 
furs, or cutting timber, it was, they insisted, a fla- 
grant spoliation of the patroon's property. 

Jean Baptiste Van Rensselaer, the first of that 
family who visited this country, was elected one of 
its magistrates, whilst this contro\-ersy was at its 
height. Shortly afterwards, an order was issued 
that all the freemen and inhabitants should take 
the oath of allegiance to the patroon and his repre- 

These conflicting pretensions were necessarily 
productive of a bad state of feeling between the 
opposing parties. On New Year's night, some 
soldiers, armed with matchlocks, sallied from the 
fort and fired a number of shots at the patroon's 
house. Several pieces of ignited wadding settled 
on the roof, which was of reed, and had caused 
the destruction of the building, had not the in- 
mates been on the alert. On the following day, 
the soldiers assaulted the younger Slechtenhorst in 
the street, " and not only beat him black and blue, 
but dragged him through the mud and mire in the 



presence of Johannes Dyckman, the company's 
Commissary, who cried out all the time, ' Let him 
have it now, and the devil take him ! ' " Philip 
Pietersen Schuyler, who had married a daughter of 
Van Slechtenhorst, endeavored to save his brother- 
in-law. Dyckman, hereupon, drew his sword, and 
threatened to run Schuyler through if he interfered. 
The soldiers struck others of the commander's 
children, and threatened to shoot them, but were 
prevented. The friends of the family were justly 
incensed at this outrage, and menaced revenge. 
This coming to Dyckman's ears, he, it is repre- 
sented, ordered the guns of the fort to be loaded 
with grape, with the intention of blowing down 
the patroon's house. 

Things were in this unpleasant state, when Stuy- 
vesant sent up some placards relating to the limits 
of Fort Orange, which he ordered to have pub- 
lished in the colony. Dyckman, accompanied 
by six followers and three soldiers, ' ' armed with 
carbines and pistols," proceeded to the house 
where the magistrates were in session, and de- 
manded of Slechtenhorst to make a minute of what 
he was about to require. As it was contrar}- to 
law for any man to enter another's jurisdiction with 
an armed posse, without the previous consent of 
the local authorities, Dyckman's conduct was 
looked upon as an additional insult, against which 
Slechtenhorst protested, ordering the Commissary 
at the same time to quit the room. Dyckman re- 
tired; but, "as force hath more to say here than 
justice," he returned with increased numbers, and 
demanded that the placards should be published 
throughout the colony by the sound of the bell. 
"It shall not be done so long as we have a drop 
of blood in our veins," replied the Court, "nor 
until we receive orders from their High Mightinesses 
and our honored masters." But Dyckman, never- 
theless, persisted, and ordered the porter to ring 
the bell. This was opposed also. Dyckman now 
proceeded to the fort, ordered the bell there to be 
rung three times; then returned to the patroon's 
court-house, ascended the front stoop, or steps, 
with his armed followers, whilst the wondering 
burghers stood around, and directed his deputy to 
make proclamation of the placards. The latter 
was about to obe}', when Van Slechtenhorst, rush- 
ing forward, tore the placards from his hands, "so 
that the seals fell on the ground. " Another long 
protest followed from the authorities of the colo- 
ny, whilst young Van Rensselaer facetiously said 
to the crowd, "Go home, good friends; 'tis only 
the wind of a cannon ball fired six hundred paces 

On receiving the report of these occurrences, 
Director-General Stuyvesant immediately dis- 
patched another placard to Dyckman, again de- 
claring the jurisdiction of Fort Orange to extend 
within a circumference of six hundred paces of said 
fort, "and, in order that no man shall plead ig- 
norance, we further charge our Commissary, after 
publication hereof, to erect on the aforesaid limits, 
north, south and west of the aforesaid fortress, a 
post, marked with the Company's mark, and to 
affix, on a board nailed thereto, a copy hereof." 
Within these bounds no house was, for the future, 
to be built, except by consent of the Director 
and Council, or those authorized to act for 
them. This violent and illegal act, violating at 
once the rights of property and of the Charter 
of 1629, severed, now and ever after, the town of 
Beverwyck from Van Rensselaer's colony. It was 
not, however, quietly submitted to by the authori- 
ties of the latter, for they immediately ordered their 
constable to remove the posts forthwith, ' ' protest- 
ing before Almighty God and the States-General 
against all open force and violence, and insisting 
on reparation for all losses and damages which 
might accrue or be caused thereby." 

On the same day the Court drew up a long re- 
monstrance "against the unbecoming pretensions 
and attacks of the Director and Council of New 
Netherland," in which they denied that the latter 
had any authority over the colony ; they had 
never sworn allegiance to the Company, much less 
to Monsieur Stuyvesant, and owned no masters 
but the States-General and their own immediate 
superiors, whose lands have been erected into a 
perpetual fief, with high, middle and low jurisdic- 
tion ; and he who would now destroy this must be 
more powerful than the Company, "yea, than 
their High Mightinesses." 

This paper was declared by the Director and 
Council "a libellous calumny." Secretary de 
Hooges was called on to furnish the names of the 
magistrates who had voted in favor of it, and 
threatened, in case of disobedience, to prosecute 
him for contumacy. 

In the meanwhile the question of jurisdiction 
presented itself in a new shape to agitate and dis- 
turb still further this infant hamlet. A negress be- 
longing to Sander Leendertsen Glen, charged with 
theft, caused several ' ' decent persons " to be 
prosecuted as receivers of stolen goods. She was 
ordered to be arrested for defamation, and Dyck- 
man proceeded to take up the wench. Her master 
refused to surrender her that evening. D3'ckman, 
offended at this, told the burgher that he had power 



to send him and all his family to jail; to pull his 
house down about his ears, and trample it under- 
neath his feet, "as it was erected on the com- 
pany's soil. " " I have nothing to do with you, " re- 
plied Glen; " I cannot serve a new master until I 
am discharged from the one I live under." The 
Commissary threatened him with Stuyvesant, but 
the other thought he should fare as well at the Di- 
rector-General's hands as he. This retort over- 
threw Dyckman's temper. He drew his rapier and 
threatened to run his adversary through. But 
Glen was not afraid. He seized a stick to repel 
his assailant, who then retired. Next morning he 
was summoned to the fort and placed under arrest. 
Rumors now became rife that Stuyvesant was about 
to visit the place, and the Commissary went so far 
as to give out that a new gallows was building for 
Slechtenhorst and his son, and for 3'oung Van 
Rensselaer, who were put down as the fomentors of 
this rebellion. 

The Director was at this time occupied in rid- 
ding himself of all that remained of his opponents 
at New Amsterdam. The only one undisposed of 
was Attorney-General Van Dyck, and his hour had 
not arrived. 

From the moment that he had been commis- 
sioned he was treated by Stuyvesant with marked 
contumely, and excluded from the Council for 
over two years after his arri\-al in the colony. In 
the exercise of his office he was most commonly 
employed as a scrivener, to copy legal papers, the 
drafts of which the Director-General usually pre- 
pared; at other times he was "charged to look 
after the pigs and keep them out of the fort — a 
duty which a negro could very well perform." 
When Van Dyck happened to object, the Director 
"got as angry as if he would swallow him up;" or, 
if he presumed to disobey, "put him in confine- 
ment, or bastinadoed him with his rattan." A 
series of ill-usage such as this naturally drove the 
Fiscaal into the ranks of the opposition. 

But in the spring of this year a silly lampoon 
ao-ainst the Director-General made its appearance, 
and Van Dyck was put down as its author. The 
Council was convoked to consider this mighty 
affair of State, and a resolution followed dismissing 
the Schout-fiscaal from office, "on account of the 
multitude of his misdemeanors and connivances." 
This resolution purported to be "by and with the 
advice of the Nine men;" but these repudiated the 
assertion, and declared " that they never had any 
knowledge of the Commonalty as having com- 
plained of Van Dyck; that they never had agreed 
to the resolution ordering his dismissal; that Stuy- 

vesant had passed it on his own authority, and 
that the Secretary had falsely appended to it their , 
names. " 

To fill this vacancy, Cornelius Van Tienhoven, 
the putative author of the above intrigue, received 
the appointment of Attorney-General; Carl Van 
Brugge, "an Englishman," succeeded him as 
Provincial Secretary, and Adrian Van Tienhoven 
became Receiver-General in place of his brother. 

"Were an honorable person appointed in my 
stead, ■' says Van Dyck, commenting on these pro- 
ceedings, " the false accusations against me, which 
have been so long resolved upon and written, 
might have some semblance of truth ; but the 
person whom the Director-General hath, on his 
own mere motion, made Fiscaal, is his perjured 
Secretary, who returned here contrary to their High 
Mightinesses' prohibition ; a public, notorious, and 
convicted whoremonger and oath-breaker ; a re- 
proach to this country, and the main scourge of 
both Christians and heathens, with whose sen- 
sualities the Director himself has been always 
acquainted." '-The fault of drunkenness could 
easily be noticed in me, but not in Van Tienhoven, 
who has frequently come out of the tavern so full 
that he could go no further, and was forced to lie 
down in the gutter." 

Having thus disposed of Van Dyck, Stuyvesant 
turned his attention to Van Slechtenhorst, and to 
conclude all difficulties with him, repaired to Foit 
Orange and called on the authorities of Rensselaer- 
wyck to state where their bounds commenced.. It 
was indifferent to him from what point, north or 
south, they should start. The exemptions allowed 
them four miles on one, or two miles on both 
banks of the river, and he was prepared to concede 
to that extent ; but he warned them, if they should 
refuse this "reasonable offer," he would proceed 
ex-parte. They replied that they had no instruc- 
tion to act in the premises, and requested delay, 
until they advised with the interested parties 
in Holland. The delay was granted ; but the 
question of supremacy over Beverwyck was not so 
easily settled. 

Sergeant Litschoe presented himself, with a 
party of soldiers, before the patroon's house, and, 
having stationed his followers at the door, or- 
dered Van Slechtenhorst to strike the patroon's 
flag. The latter peremptorily refused to obey, 
whereupon "fourteen soldiers armed with loaded 
muskets, entered the enclosure, and, after firing 
a volley, hauled down the lord's colors. " 

Stuyvesant followed up this act by issuing a pro- 
clamation erecting in Fort Orange a Court of Jus- 



tice for the Village of Beverwyck and its dependen- 
cies, apart from and independent of that of Rens- 
selaerwyck. This placard having been affixed to 
the court-house of the colony, was torn down by 
Van Slechtenhorst, who, in return, posted a pro- 
clamation vindicating the palroon's rights, and de- 
nouncing the pretensions of those who infringed 
them. This was removed by those of the fort. 

From the date of Gen. Stuyvesant's proclama- 
tion above mentioned reckons the establishment 
of a legal tribunal in Beverwyck, and consequently 
in the present City of Albany. This was April 
lo, 1652. It was an exercise of the prerogative 
which followed naturally the high-handed procla- 
mation of ihe 5th of March preceding. 

Van Slechtenhorst's reign was now evidently 
drawing to a close. For four years he had man- 
fully defended the rights of his "orphan patroon," 
and unflinchingly contended against the irivasions 
of superior force. But what, in those days, could 
avail in New Netherland the opposition of one man 
against the attacks of the Executive.? Nine armed 
soldiers burst into his house and, without exhibiting 
any authority for the act, dragged him a prisoner, 
" against all his protests," to Fort Orange, "where 
neither his children, his master nor his friends were 
allowed to speak to him," whilst "his furs, his 
clothes and his meat were left hanging to the door- 
posts," and his house and papers were abandoned 
to the mercy of his enemies. He was next con- 
veyed on board a sloop lying in the river, and re- 
moved in charge of a guard to New Amsterdam, 
"to be tormented, in his sickness and old age, 
with unheard-of and insufferable prosecutions by 
those serving a Christian government, professing 
the same religion, and living under the same 
authority. " 

Jan Baptist Van Rensselaer succeeded Van 
Slechtenhorst as Director, and Gerrit Swart was 
appointed Sheriff, or Schout-fiscaal, of Rensselaer- 
wyck in his place. 

Information was received by the patroon and 
co-directors of Rensselaerwyck of the high-handed 
measures which Stuyvesant had exercised in the 
early part of this year in regard to their colony. 
They thereupon sent in to the Amsterdam Chamber 
a remonstrance, complaining, ist, that the Direc- 
tor-General had dared to intrude in their colony, 
and had commanded the patroon's flag to be 
hauled down ; 2d, that he had caused timber 
to be cut on the complainants' lands without 
either their knowledge or their permission ; 3d, 
that he had claimed for the \^'est India Company 
the right of jurisdiction and property over all the 

land within a circumference of one hundred and fifty 
rods of Fort Orange, where he had erected a court of 
justice, notwithstanding the soil had been purchased 
from the right owners by the patroon, with the 
juri^ictions thereunto belonging, whereby the col- 
onists were reduced to a state of dependency, ab- 
solved from their oaths, "transformed from free- 
men to vassals, and incited to disregard their former 
solemn compacts and their lord and master ;" 
4th, he had, moreover, discharged Sheriff Swart 
from his oath of office, and obliged him to 
swear allegiance to the company ; 5th, demanded 
copies of all the rolls, protocols, judgments, 
resolutions and papers relative to the colony and 
its affairs ; 6th, ordered his Commissary to force 
Van Slechtenhorst's house, and to toll the bell at 
the publication of his illegal placards ; 7th, ar- 
rested by force and arms the Director of the Col- 
ony, had him conveyed to the Manhattans, where 
he illegally detained him in custody ; 8th, taxed 
the colony to swell the company's revenues, 
licensed those who quit the patroon's service to sell 
articles of contraband to the savages, and, in addi- 
tion to the exaction of the tithes, had raised a tax 
by farming out the excise on wines and beers — 
' ' thus, in every respect and everywhere using 
violence and infringing rights, jurisdictions and 
pre-eminences, apparently determined to take our 
goods and blood, contrary to all laws, human and 
divine ; declaring, over and above all this, that he 
is continued in his administration solely in the 
hope and consideration that before his departure 
he should ruin this colon}'. '' The patroon and co- 
directors solemnly avowed their intention "to em- 
ploy all lawful remedies to preserve and maintain 
their rights and privileges, and to protect their col- 
onists against such lawless aggressions," and in- 
sisted that the West India Company should forth- 
with order their Director to abandon these 
attempts, repeal his placards, and compensate for 
the injuries which he had inflicted. But if the 
Directors were of opinion that they had any just 
cause of complaint, they were then called on to 
appear in any court of justice to make good their 
pretensions before our common judges. Failing 
to answer categorically the above accusations 
within four-and-twenty hours, the interested parties 
threatened to "complain where they expect thev 
shall be heard." 

The Directors answered, in vague terms, that 
they were unwilling to commit an infraction on 
any person's privileges, But this not being deemed 
satisfactory, the patroon and his friends addressed 
a memorial to their High Mightinesses, the States- 



General, of whom they demanded justice and re- 
dress. This paper was immediately sent to the 
Department of Amsterdam, which, after considerable 
delay, returned a reply to some of the charges 
brought against their agent in New Netherland. 
They denied all knowledge of the patroon's flag 
having been hauled down, of his colonists having 
been released from their oaths, of any of his lots 
having been taken away, and of the establishment 
of a Court of Justice in Fort Orange. The timber 
was removed from a place so limited as to injure 
no one, and all complaints against the extension of 
the jurisdiction of Fort Orange were without found- 
ation. That jurisdiction was determined "before 
the colony of Rensselaerwyck was granted." " The 
limits of the colony were, therefore, fixed above and 
below the fort, under whose walls the petitioners 
were afterwards permitted to shelter themselves 
from the savages, but from this concession no right 
or title can be imagined or acquired." Gerrit 
Swart was not discharged from his oath to the pa- 
troon. He was only obliged to take a second 
one to the compan)', remaining subject to both 
masters. The demand of the rolls and papers be- 
longing to the colony, as well as the levying tithes 
and excise therein, was authorized by the charter. 
As Van Slechtenhorst would not "toll the bell," 
on the publication of the placards, it was unavoid- 
ably necessary that it should be executed by others; 
and his arrest was imperatively demanded in order 
"to curb the insufferable insolence, effrontery and 
abuse of power,'' of which he was guilty. The au- 
thorizing the sale of arms and ammunition to the 
savages was acknowledged. ' ' It was deemed 
prudent that it should be now and then permit- 

Having thus disposed, in one way or another, 
and as best they could, of the charges which were 
brought against them, the Directors now assumed 
the offensive, and presented against the patroon and 
co-directors of Rensselaerwyck a number of 
counter-charges, in justification of the measures 
which they had adopted, or as an offset to those 
accusations made against themselves. 

They had, it was averred, exceeded their lawful 
limits, and were now called on to record their 
boundary lines in the land-office of the Company, 
otherwise the latter would have the survey made 
by its own orders. They had attempted, against 
all law, to extend their lines along the North River, 
to monopolize the trade, to the ruin of private per- 
sons. They refused to permit any vessel to pass by 
a certain house, called Rensselaers-Stein, and 
claimed, without any foundation, the privilege of 

staple right. They exacted seven per cent, duty 
on each beaver and five per cent, on other goods, 
enforcing these pretensions with cannon shot, 
which they discharged into yachts that refused to 
come-to. They have endeavored, "by perverse 
machinations," to possess themselves of Fort 
Orange, and when frustrated herein, they under- 
took to lease lots in its vicinity and erect buildings 
thereupon. " They had dared to grant commis- 
sions to individuals to sail to the coast of Florida," 
and forbade colonists to move within the com- 
pany's limits, on pain of corporal punishment, con- 
fiscation of property and banishment ; to cut or 
cart wood for the inhabitants of Fort Orange ; to 
pay to the latter what they owed them ; or to ap- 
peal from any judgments over fifty guilders, as they 
were privileged to do. They declined to furnish 
any extracts of their proceedings or judgments ; to 
make returns to writs of appeal ; to publish pla- 
cards, or permit such publication by others, but 
tear them by force from the hands of court messen- 
gers, and destroy their seals ; and if any writ be 
served by the company's officers, they incite the 
parties summoned not to appear. Over and above 
all this, the oath which the colonists are compelled 
to take is " seditious and mutinous ;" for no notice 
is taken therein, either of their High Mightinesses 
or of the company. No report has been made of 
the state of the colony, as should have been annu- 
ally done, nor have the instructions issued for the 
administration of the colony been ever communi- 
cated, as the charter required. "From all which 
flow, as a natural consequence, an insolent and 
overbearing demeanor, on the part of their com- 
manders, to their inhabitants ; insufferable protests, 
injuries, menaces, disputes and provocations against 
the company's ministers ; and, lastly, a general 
disobedience of all the company's commands and 
ordinances, to such a degree that they would not 
permit the Director and Council to proclaim even 
a day of prayer in the colony in the same manner 
as in all other parts of New Netherland." 

The limits between Fort Orange and the colony 
were, in 1654, still undetermined. Some confusion 
as to jurisdiction necessarily ensued, to remove, 
which Director-General Stu}'vesant called again on 
the patroon's agents to fix on their point of depart- 
ure, as he was willing to allow them, agreeably to 
the charter, four miles on one side or two on each 
bank of the river, "without the limits of Fort 
Orange." The magistrates of the colony being 
unprovided with instructions from their superiors, 
requested delay ; and Stuyvesant seized an oppor- 
tunity which offered, shortly after, to enlarge his 



jurisdiction. The Court of Rensselaerwyck was 
■about to farm the' excise, and demanded how far 
they could collect this impost. The answer was 
an order to the Court of Fort Orange to collect the 
duties on all wines, beers and spirituous liquors 
sold by retail "within a circuit of one thousand 
rods of the fort." The colony was hereby de- 
prived of a very important source of revenue, and 
fresh fuel was heaped on the old fires of litigation 
and trouble. As if the elements of strife were 
not sufficiently numerous, a claim for tenths was 
also put in. Counter-orders were given by the pa- 
troon's officers to their vintners to refuse the pa}'- 
ment of the excise, on the ground that the general 
government defrayed none of the local charges ; 
and, as for the tenths, " neither the inhabitants of 
the colony nor those of Beverwyck could be in- 
duced, either by monitions or persuasions, to pay 

Commissary Dyckman, whose violent demeanor 
might, long ere this, have justified doubts of the 
soundness of his mind, became now so unques- 
tionably insane that the magistrates were •forced to 
represent his condition to the Supreme Council, 
which, thereupon, appointed Johannes de Decker 
Vice-Director, " to preside in Fort Orange and Vil- 
lage of Beverwyck, in the Court of Justice of the 
commissaries aforesaid, to administer all the affairs 
of police and justice, as circumstances may re- 
quire, in conformity with the instructions given by 
the Director-General and Council, and to promote 
these for the best service of the country and the 
prosperity of the inhabitants." 

The difficulties about the excise in the colony 
remaining still unsetded, orders were sent up by 
the Director and Council to arrest and convey the 
contumacious tapsters to New Amsterdam. De 
Decker, accordingly, invited one of them to his 
house, where, on his arrival, he made him pris- 
onen. The sloop in which he was to be conveyed 
down the river not being ready to sail until the 
next day, De Decker, for greater security, lodged 
his prisoner, through the night, in the same bed 
with himself Through the connivance of the 
soldiers on guard, the tapster contrived to escape 
from the fort on the morrow, and repaired forth- 
with to the patroon's house. Hither De Decker 
followed, and ordered him to return to the fort; 
but he refused. The other tapsters now made 
common cause with the fugitive, and, arming 
themselves, remained together to protect each other 
from the emissaries of the law. The Vice-Direc- 
tor, esteeming it an absurdity to suffer an asylum 
ioS fugitives from justice to exist in the very center 

of his jurisdiction, was preparing to execute his 
orders by force, when John B. Van Rensselaer 
pledged himself to repair to the Manhattans and 
arrange the matter with the supreme authorities. 
To avoid bloodshed, De Decker acquiesced in this 
proposal; but another order arrived a few days after- 
wards, directing him to send down the tavern- 
keepers forthwith. 

In obedience to these instructions, he proceeded 
with an armed posse to the houses of the parties, 
where he again met Van Rensselaer and "his 
associates." He summoned them, in the name 
of the Director and Council, to surrender and 
accompany him to the fort ; whereupon they 
each answered, "There sits the lord ; he will 
answer for me." Van Rensselaer acquiesced 
herein, and again bound himself to produce the 
tapsters when required. De Decker, finding it 
useless to continue the discussion, protested, and 
Mr. Van Rensselaer proceeded to New Amsterdam. 
Here, on his arrival, he presented a strong remon- 
strance against the course which the Government 
was pursuing. Their exactions, he insisted, were 
contrary to the Charter. Instead of the Directors 
having any claim on the patroon, the contrary 
was the fact. 

The West India Company had guaranteed to 
defend the colonists against all violence, yet 
the latter had thrice come forward, at great ex- 
pense, to assist Fort Orange — first, during the war 
with the French savages ; secondly, in the 
trouble with the English ; and, lately, during 
the unhappy misunderstanding with the Indians 
around the Manhattans. Whenever there was 
any prospect of trouble, they were the first to 
appease the savages by presents. The losses 
which the latter inflicted on the colony, by 
the killing of cows, horses and other catde, 
amounted annually to several thousand guilders. 
In addition, the patroons and Co-directors main- 
tained, at their own expense, all the ministers and 
officers of the colony. In the face of these 
facts, it was manifestly unjust to seize now on the 
excise, and to insist on the payment also of the 
tenths. However, to prevent all further disturb- 
ance, he was wiUing to permit the payment of the 
former under protest, if the Director and Council 
pledged themselves to refund the monej', should a 
final decision be given against them by impardal 
judges, either here or in Holland. 

This remonstrance was at once pronounced 
"frivolous" by the Director-General and Council, 
whose "high office and quality permit them not to 
stoop so low as to enter the lists with their subjects 



and vassals, much less to answer their frivolous 
and unfounded protests with a pusillanimous diffi- 
dence." Their duty was rather "to correct such 
absurd assertions, and to punish the offenders." 
Wherefore, as a public example, the protestor was 
fined twenty guilders. 

Having thus, as they considered, vindicated 
their dignity, Van Rensselaer was informed that his 
colonists were bound equally with other settlers in 
the Province to contribute to the pubhc burdens, 
not only by the very nature of civilized govern- 
ment, but by the Charter of 1629; and this they 
ought to do, without suspecting any infraction on 
their privileges or jurisdiction. The excise due 
from this colony, which amounted, by estimate, 
to fifteen hundred guilders, must, therefore, 
be paid, together with all damages which may 
have accrued by the delay. The tavern-keepers 
must, moreover, submit to the gauging of their 
stock as often as the same may be required ; 
and as John Baptiste Van Rensselaer was himself 
the original cause that the excise is resisted, he was 
called on to give a bond of three thousand guilders 
for the personal appearance of the "contumacious 
tavern-keepers;" otherwise, he was to remain at 
the Manhattans under civil arrest. 

The Director and Council, also, insisted that the 
colony was obliged to pay the tithes. If Mr. Van 
Rensselaer would agree with some of his colonists 
on a round sum, in Heu of these, it would be ac- 
cepted until instructions should be received from 
Holland ; if the Directors or arbitrators should de- 
cide afterwards that the colony was not subject to 
tenths, the amount paid should be reimbursed. 
The assertions that the colonists assisted the Com- 
pany in its difficulties " were made, but not proved. " 
It is true they promised to assist in putting Fort 
Orange in a state of repair at the time of the 
troubles with the English ; but it was not less true 
that, after having given three or four days' labor, 
" they left us to shift for ourselves. " The Director 
and Council were entirely ignorant of being under 
any obligations to them "during the late troubles." 

This rejoinder was followed by a proclamation, 
ordering all the towns and colonies in the province 
not to remove their crops before they settled with 
the company's commissaries for the tenths. A 
copy of this placard was sent for publication to the 
authorities of Rensselaerwyck, but they refused to 
publish it. 

It was during this misunderstanding that the 
"contumacious tapsters," having been guaranteed 
by the Director and Court of the colony against 
damage, arrived at the Manhattans to answer for 

their conduct. The plea of residence in the col- 
ony and of acting according to superior orders, 
availed them nothing. One was fined two hundred 
pounds, failing payment of which he was to be ban- 
ished ; the other was mulcted in eight hundred 
guilders. The patroon subsequently made good 
both these fines. The difficulties about the tenths 
were not settled until July, 1658, when the colony 
compounded for them by the yearly payment of 
three hundred schepels of wheat. * * * 

Jeremias Van Rensselaer succeeded his brother 
Jan Baptist as Director of the colony in 1658, 
and administered its affairs for sixteen years with 
great prudence and discretion. He was much re- 
spected by the French, and exercised an influence 
over the Indians surpassed only by that of Van 

On the change of government and the break- 
ing out of the war, considerable difficulty was 
experienced in obtaining a patent for the Manor 
from the Duke of York. To obviate this, some per- 
sons of influence advised him to take out one in his 
own name, he being qualified as a British subject 
to hold real estate. To his great honor it is re- 
corded, that he rejected the offer, for he was only 
co-heir and could not thus defraud his brothers 
and sisters. He was a man of great industry, and 
communicated to Holland an account of various 
occurrences in this country under the name of the 
"New Netherland Mercury." His correspond- 
ence, from 1637 to his death, still in good preser- 
vation, affords a valuable and interesting comment- 
ary on private and public affairs, and contains a 
relation of facts and incidents which otherwise 
would be irreparably lost. He died on the 12th 
October, 1684, and was followed to the grave by a 
large concourse of mourners. 

The Rev. Isaac Jogues, a French Jesuit, taken 
captive by the Mohawks, and suffering every tor- 
ture, finally made his escape to Fort Orange- and 
visited New Amsterdam. This was in 1642-43. 
He was kindly treated in both places. Falling 
into the hands of the Mohawks a second tiiue, he 
was treacherously and barbarously murdered in 
October, 1646, in the fortieth year of his age. He 
speaks, in nearly these words, of Fort Orange and 
Rensselaerwyck: "There are two things in this 
settlement * * * ; ist, a wretched 
little fort, called Fort Orange, built of stakes, with 
four or five pieces of cannon of Breteuil and as 
many swivels. This has been reserved, and is 
maintained by the West India Company. This 
fort was formerly on an island in the river; it is 
now on the mainland towards the Iroquois, a little 



above the said island ; 2d, a colony sent here 
from Rensselaer, who is the patroon. This colony 
is composed of about loo persons, who reside in 
some twenty or thirty houses built along the river, 
as each one found it most convenient. In the 
principal house resides the patroon's agent. The 
minister has his apait, in which service is per- 
formed. There is also a kind of bailiff who ad- 
ministers justice. All their houses are merely of 
boards and thatched. As yet there is no mason 
work, except the chimneys. The forests furnish- 
ing many large pines, they make boards by means 
of their mills, which they have for the purpose. 
They found some pieces of ground all ready, 
which the savages had already prepared, and in 
which they sow wheat and oats for their beer and 
horses, of which they have a great stock. There 
is little land fit for tillage, being crowded by hills, 
which are a bad soil. This obliges them to be 
separated one from the other, and they occupy 
already two or three leagues of territory. Trade is 
free to all. This gives the Indians all things 
cheap, each of the Hollanders outbidding, and 
being satisfied, provided he can gain some little 
profit. " 

Most who came over in the eaily years of New 
Netherlands came because they were not wanted at 
home. They belonged to the over-plus class who 
have no steady employment, no fixed homes, no 
friends, no character. They shipped as servants, 
as farmers and planters. But of these last there 
were, as to-day, various grades. So was it with 
the numbers who came as hunters, trappers and 
traders. Fishermen and sailors and soldiers were 
represented. Also some mechanics ; as we find 
men registered as tailors, shoemakers, bakers, 
coopers, carpenters, masons, painters, wheel- 
wrights and rope-makers. But few were master 
mechanics among these first setders of Rensse- 
laerwyck. The maltster and brewer are specially 
noted. The clerk at Fort Orange is named, and 
so is a surgeon, Staes, by name, in 1642, and a 
Consoler of the Sick, who is said to have served 
as a teacher of boys when he had nothing else 
to do. The girls in that day were not often taught 
"book learning." The schoolmaster is referred 
to a few times in that elder day ; but he had only 
a name to live. Trading in furs paid better 
than teaching. The clergyman will be spoken 
of further on. As nearly as we can make out, 
the first was sent over by the patroon, and had 
but little encouragement among a people who had 
no religion, and cared for neither grace nor learn- 
ino-. We do not include the leaders and public 

ofiicers in these statements. Some of them were 
men of marked ability. Among the later comers 
we find women, wives, maidens, nurses and 
servants mentioned. 

The early immigrants to New Netherlands are 
generally spoken of as Hollanders, or Dutch. Un- 
doubtedly this is true of the majority. But not a 
small proportion are known to have been Wal- 
loons, or French Protestants of like faith with the 
Huguenots. Few came after the English conquest. 
But among those who came over in ships before 
that time as traders, farmers, trappers and servants, 
we find Swedes, Danes, Norwegians, Swiss, Portu- 
guese, Scotch, and men from Friesland, Ham- 
burgh and Bremen; from Picardy, Calais and Paris; 
from Utrecht and Normandy, and a few other 
places. None are named from England. They 
went to Virginia or New England. The Catholic 
French went to Canada and Arcadia; the Spaniards 
to South America and Mexico. 


The stormy administration of Peter Stuyvesant 
had come to its end. The imperious and arrogant 
autocrat was humiliated. One man had come with 
a power which his threats could not alarm; who 
could not be arrested and imprisoned at his 

In the learning of his day, Stuyvesant was su- 
perior to the other Directors-General of the West 
India Compan3^ He was far above Van Twiller 
and Kieft in character. We believe he was honest, 
clean, and even religious. His self-reliant energy 
of character made him a man of extraordinary ad- 
ministrative ability. But his impetuous self-will 
made his conduct sometimes reckless, and seem- 
ingly unscrupulous. 

He had much to do, as he must have seen, to 
organize a government made up of such ill-assorted 
materials as New Netherlands. Here were con- 
gregated men of all nations, with no other pur- 
pose but gain — gain regulated as little as possible 
by law. He had succeeded the stupid and avari- 
cious Van Twiller and the cowardly and wicked 
Kieft, both despised by all that had to do with 
them. He had much to mend. 

He derived all his authority from "the Com- 
pany," which was subordinate, in some respects, to 
the "States General." He was determined to ad- 
vance the interests of his employers. His under 
officers he literally kept under himself — not often 
asking or regarding their opinions. He treated 
them as servants; he did not make them friends. 



The people were so far removed from him in every 
point that could ever awaken sympathy and confi- 
dence, that he treated them only as cattle. It is 
true he thought they needed schoolmasters and re- 
ligious teachers; but he did little to bring them 
under their influence. He had no respect for the 
laboring classes, except that they serve and obey. 
This they could do in silence, while they feared 
and hated the oppressor. 

Then came in another element, the English — 
English from England or New England ; all the 
same. He had learned something of their charac- 
ter, and would like them as subjects. He admired 
their intelligence and energy. He needed it. But 
he feared their indomitable push and inflexible love 
of freedom. But they came, encouraged by him, 
and soon occupied lands upon Long Island, and 
any place of profit or power which they could find 
open in New Amsterdam. When ' ' Peter the Head- 
strong " opened his gates to these people, he received 
into his fort the Wooden Horse. 

When Stuyvesant came into power, in 1647, the 
whole population of New Netherlands amounted to 
about one thousand souls, a falling off", since 1643, 
of 2,000 under Kieft's foolish reign, while the New 
England colonies had increased in about the same 
number of years, to nearly 60,000. And these 
' ' Yankees " were free-born Englishmen who had 
their free churches, and their free schools, and at- 
tended them ; who cherished their homes and tilled 
their lands ; who made their own laws and chose 
their own men to execute them. While they loved 
their own homes, they were always seeking to make 
them better; when they sought new places, it was 
to make them better than the old. They took with 
them their principles and their institutions, and did 
the best they could with them, with no unnecessary 
delay, no timid lack of self assertion. 

Coming to Manhattan, few at a time, yet rapidly 
increasing compared with the Hollanders, using 
the present, and waiting for the future, they solved 
the problem of English sovereignty in 1664, and of 
free government about one hundred years later. 

While Stuyvesant was successful!}' reducing the 
savage Indians near Manhattan and at Esopus, and 
removing the inoffensive Swedes on the Delaware ; 
while he was vainly endeavoring to subject Con- 
necticut, and violently resisting the claims of the 
patroon of Rensselaerwyck, and quarreling with his 
own officers at New Amsterdam, he was losing 
what he ought to have seen he would lose, the 
affection and respect of all classes. All men of his 
character are blind. His house was a house divid- 
ed against itself. The struggle for popular rights 

was deeper and stronger than he knew. It was 
pent up much in men's minds. It slept as sleeps 
the mighty earthquake. It kept up a constant 
muttering like distant thunder. 

The election of eighteen "respectable persons," 
from whom the Governor selected a Privy Council 
of " Nine men," was a gain for the people, even if 
they had power to give advice only when it was asked. 
The establishment of a republic in England, as brief 
and faulty as it was, after the beheading of Charles 
I, in 1649, produced a profound sensation all over 
the then civilized world. It was felt in New Nether- 
lands because it was felt in Holland and in New 
England. Tyranny quaked ; freedom gained. 

When the people openly discussed the wicked- 
ness of Kieft, Stu}Tesant became alarmed that the}' 
had come to this, that the acts of Governors could be 
criticized. When the ' ' Nine men " severely cen- 
sured Gov. Stuyvesant himself for his trading in fire- 
arms, and other articles, ' ' both lawful and contra- 
band," and even sent to the Fatherland a remon- 
strance against the habit of arresting, of confiscating, 
and covetous speculations in trade and manufac- 
tures, he became still more alarmed. The "States" 
rebuked him for his course. ' ' The Company " 
sustained him. Thus the conflict went on. We 
need not further detail matters that did not im- 
mediately affect Beverwyck and Rensse]aerw}'ck. 
These details belong to general history. We here 
only indicate the causes at work to bring an end 
to the government of Stuyvesant and the Province 
of New Netherland at the same time. 

In another place we have spoken of the English 
claim. England had never yielded this claim. It 
had only awaited its opportunity. The English 
Revolution of 1649 "^^'^s ended, and harmony was 
re-established in the person of Charles II. The 
good-natured King had kindly given to his brother 
James all the territory that had been occupied and 
governed under the name of New Netherlands. 
This was done on the 12th of March, 1664, thus 
expelling Holland from the New ^\'orld. The time 
had come to take possession. 

The province had fully 10,000 inhabitants ; and 
New Amsterdam had grown up to a population of 
1,500. There was general satisfaction among the 
people, with their lands and their trade. But they 
did not like the government. They were ready for 
a change, hoping for something better. 

The Duke of York placed Col. Richard Nicolls 
in command of the expedition to "reduce the 
Dutch to subjection, ' and establish his claim. 

On the 31st of July, 1664, Gov. Stuyvesant had 
gone up to Fort Orange for rest and business, not 



dreaming of the approach of an English squadron. 
Soon he was recalled by a messenger. He returned 
August 25th, to find business suspended and gen- 
eral alarm in New Amsterdam. There were four 
English frigates in the bay, near Sandy Hook ; and 
a few days later three more were seen in N)'ack Ba}-. 
The excited chief magistrate sent for help to Fort 
Orange ; but it was too late. 

Eeverwyck and Rensselaerw}'ck could send no 
help. The defenses of Nevv Amsterdam were not 
equal to a siege. Its crumbling fort was built only 
as a protection against the hatchets, arrows and 
musket balls of the sa\'ages ; the enclosure was un- 
protected by ditch or palisade ; there were not 500 
pounds of powder ; not a well of water in the fort, 
and provisions were low. The small garrison was 
composed of the off-scourings of Europe, worthless, 
dissolute men, ready to fight for pay under any 

Worse than all, the Governor had not the support 
of his Council or of the citizens. The peremptor}' 
summons, made August 30th, to surrender, was, 
after a brief dela}', in useless remonstrance with 
Commander NicoUs, reluctantly heeded with- 
out bloodshed. On the 8th of September, Stuyve.s- 
ant signed the articles of surrender, and the Eng- 
lish took formal possession in the name of James, 
Duke of York and Albanj-. New Amsterdam was 
named New York, and Fort Amsterdam was 
named Fort James. 

Fort Orange next received attention. The at- 
tempt of Johannes de Decker, who hurriedly took 
a trip up the Hudson to persuade the garrison of 
Fort Orange and the people of its vicinity to resist 
any demand for surrender which the English might 
make, was fruitless. 

On Wednesda}', September loth, NicoUs sent 
Sir George Cartwright, with a small company of 
soldiers, to Fort Orange with the following 
orders : 

"To the present Deputy Governor or the magis- 
trates and inhabitants of Ffort Aurania: 

"These are to will and require you and ever}' of 
you to bee ayding and assisting Col. George Cart- 
wright in the prosecution of his Majesty's interest 
against all such of what nation .so-ever as shall op- 
pose the peaceable surrender and quiet possession 
of the ffort Aurania, and to obey him, the said 
George Cartwright, according to such instructions 
as I have given him in case of the Mohawks or 
other Indians shall attempt anything against the 
lives, goods or chattels of those who are now under 
the protection and obedience of his Majesty of 
Great Brittaine ; wherefore you nor any of you are 

to fayle as you will answer the contrary at your 
utmost perills. 

' ' Given under my hand and seal att Ffort James 
in New Yorke on Manhattans Island, this loth day 
of September, 1664. 

R. NiCOLLS. " 

When the paper of Col. Nicolls was presented to 
the Vice-Director, John de La Montague, on the 
24th of September, he quietly surrendered Fort 
Orange to Col. Cartwright. The names of Bever- 
w3'ck Village and Fort Orange were, at once, 
changed to Albany. Fort Albany was manned b}- 
English soldiers, and Capt. John Manning was put 
in command. Dirck Van Schelluyne, who had held 
the office in Beverw3-ck, was made Clerk of the 
Court of Albany, which had been established hy 
Stuyvesant. Jeremias Van Rensselaer took the oath 
of allegiance to King Charles II. of England and 
the Proprietor James. 

Thus we have brought down the Civil histor}- of 
New Netherlands, so far as connected with that of 
Albany County, to the English Conquest of 1664. 
With all his great faults, there is much to admire in 
the character of Peter Stuyvesant. He did his best, 
under most tr3-ing circumstances, to serve faith- 
fully his go\'ernment. He was true to the last. 
After he found everything against him, he settled 
down, a peaceful citizen, and lived a secluded life, 
on his own "Bowerie, " in the City of New York, 
and there died in 1672. His remains were en- 
tombed at his Chapel in the Bower}-, where is now 
St. Mark's Church. 

His country vindicated his conduct. But what- 
ever good, in the Providence of God, may have 
grown out of them in the history of our Nation, 
there is but one voice among the careful students of 
history, in reviewing the transactions of the English 
government at this time, and that is one of the 
severest condemnation. 



On the 17th of October, 1683, the first "General 
Assembly" of the "Colony of New York," chosen 
by "the planters or inhabitants of every part 
of the government, met at Fort James, in the 
City of New York, with "free liberty to consult 
and debate among themselves all matters as shall 
be apprehended proper to be established for laws 
for the good government of the said Colony of New- 
York and its dependencyes. " 

The warrants calling this assembly were issued 
by Lt. Gov. Thomas Dongan and council, on the 
13 th of September preceding. The Duke of York 



and Albany had given his unwiUing consent in 
obedience to the clamors of the people, the wise 
counsel of William Penn, and his own self interest. 
Coming to the throne of England as James II, in 
1685, he withdrew his consent and dissolved the 
assembly the year after. 

But the people had, after 3'ears of struggle, met 
in lawful assembly and put on record, in fitting 
words, the ' ' Charter of Liberties and Privileges, " 
such as they would have, and passed other laws. 
They had placed New York by the side of Virginia 
and Massachusetts in the claim for heaven-born 

Among other similar warrants, it was "ordered 
that the Sheriff of Albany and Rancelaers Colony 
cause the freeholders to meet and choose two per- 
sons to be their representatives in the General 
Assembly, to be holden at the City of New York, 
Octobr ye 17th, 1683.' 

It would be interesting to know when, where, 
and how these "office holders voted at this, their 
first general election in this county ; but history is 
silent on this point, nor can the names of the ' ' two 
representatives' be found. The journals of this 
assembly are lost. Richard Pretty, who served the 
warrant, an Englishman, was the Sheriff from Oct. 
1680 to March 1691. He died in 1695. 

Among the Acts passed, was one " To divide 
this province and dependencyes into shires and 
countyes, " — "for the better governing and setling 
the courts in the same." It was also enacted, "that 
there shall be yearly and every year, an High Sher- 
riffe constituted and commissionated for each county, 
and that each Sherriffe may have his under Sher- 
riffe Deputy or Deputyes. ' All laws had the con- 
currence of the Governor and Council, who were 
in session at the same time. 

This Act, dated Nov. i, 1683, divided the pro- 
vince into twelve counties, viz : New York, West 
Chester, Ulster, Alban}-, Dutchess, Orange, Rich- 
mond, Kings, Queen.s, Suffolk, Dukes, and Corn- 
wall, the two latter taking their territor)- in Massa- 
chusetts and Maine." "The County of Albany to 
containe the Towns of Albany, the Collony Rens- 
laerwyck, Schonecteda, and all the villages, neigh- 
borhoods, and Christian Plantac^ons on the east 
side of Hudson River from Roelof Jansen's Creeke, 
and on the west side from Sawyer's Creeke to the 
Sarraghtoga. " 

It will be seen that the names of these coundes 
are EngUsh. Subsequent divisions gave names 
very largely in honor of our own patriots and 
statesmen, while a few preserve the memory of our 

native Indian tribes. The Scotch title of King 
James II. gave name to Albany County. 

At a session of the Council, held at Fort William 
Henry, in New York City, Oct. i, 1691, another 
"Bill for dividing this province and dependancyes 
into shires and countyes" was enacted, chiefly 
confirmatory of the above. In describing the 
County of Albany, there was the omission of ' ' the 
Town of Albany;" a substitution of "Mannor of 
Ranslaers w}-ck," for the ' ' Collony of Renslaerwyck, " 
and "to the uttermost end of Sarraghtoga, " instead 
of "to the Sarraghtoga. " 

At a session of the Council, held at Fort George, 
in New York City, May 27, 1717, the county was 
further enlarged by "An Act for annexing that part 
of the Mannor of Livingston which now Ijes in 
Dutchess County, unto the County of Alban)-. 

The Counties of Dukes, consisting of Nantucket, 
Martha's Vineyard, Elisabeth Island and No Man's 
Land, now in Massachusetts, and Cornwall, con- 
sisting of Pemaquid and adjacent lands and islands, 
now in Maine, which were included in the patent 
to the Duke of York, were set off on the reorgani- 
zation of the colonial government about 1691, soon 
after the abdication of King James II, and the 
succession of William and Mary to the EnglLsh 

From this time until 1770, the colonial govern- 
ment continued with these ten original counties, 
and with but slight territorial changes. The)' were 
not surveyed, and their boundaries were loosely 
defined. That of Albany, especiall)', was vastly 
larger than those early Governors and Legislators 
knew, embracing the whole territory lying north of 
Ulster and west of the Hudson River, and taking 
in nearly the whole State, even to Canada and the 
Lakes ; and north of Dutchess, on the east side of 
the Hudson, including the whole of what is now 
the State of Vermont. Indeed, the State of Vermont 
and the fifty counties of the State of New York, 
erected since this date, were all formed from the 
original territorial limits of the Albany County of 
1683 and 1691, except Putnam, Sullivan, Rockland, 
and part of Green and Delaware. 

The ten thus formed directl)- from Albany Co., 
are chronologically as follows, viz : 

1. Gloucester, March i6, 1770, including what 
is now Orange, Washington, Caledonia, O.rleans, 
and Essex, Vermont. 

2. Tryon, March J2, 1772, changed to Mont- 
gomery, April 2, 1784, from which and the wilder- 
ness then known only as Indian land, the counties 
west of Green, Schoharie, Schenectady, Saratoga, 
and the Adirondacks, have since been formed. 



3. Charlotte, March 12, 1772, changed to Wash- 
ington, April 2, 1784, from whose territory have 
since been erected Warren, Clinton, St. Lawrence, 
Essex, and Franklin. 

4. Cumberland, April 4, 1786, covering the 
present Counties of Bennington, Windsor, Wind- 
ham, Rutland, Addison, and Chittenden, Vermont. 

5. Columbia, April 4, 1786. 

6. Rensselaer, Feb. 7, 1791. 

7. Saratoga, Feb. 7, 1791. 

8. Schoharie, April 6, 1795. 

9. Greene, March 25, 1800. 

10. Schenectady, March 7, 1809. 

What a mother of counties is old Albany ! 

The boundaries of the county are defined by 
sundr)' statutes, and at different periods, in con- 
nection with the formation of other counties from 
its territor)'. This is done in Chap. 63, Laws of 
1788, passed March 7, when it included what are 
now Rensselaer, Saratoga, and Schenectady and a 
part of Washington, Schoharie, and Greene Coun- 
ties ; in Chap. 4, Laws of 1791, passed Feb. 7, 
when Rensselaer and Saratoga, and a part of Wash- 
ington Counties, were set off. In this Act, Rens- 
selaer County, on Hudson River, is described as 
"on the east side of a line drawn through the 
middle of the main stream of Hudson's River, with 
such variations as to include the islands lying nearest 
the east bank thereof, " being adjacent to Albany 
County on the west of such line. And the County 
of Saratoga, so far as it is adjacent to Albany County 
on the Mohawk River, is defined as bounded, 
"southerly by the middle of the most northerly 
branch of the Mohawk River and the middle of the 
said river." "And the bounds of the several towns 
in the said respective counties, adjacent to and 
limited by the Hudson's River and Mohawk River, 
are hereby extended to and limited by the bounds 
of the said respective counties herein described." 

Chap. 163, Laws of 1801, passed April 7th, 
names the towns of Schenectady, Princetown and 
Duanesburgh, now in Schenectady Count}', and 
Berne, Bethlehem, Coevnians, Rensselaersville and 
Watervliet, describing their limits, as belonging to 
Albany County, besides the City of Alban}-. 

Chap. 65, Laws of 1809, passed March 7th, sets 
off Schenectady County with minutely described 
bounds, and declares "that the remainder of the 
County of Albany shall be called and known by 
the name of County of Albany. " 

This was three-quarters of a century ago, and 
old Albany has given birth to no more children. 
Schenectady is its youngest. Ph3'sically it has re- 
tained its outward features, all the same, for 75 

years. But time and toil have wrought changes in 
her internal constitution. The potent voice of the 
law has always been directing changes. But she is 
still "at home," and ever ready to welcome her 
numerous sisters, children, and grandchildren, as 
they come up to visit her, at their annual convoca- 

As the county now exists, its form and bounda- 
ries may be thus described : It is bounded on the 
north by the counties of Saratoga and Schenectady; 
on the west by the County of Schoharie; on the 
south by the County of Greene, and on the east 
by the County of Rensselaer. The Hudson River 
boundary, dividing Albany and Rensselaer coun- 
ties, is described by "a line drawn through (he 
middle of the main stream" of said river, "with 
such variations as to include the islands lying near- 
est to the west banks thereof within the limits of 
Albany County. The boundary between Albany 
and Saratoga counties is made b}- a line beginning 
at a point in the middle of the main stream of 
Hudson River in the westerly boundary of Rens- 
selaer County, opposite to the middle of the most 
northerly branch of the Mohawk Ri\'er, and running 
thence through the middle of said northerly branch 
and of the said Mohawk River westerly, to a point 
in said river where it is nearest the north line of the 
manor of Rensselaerw3'ck, at Niskayuna." Its 
northern and southern boundaries are supposed to 
be parallel ; as are, also, its eastern and western, 
each following the variations of the current of the 
Hudson. Its general form is rhomboidal. That 
so old a county has never had a complete and ac- 
curate survey is a matter of surprise and regret, 
which will remain, probabl}', until the present State 
survey is accomplished. 

\\'hen this county was created in 1683, it had no 
towns with corporate limits. Albany received a 
charter from Gov. Dongan, dated July 22, 1686, 
declaring "that the said City of Albany, and the 
compass, precincts and limits thereof, and the juris- 
diction of the same, shall from henceforth extend 
and reach itself, and shall and may be able to reach 
forth and extend itself, as well in length and in 
breadth, as in circuit, on the east by Hudson's 
River, so far as low water mark; to the south, by a 
line to be drawn from the southernmost end of the 
pasture at the north end of the said island, called 
Martin Gerritsen's island, running back into the 
woods sixteen English miles due northwest to a 
certain kill or creek, called the Sandhill; on the 
north, to a line to be drawn from the post that was 
set by Gov. Stuyvesant, near Hudson's River, run- 
ning likewise northwest sixteen English miles; and 



on the west, by a straight line to be drawn from the 
points of the said south and north hnes. " 

In 1687, Gov. Dongan, in his report to the 
English Board of Trade, says: "The town of 
Albany lyes within the Ranslaers' Colony; and, to 
say the truth, the Ranslaers had the right to it, for 
it was they settled the place, and upon a petition 
of one of them to our present King, about Albany, 
the petitioner was referred to his Majesty's council 
at law, who, upon a perusal of the Ranslaers' 
papers, made their return that it was their opinion 
that it did belong to them. * * * The town 
itself is upon a barren sandy spot of land, and the 
inhabitants live wholly upon trade with the Indians. 
I got the Ranslaers to release their pretence to the 
town and sixteen miles into the country for com- 
mons to the King, with liberty to cut firewood 
withm the colony for one and twent}' }-ears. After 
I had obtained this release of the Ranslaers I 
passed the patent for Albany. " 

This ' ' Ranslaers' Colony, '' otherwise the 
' ' Manor of Rensselaerwyck, " was erected into a 
district, March 24, 1772, and subdivided soon after 
the war of the Revolution, March 5, 1779, •^'''o 
east and west districts. The west district included 
the whole of the territory now called Albany 
County, except the City of Albany as above de- 
scribed, and certain State lands, so called, located 
in the northeast part of the town of Watervliet. 
All the rights therein remaining to the Patroon, 
the late Hon. Stephen Van Rensselaer, of revered 
memory, upon his death, January 26, 1839, 
descended to his son Stephen, while those of the 
east district, formerly including most of Rensselaer 
and a part of Columbia counties, descended to his 
other son, William P. 

It will thus be seen that the whole territory of 
this county was once included within the Colony 
of Rensselaerswyck, the histor}' of which appears 
under its appropriate head. 

With the exception of the City of Albany, the 
whole of the territory now called Albany Count}', 
and including most of that now constituting the 
town of Niskayuna, in Schenectady Count}', was 
incorporated March 7, 1788, into a town b} the 
name of Watervliet. Niskayuna was set off March 
7, 1809, making the count}- limits coincide with 
those of the west Manor of Rensselaer. 

From this territory the following towns in Albany 
County have since been incorporated : 

Names. Date. From what other town. 

Rensselaerville. March 8, 1790. Watervliet. 

Coeymans March 18, 179 1 . " 

Bethlehem March 12, 1793. " 

Names. Date. From what other town. 

Berne March 17, 1795 Rensselaerville. 

Guilderland . . . Feb. 26, 1803. Watervliet. 

Colonie .April 1 1, 1808. " 

Westerlo March 16, 1815 . Coeymans & Rensselaerville 

Knox Feb. 28, 1822 . Berne. 

New Scotland. . April 25, 1832 . Bethlehem. 
Cohoes May 19, 1869. Watervliet. 

The local histor}' of these towns, as fully as space 
will allow, will be written by others. We j;ive a 
summary of some facts of general interest. 

It will be seen that no town organization existed 
in Albany County until after the Revolutionary war 
and the adoption of the Federal Constitution, when 
Watervliet, as above stated, was organized March 7, 
1788. Before this, except what jurisdiction in- 
hered in the Manor of Rensselaerwyck, all civil, 
judicial, and other matters of common interest, 
were managed at Albany, made a city more than 
100 years prior to this date. The City of Albany 
was then, except in territory, the County — the center 
of business, of military and civil power, and of 
social interest. 


Bern. — INIore recently and generally spelled 
Berne ; named from Berne, Switzerland, the native 
place of Jacob Weidman, one of the first settlers. 
It was formed from Rensselaerville, March 17, 1795, 
and embraced what is now the town of Knox, 
which was taken off from the north part February 
28, 1822. It is the middle of the three western 
towns of the county ; about 20 miles from Albany ; 
has an area of 38,782 acres, and is bounded 
north by Knox, east by New Scotland, south by 
Westerlo and Rensselaerville, and west by Scho- 
harie County. The Helderbergs lie along its east- 
ern border, the western slope of which gives a 
broken surface, varied by hills, ravines and plateaus. 
The soil is a loam formed of sand, gravel and clay; 
a fine calcareous, argillaceous loam abounds in the 
valleys ; and marsh, bog, clay and marl patches are 
found. Brooks are numerous, most of them find- 
ing their way to Schoharie creek. The lofty ledges 
of the hills on the eastern border are interesting 
natural features. Thompson's Lake, on the Hel- 
derbergs, and White Sulphur Springs, in Berneville, 
are places of much resort. 

Good flagging stone is quarried near Reidsville, 
and mineral springs and limestone caverns are 
found in the town. 

The first settlers were mostl}- Germans who came 
and occupied manorial lands about 1750. A 



number of Scotch settlers came about the time of 
the Revolutionary war. 

During the anti-rent troubles, this town had 
more leased lands than any other in the county. 
The number has been rapidly decreasing by settle- 
ment of claims, much to the advancement of in- 
telligence, independence and wealth. The anti- 
rent feeling arose to its highest pitch in this town, 
leading to deeds of violence and outrage. 

There were many Tories in this territor)' during 
the Revolutionary war. Here, it is said, was a 
rendezvous for them, where plans were made, and 
from which went forth bands to co-operate with the 
Indians in their cruel barbarities against the patriot 
settlers. In 1777, out of a company of 85 militia 
raised here, 63 joined the British, and 22 were 
with the Americans against Burgoyne, at Saratoga. 
In 1779, Capt. Dietz and two boj's, named John 
and Robert Brice, were taken captives from the 
western part of this town. Dietz died at Montreal, 
and the boys, after the war was over, were ex- 
changed and returned home. 

Berneville, once called Beaver Dam, was stock- 
aded during the Revolutionary war. 

The first church established was the Dutch Re- 
formed, in 1763, which received, as its first pastor, 
Rev. Johannes Schuyler, in 1767. A parsonage 
farm, given by the Patroon, is situated about mid- 
way between Peoria and Berneville, and is held in 
common b}- societies in both villages. This is the 
oldest church in the county, outside of Alban}'. 

Among the prominent natives of the town are 
Hon. Joseph P. Bradley, of the United States Su- 
preme Court ; the widely known Capt. A. H. Bo- 
gardus, Albert Gallup, County Treasurer, and 

Bethlehem. — It is stated that several farmers 
who came at an early date to Beverwyck began 
another settlement, south of Fort Orange, to which 
they gave the name of Bethlehem, with reverent 
regard for the city of Palestine, where our Saviour 
was born. 

It is believed that the first trading house in this 
county was erected in 1614, upon Castle Island, in 
the Hudson, by Dutch traders under the lead of 
Skipper Corstiaensen. This island, containing 
about 160 acres of land, is in this town, opposite 
that part of Albany which was set off from Bethle- 
hem in 1870. It has been designated by various 
names, but is now called Van Rensselaer or 
Westerlo Island. In the original charter limits of the 
City of Albany in 1686, it is called Martin Gerritsen's 
island. The trading house was stockaded and 
garrisoned as a protection against predatory traders 

and hostile Indians, and named Fort Nassau. Two 
or three years later it was moved by Elkins to the 
elevation near the mouth of the Tawasentha, on 
account of the spring floods. Here it probably 
remained until the erection of Fort Orange, in 
Beverwyck, in 1623. 

As a township, Bethlehem was erected from 
Watervliet, March 12, 1793, including what is now 
New Scotland, which was taken off April 25, 1832, 
and the southeast part of Alban)-, which was taken 
off April 6, 1870. It has an area of 31,549 acres, 
including Van Rensselaer and other islands in the 
Hudson, west of the middle of the stream. It is 
bounded, north by Albany, east by Hudson River, 
south by Coeymans, west by New Scotland. 

Its surface consists chiefly of rolling upland, with 
high bluffs rising above the fertile alluvial flats on 
the Hudson. There are ridges of sand and rock 
near the center. The soil, under good tillage, pro- 
duces a great variety of fruits, vegetables and other 
farm and garden piroducts for the near Albany 

A few small caves and sulphur springs are found. 

The exact date when the early Dutch farmers 
began to occupy the river lands of this town cannot 
now be known; probably between 1630 and 1640. 
Albert Andriessen Bradt, de Norman, came over in 
1630, and had a farm and mills on Norman's Kill, 
which was named for him. Adrien Van der Donk, 
Martin Gerritsen, and Cornells Segers, early occu- 
pied Castle Island. R3'ckert Rutgersen and Jan 
Ryersen were settlers about 1650. The territory 
now, or until recently, called Bethlehem, has been 
occupied by many distinguished persons. Philip 
S. Van Rensselaer, for more than twenty years 
subsequent to 1798 the Mayor of Alban)', had his 
seat at Cherry Hill. He was succeeded by his son. 
Gen. Solomon Van Rensselaer, and by his son-in- 
law. Dr. Peter E. Elmendorf Here was born 
Mrs. Catharine V. R. Bonney, author of "Historical 
Gleanings." Here lived John Whipple, a worthy 
citizen, who was shot by Strang in 1827. Near 
Mount Hope, which now is the Academy of the 
Sacred Heart, lived Jared L. Rathbone, Mayor, 
1838-41, who purchased "Rensselaer's Mills," and 
named the hamlet Kenwood, after a beautiful spot 
in Scotland which he had visited. Ezra P. Prentice 
for many years made Mount Hope a magnificent 
residence. The "Whitehall House," built in part 
by Gen. Bradstreet, which is said to have been a 
secret resort for Tories during the Revolution, was 
subsequently the home of Judge Leonard Ganse- 
voort. The mansion of the venerable Col. Francis 
Nichols was situated on Bethlehem flats, which has 



long been considered as furnishing some of the finest 
sites in the vicinity of Albany for homes and culti- 
vation. The greenhouses of Erastus Corning, just 
below Kenwood, are very rich in rare exotics, and 
his large farm in choice horses and stock. This 
farm of 560 acres,j^Siid the residences of Hon. 
Worthington Frothingham, Erastus D. Palmer, the 
sculptor, and Judge Elisha P. Hurlbut, l3'ing near 
the river, are worthy of special mention. Many of 
the busy men of Albany are making their homes in 
this town. Among them are the artist, Asa W. 
Twitchell; the book-seller, Stephen R. Gray; Attor- 
ney Nathan P. Hinman, Sheriff Wm. H. Keeler, 
Surveyor Wm. H. Slingerland, and others. 

It is claimed that an Indian castle and burial 
place occupied a spot near the mouth of the Ta- 
wasentha, a long time ago. Here Longfellow, in his 
Hiawatha, has the home of his Indian "Singer 
Nawadaha," who "sang the song of Hiawatha." 
On a hill near by this stream, as tradition has it, 
was held the first council of alliance and aid be- 
tween the Indians and the Dutch, about two and 
three-quarter centuries ago. 

"In the vale of Tawasentha, 
In the green and silent valley, 
By the pleasant water-courses. 
Dwelt the Singer Nawadaha; 
Round about the Indian village. 
Spread the meadows and the cornfields, 
And beyond them stood the forest. 
Stood the groves of singing pine trees. 
Green in summer, white in winter. 
Ever sighing, ever singing. 

And the pleasant water-courses : — 
You could trace them through the valley 
By the rushing in the spring-time. 
By the alders in the summer. 
By the white fog in the autumn. 
By the black line in the winter; 
And beside them dwelt the singer. 
In the vale of Tawasentha, 
In the green and silent valley. 

There he sang of Hiawatha, 

Sang the song of Hiawatha." 

The first church in town was formed in early 
colonial times by the Reformed Dutch. The 
"Parsonage farm," a tract of 100 acres, was given 
to the society in 1794 by Gen. Stephen Van Rens- 

Hon. Benjamin Nott resided here ; and his son, 
Hon. John C. Nott, Hon. John M. Bailey, Rev. 
William Bailey, Hon. Jurian Winne, were born in 
this town. 

CoEYMANS was named from Barent Pieterse Coe}-- 
mans, an emigrant from Utrecht, in 1636, who, 
having previously been a miller on Patroon's Creek 
and Normanskill, under lease from the Patroon, 
purchased land from the Katskill Indians, cover- 
ing this territory, in 1673, and secured a patent 

from Gov. Lovelace on the 7th April in that year. 
A conflict of title with Van Rensselaer resulted 
in the purchase of the Patroon's claims, pay- 
ing a quit-rent of nine shillings annually, under 
date of October 22, 1706. August 6, 17 14, he 
finall)' secured letters-patent from Queen Anne, 
confirming a perpetual title to him and his heirs. 
The patentee built the first mills at Coeyman's 
Falls, and settlements were made by the Dutch 
within the first j'ears of the eighteenth centur)'. 
Among the early settlers we. find the names of 
Witbeck, Keefer, Traver, Verplank, Vanderveer, 
Ten Eyck, IMcCarley, Colvin and Shear. 

The township was formed from Watervliet, March 
18, 1791, including the eastern part of Westerlo, 
which was set off on the formation of that town, 
March 16, 181 5. It has an area of 30,408 acres, 
including Beeren and other islands in the Hudson. 
It is the southeast town of the county, and is 
bounded, north by Bethlehem, west by Westerlo, 
south by Greene County, and east by the Hudson. 

The surface rises from the river, with a bluff of from 
200 to 400 feet, continuing, with broken ridges and 
hills, some 100 to 200 feet higher, to the Helder- 
bergs. The soil is sandy in the eastern part, and 
gravelly in the western. Limestone and marl are 
abundant. Blue flagging stone has been quarried 
at Mossy Hill, and shipped since 1828. Magne- 
sian springs and limestone caverns are found. The 
fossil remains of an animal like the elephant were 
found on the farm of Mr. Shear a few years since. 

Hay is the leading farm product. There are 
many excellent farms in this town, especially upon 
the Haanakrois Creek, which have long been 
owned and cultivated by an industrious, frugal 
and intelligent class of citizens. 

There has long been a landing at the mouth of 
Coeymans Creek, at the wharves of which is con- 
siderable trade carried on by the near farmers, 
manufacturers and merchants. John J. Colvin 
was for many years a successful shipper, now re- 
tired, and succeeded by Henry Slingerland. Ice- 
cutting is an important industry. 

Rev. John Crawford, about 1789, organized the 
first Methodist class here, and a stone edifice for 
their worship was erected in 1793, said to have 
been the first Methodist church west of the Hud- 
son. The celebrated Freeborn Garretson was pre- 
siding elder of an extensive district up and down 
the river. March 5, 1793, Ae Reformed Church, 
Rev. Jacob Sickles, pastor, was organized ; in 1797 
it built a large brick church. 

The Coe3-mans Academj' was established by 
Fletcher Blaisdell, Theophilus Civill and Peter 



Seabridge, in 1858. The fine buildings for a new 
literary institution, recently erected by Anton Civil, 
of this town, are not yet opened. Sawmills were 
erected on the creek just north of Beeren Island as 
early as 1651. 

The Coeynians Gazelle was started in 1863, edited 
by Prof Thomas McKee, who afterward took it 
to Greenbush and published it until his death as 
the Rensselaer County Gazelle. The Coeynians 
Herald is published weekly by S. H. and E. J. 

For several years after the Revolution a few 
Oneida Indians called the Aquetucks resided in 
this town. 

Among the prominent citizens of this town 
during the past century may be named John and 
James Colvin, John and David IMcCarty, Hugh 
Jolly, Archibald Stephens, Andrew and Anthony 
Ten Eyck, Abraham and Isaac Verplanck, Moses 
Stanton, Dr. Jesse Smith, Nathaniel Niles, John 
P. Beeckman, and many others. Hon. Andrew J. 
Colvin was born in Coeymans, April 30, 1808 ; was 
educated at Albany Academy under Dr. Beck ; 
read law with \^an Buren & Butler ; began practice 
in Albany in 1830 ; has been Corporation Counsel, 
District Attorney and State Senator. He was in 
the Senate in 1861 when the Rebellion broke out, 
and has been spoken of as "the very first Demo- 
cratic official who threw up a rocket in favor of 
equal constitutional freedom for all. " He is now, 
at the age of seventy-seven, actively engaged in 
professional practice. 

CoHOES was formed from Watervliet and incor- 
porated as a city. May 9, 1869. It previously, 
from April 12, 1855, had been an incorporated 
village of Watervliet. It has an area of 1,575 

The history of this city is recent, and is, chiefly, 
a history of its manufactures. These are well 
written up by Rev. Wm. H. Johnson, and will 
appear in this work. The antiquities of this local- 
ity and its natural wonders are presented in an ex- 
cellent manner, in connection with other points of 
interest relating to its growth and present condition, 
in "Masten's History of Cohoes," a volume reflect- 
ing great credit upon its painstaking author. 

CoLONiE, once an incorporated town and village, 
is entitled to a place in our history, although its 
existence as such was brief, and is now obsolete. 
Its name is still preserved in one of the streets of 

The term ' ' the Colonic " was undoubtedly ap- 
plied originall}' to all the colonized territory of 
Rensselaerwyck. But it came to be limited, it 

appears, to that portion lying outside of the City 
of Albany, especially north of it, in which were 
situated the mansion of the Patroon, with his mills 
and offices, the residences of his officers, and the 
homes of his immediate farmers, gardeners and 
other dependents. We find it frequently used in the 
time of Stuyvesant and other Dutch governors. 
' ' The limits of Ihe Colonie were fixed above 
and below the fort," say the Directors of the 
West India Company in 1652. "The limits be- 
tween Fort Orange and the Colonie were, in 
1654, still undetermined." Some confusion as 
to jurisdiction between Gov. Stuyvesant and the 
Patroon 's agents necessarily followed. The Gov- 
ernor was willing to allow the Colonie four miles 
on one side or two on each bank of the river, with- 
out the limits of Fort Orange. The question as to 
jurisdiction remained unsettled until 1664, when 
England assumed jurisdiction over the whole Prov- 
ince of New York, no longer New Netherlands. 

During the years that followed the English con- 
quest, "the Colonie" continued as a local designa- 
tion of the district lying without the city, and north 
of it. Its southern limits were defined by Quacken- 
bush street, and Patroon street, now called Clinton 
avenue. It was outside the stockade, which lat- 
terly had its palisades a little north of Orange and 
Van Tromp streets. When Watervliet was formed, 
in 1788, coextensive with the western district of 
Rensselaerwyck, "the Colonie" was, of course, 
a part of its territory. The Hudson marked its 
eastern limits; but its western and northern were 
not defined. It was understood to include the 
" Upper Hollow " and the settlements and business 
places therein, the Mansion House and its office, 
and the lands near them. Kenwood was the 
' ' Lower Hollow. " 

It was set apart as a district, March 31, 1791, 
and again, by an additional act, March 30, i8oi. 
April 9, 1804, it was incorporated as a village in 
the town of Watervliet, and organized as a separate 
town, April 11, 1808, as described by the Legisla- 
tive act following : 

" Be il enacled, &fc. , That from and after the first 
day of April next all that part of the town of 
Watervliet, beginning at the west bank of Hudson's 
River and in the northeast corner of the bounds of 
the City of Albany, and extending northerly along 
the said river, about three-quarters of a mile, to 
what is called the Mill-creek : thence running 
westerl}', one mile, up along the said creek : thence 
southerly with a line parallel to the said river, till it 
intersects the north bounds of the said city : thence 
easterly, along the said north bounds to the place 



of beginning, shall be and is hereby erected into a 
separate town, by the name of the Colonie. '' 

It was divided, February 25, 1815, and its legal 
existence as a town terminated by giving its terri- 
tory to Albany and Watervliet. The Albany por- 
tion was made the "Fifth Ward" for many years. 

It was a small town, less in area than any other 
town in the State. Its population in 18 10 was 
only 1,406, and in 1815, 1,657, having 245 
houses and stores, and thirty slaves. The houses 
and stores were principally on one street, except 
near Albany. 

In 1818 an effort was made to restore it to town 
privileges, but did not succeed. 

In Colonie, in 1813, were "the Public Garden 
of Mr. Buckmaster," two breweries, a distillery, 
two large tanneries, a tallow chandlery, rope walks, 
a grain mill and several other manufactories, in- 
cluding a part of the "tobacco works" of Mr. 
James Caldwell, which were on Mill Creek, mostly 
on the north or Watervliet side. There was also 
"a Seceders' Church," whatever that might be, 
and "a large brick edifice filled with military stores 
belonging to the State of New York and the United 
States," called "The Arsenal," standing "on the 
east side of the principal street,'' "connected with 
which is a large yard." 

Says Spatford in 1813, in his "Gazetteer of New 
York:" " The compact village of Colonie is con- 
tinuous with Albany, of which it forms a large and 
populous suburb, though legally organized under 
a separate municipality. " ' ' That part necessarily 
belongs to Albany in a general view of its popula- 
tion, resources, wealth, trade and general char- 

In Fry's Albany Directory for 1813, the first 
published in the city, we find no name of a citizen 
of Colonie except ' ' Spafford, Horatio G. , author 
of Geography and Gazetteer, Colonie, two doors 
south of Arsenal. " Mr. Fry makes this explana- 
tion in his prefatory "Notice :" "Should this pub- 
lication meet its hoped-for encouragement, in the 
sale of the books, the next may be accompanied 
with a list of inhabitants in the Colonie and a map 
of the city." 

GuiLDERLAND was named from Guilderlandt in 
the Netherlands. It was formed from Watervliet, 
February 26, 1803. The northwest portion of the 
city of Albany was annexed to this town, February 
26, 1 87 1. It is bounded, north by Schenectady 
County, east by Watervliet and Alban}', south by 
Bethlehem and New Scotland, west by Knox, and 
has an area of 38,784 acres, the largest number of 
any town in the county. Its outline is very singu- 

lar, suggesting a rhombus in general form, the 
apexes of the two acute angles of which are fifteen 
niiles apart northwest and southeast. 

The surface is quite varied, from the sandy ridges 
and the marshes of the eastern part of the town 
to the higher hills of the Helderbergs on the west. 
The soil is a barren sand in the northeast; but 
there are many fertile farms of sandy loam well 
improved by cultivation in other parts of the town, 
producing excellent grass, grain and fruits, which 
find a ready market in Albany. 

The Indian Ladder Gap, supposed to mark an 
ancient Indian trail, is in this town, and remark- 
able for picturesque scenery. 

Formerly the town was distinguished for certain 
manufactures. In 1792 glass works were com- 
menced in this town, eight miles from Albany. 
Among the proprietors were Jeremiah Van Rens- 
selaer, John Sanders, Abraham Ten Eyck, Elkanah 
Watson, Frederick A. De Zeng, K. K. Van Rens- 
selaer, Douw Fonda, Walter Cochran, Thomas 
Mather and Samuel Mather. 

In 1796 the ground was laid out in streets and 
house lots, and plans for a church and school 
house were made. The project of a manufactur- 
ing town, to be called Hamilton, in honor of 
Alexander Hamilton, was considered. The Legis- 
lature, as an encouragement, exempted the com- 
pany and the workmen from taxation for five years. 
The corporation was called the Albany Glass Com- 
pany. At the first, it was owned by McCiallen, 
McGregor & Co., the Co. being James Caldwell 
and Christopher Batterman; and a loan was 
granted to the proprietors b}' the State to the 
amount of ;^3,ooo for eight }-ears — three years 
without interest and five years at five per cent. In 
1795 Robert McGregor left the firm, and anew 
compan)-, under the name of Thomas Mather & 
Co., was formed. At one period 500,000 feet of 
window glass was manufactured annuall}'. The 
works were discontinued in 18 15, as it is said, for 
want of a suitable supply of sand and fuel. 

Abel French, of Alban)', established a factory 
near the center of the town in 1 800, and the place 
was named French's Mills. In 1795 clothing mills 
were erected here by Peter K. Broeck. In 1 800 
Knowersville had a cotton factory, and later a hat 
factory. The first tavern in town was kept here by 
Jacob Acker during the Revolution. 

Whigs and Tories dwelt here in constant feud 
during the trying days of 1775-83. The feelings 
then engendered betMeen discordant families long 
remained. The exultant Whigs, on getting news 
of the surrender of Burgoyne, it is said, illuminated 



the surrounding country by burning a tioUow 
chestnut tree filled with tar, standing upon a high 

St. John's Evangelical Lutheran Church was 
organized October 13, 1787, Heinrich Moeller, 
first pastor. 

Among the natives of this town are Judges James 
A. McKown and Jacob H. Clute, Edward 
Robinson, Wm. Dey Ermand, John M. Batterman, 
Stephen R. Gray, Peter Walker, Hiram Griggs, 
Wm. D. Strevell, Dr. Thomas Helm, and many 
others well known in the county. 

Knox was named from John Kno.x, the emi- 
nent divine and bold reformer of Scotland. It was 
formed from Berne, February 28, 1822. It has the 
smallest area of any town in the county, containing 
26,402 acres. It is situated in the northwest corner 
of the county, and is bounded, north by Schenec- 
tady County, east by Guilderland, south by Berne, 
and west by Schoharie County. 

Its surface is an elevated plateau, inclining 
slightly toward the northwest from the Helderbergs, 
which lie on its eastern border. Small hills diversify 
the surface. The soil is generally of good qualit}^ 
and arable, composed of a gravelly, calcareous 
loam mixed with clay, overtopping hardpan. 
Several small caves are found in this town. 

It is a farming town, with a few grist, saw and 
woolen mills for local manufacture. 

The first settlers were Dutch, who took leases 
from Van Rensselaer before the Revolution. After 
this war, from 1788 to 1790, several families from 
Connecticut came to settle. Among them were 
Samuel Abbott and Andrew Brown. Tories were 
there during the Revolution until the surrender of 
Burgoyne, when they went to a more congenial 
home in the Canadas. Capt. Jacob Van Aerden was 
the leading man among the Whigs of that da}'. 

The first church is said to have been the Dutch 

There long existed a public library in this town. 
In 1824 it numbered about 400 volumes. It was 
modeled after the New England town libraries, 
and was helpful in forming the character of the 
people to habits of intellectual culture and good 

The anti-rent feeling in this town was general 
and intense. Most of the farmers held manorial 
leases, and resisted the collection of rents with in- 
flexible determination. Collectors, sheriffs, and 
the posse comitatus were often unsuccessful. Resort 
was had more than once to the military, who, with- 
out bloodshed, caused arrests and trials in courts. 

Strifes of this sort began soon after the death ot 
"the old Patroon," in 1839, who had been very 
indulgent to his tenants. It pervaded all the towns 
of the county, and all the people who occupied 
leased lands. It entered into local and State poli- 
tics. No towns, perhaps, showed more active re- 
sistance than Berne and Knox. It lasted several 
years, and was terminated only by the decisions of 
the courts and the enforcement of law. Even as 
late as Jul)', 1866, a detachment of 100 men under 
Capt. James McFarland, of the loth regiment, 
went from Albany to Knox and secured the arrest 
of nine respectable citizens, who, no doubt, hon- 
estly felt that they were resisting unjust claims. 

New Scotland. — Among its early settlers are to 
be found these Scotch names: Reid, Wands, Watt, 
Swan, Kirkland, Patterson, Ramsay, McIMuUin, 
McCuIloch, and others. Through the influence of 
these natives of Scotland, no doubt, came the name 
of the town. About 1758, Teunis Slingerland, a 
Hollander, purchased 9,874 acres of this territory 
from the Indians, located on the Oneskethau Flats, 
and erected the first mills. He is considered the 
first settler. The town was erected from Bethlehem, 
April 25, 1832; has an area of 34,324 acres, and 
is the central town of the county, and the young- 
est, if we do not reckon the city of Cohoes as a 
town. It is inclosed b)' other towns, as follows : 
Guilderland, north ; Bethlehem, east ; Coeymans 
and Westerlo, south ; Westerlo, Berne, and Knox, 
west. Rensselaerville and Watervliet and the 
cities of Albany and Cohoes alone do not touch it. 

The surface is elevated, consisting, in the eastern 
and central portion, of rolling lands varied by hills 
of moderate height. The Helderbergs border the 
western Umits, their highest peak being situated at 
the Helderberg Station of the Coast Surve)', 1,823 
feet above the sea, and near the southwest 
corner of the town. Gravelly loam with clay inter- 
mixed makes a productive soil under proper cul- 

The town has striking geological features which 
have attracted the interest of many geologists in 
the State ; limestone caves, sink hills and subter- 
ranean streams, are among the natural curiosities. 
Sulphur springs are found, stones for flagging and 
building are quarried, and plaster is ground in this 
town. Mr. James Hendrick has a farm of 165 
acres under the highest culture, on which are the 
"Font Grove Nurseries,'' and where are carefully 
cultivated outdoor and greenhouse plants; also 
flowers and fruits in the greatest variety. He has 
twelve large greenhouses. The farm and green- 
houses will repay a special visit. 



The inhabitants are chiefl}- descendants of the 
Dutch, the Walloons and the Scotch. Many are 
from New England. 

Isaac Perry, an emigrant from France, was one 
of the earliest se_ttlers. The hewn stone house, 
built by his son Nicholas before the Revolution, is 
still standing near Wolf Hill on the Helderbergs. 
George Reid and other Scotch immigrants came at 
an early da}-, 

A Dutch Reformed Church was organized at 
Jerusalem about 1 780. The house of worship was 
erected in 1790. Harmanus Van Huysen was the 
first pastor, who subsequently organized the church 
at New Salem and became its pastor. The New 
Scotland Presbyterian Church was organized about 
1787, and had, as its first pastor, Rev. Benjamin 

Rensselaerville was named in honor of Gen. 
Stephen Van Rensselaer, the "Old Patroon," and 
is the first town formed from old Watervliet. It 
was erected, March 8, 1790, and included Berne, 
taken off", ]\Iarch 17, 1795, and the westerly part of 
Westerlo, taken off March 16, 18 15. It contains 
37,354 acres ; is in the southwesterly corner of the 
country, and is bounded, north by Berne, east by 
Westerlo, south by Green County and west by 
Schoharie County. The terminal ville is appro- 
priate to the village, but inappropriate as a part of 
the name of the town. 

The surface is mostly upland broken by spurs or 
ridges from the Catskill JMountains, with deep and 
narrow fertile valleys that are watered by the rapid 
streams that run on their way to the Hudson by 
way of Catskill Creek. The upland soil is a gravel 
loam 13'ing upon hardpan. It is productive of ex- 
cellent grass for dairy products, and of oats, buck- 
wheat, rye and potatoes. 

There is a fall of 100 feet on the Ten Mile Creek, 
and of 40 feet on Willow Brook. 

The town once abounded in varied useful 
industries. Its rural villages were formerly well 
filled with skilled artisans, and its creeks supplied 
water power to numerous mills. It was a model 
of an intelligent and orderly town, 25 miles from 
the city. Its early settlers came mostly from New 
England soon after the Revolution. Among. them 
were Apollos Aloore, a soldier of the Revolution, and 
first Judge of the County; Major John Edward, a 
revolutionary officer ; Samuel Jenkins, who built 
the first mill; Silas Sweet, Joseph Lincoln, the 
Hatch brothers, and Rev. Samuel Fuller, the first 
minister of the gospel, a graduate of Dartmouth, 
and many others, some of whom came later b}' 
wav of Long Island and Dutchess and Ulster 

Counties. They were mostly young men of steady, 
industrious, frugal habits. Its timber has been 
used, and it has no near railroad. 

The first church was the Presbyterian, of which 
Samuel Fuller was, for 16 years, the first pastor. 
It was organized in 1792. A Baptist Church was 
formed about the same time, with Timothy Green, 
pastor ; a Friend's meeting, Reuben Palmer, 
preacher, was organized in 1795, and a little later, 
a Methodist Church. Rev. Samuel Fuller left 
the Presbyterian Church in 18 10, and organized an 
Episcopal Church, of which he was for 3 1 years 

The town has been remarked for good roads 
and good district schools. Select schools were 
sustained when needed. In the Academy at Rens- 
selaerville, Judge Bradley, now of the United States 
Supreme Court, received his early academic edu- 
cation. Among natives of the town who have 
attained to public distinction, we have found the 
names of the late Judges Rufus W. Peckham, Sr. , 
and Malbone Watson, of the Supreme Court of 
this State ; Judge Addison Niles, of the Supreme 
Court of California ; and Judge IMortimer M. 
Jackson, of the Supreme Court of Wisconsin. 
Moses Patten, born in New Hampshire, was an 
early school teacher, and afterward a Surrogate of 
the County and a leading citizen. Valentine 
Treadwell was some years an Assemblyman and 
a prominent man. John Watson, a wealthy manu- 
facturer of New York City, was born here, and so 
were Robert H. Moore and Edward P. Durant, of 
Albany. The town used to have much of the New 
England characteristics. It has made a good 
record. Among its sons is Charles M. Jenkins, 
son of Jonathan Jenkins, of Connecticut stock, 
who graduated at Union College, under Dr. Nott, 
in 1829, and at the old Litchfield Law School, 
and has been in the practice of law in this city for 
50 years. 

It is worthy of note that Samuel Boughton had 
21 children born to him in this town. Daniel 
Shay, of the "Shay Rebellion" notorietv, resided 
here a few years about 1795 to 1800. 

Two weekly newspapers have been published in 
this town, each having a brief existence — the 
Rural Folio and the Rensselaerville Press. 

Watervliet, signifying zoa/e;-y?oo^, and so called, 
probably, on account of its peninsular situation, 
partially surrounded by the Hudson and the 
;\Iohawk, was the first incorporated town in the 
county. It was formed March 7, 1788, and then 
included all of West Rensselaerwyck, and all of 
the present county, except the Cit)- of Albany, as 



it was at the date of its charter in 1686. After 
parting with its territory to form the nine other 
towns of the county, it took back a part of Colonie 
in 18 1 5, and gave up the same, with considerable 
more, to the City of Albany in 1870. In the same 
year Alban}' offered to give Watervliet its sparsel}' 
settled and sterile lands in the northwest part of 
the city, which, the town haxing declined to recei\'e 
the gift, was the next 3'ear transferred to Guildei'- 
land. By the session laws of 1830 and 1833, a 
portion of its lands were conditionally ceded to 
the United States, ' ' for the purpose of erecting 
and maintaining thereon arsenals, magazines, 
dockyards and other necessary buildings. " Niska- 
yuna, in Schenectad}- County, was formed in 1 809, 
largely from Watervliet. Cohoes was incorporated 
as a city May 19, 1869. 

The census of 1875 gives the town an area of 
30,697 acres. Its boundaries are: north, by 
Schenectady Count}' and IMohawk River ; east, by 
Cohoes, the Mohawk and the Hudson Rivers, taking 
in the islands west of the middle of said rivers ; 
south, by Albany ; and west by Albany and Guil- 

The surface of the town is considerably varied. 
Along the Hudson extend wide alluvial lands, 
rising above which are moderate hill slopes, fur- 
nishing fine suburban building sites, and a soil 
well adapted for gardens and small farms. Most 
of the surface is an upland of light sandy loam, 
100 to 300 feet higher than the river, intersected by 
ravines formed by numerous small streams. With 
its river confines, its steam and horse railroads, and 
its canals, it has rare facilities for transportation and 
travel. To say nothing of its flourishing villages of 
Green Island and West Troy, its location near 
Alban}', Troy, Cohoes and Schenectady gives ex- 
traordinary facilities for marketing its products and 
for trade. Milk, culinary vegetables and fruit find 
a ready market near home. 

These inducements have led to the settlement 
and cultivation of a territory, most of which is not 
very fertile or attractive by nature. 

The first settlers were, undoubtedly, Dutch 
farmers holding manorial They were poor 
and their progress was slow. 

The first organized Church was the Dutch Re- 
formed at the Boght, a bow made by the junction 
of the Hudson and Mohawk. It was established 
by Rev. Eilardus Westerlo, of Albany, April 17, 


The Shakers, a peculiar religious sect, came to 
Watervliet and established a community in 1776. 
They were under the leadership of "Mother Ann 

Lee,'' their founder, a native of Manchester, 
England. Here she died, September 8, 1784, at 
the age of 48 years, and here was buried. They 
now number about 300. The)' occupy 3, 500 
acres of well-improved land, watered by four ponds 
of about 10 acres each. Their dwellings and other 
buildings are neat and convenient ; their farms 
are well slocked. As a people they are remarkable 
for habits of industr)-, frugalit)', order, neatness and 
integrity in their dealings. The)' eschew war and 
politics. Of course the}- are prosperous. They 
have their religious meeting house and their 
schools, and publish The Shaker, a monthl)' edited 
by G. A. Lomas. 

Besides the towns before named, out of the ter- 
ritory of Watervliet have been formed six incor- 
porated villages and one city since this century 
began, viz : Watervliet, March 30, 1801, changed 
to Colonie, April 9, 1804, now obsolete and an- 
nexed to the City of Albany ; Gibbonsville, April 
23, 1823, changed to West Troy, April 30, 1836 ; 
Cohoes, April 12, 1855, changed to City of Cohoes, 
May 19, 1869; Green Island, October 14, 1855, 
and May 12, 1869. 

Loudonville, on the old Loudon road, three 
miles from Albany ; Newtonville, named for John 
M. Newton, four miles from Alban}' ; and 
Menands, two miles from Alban)', are very pleasant 
hamlets in which many of the business men of 
Albany reside. 

West Albany is situated two miles northwest from 
the city, about the center of the south line of 
Watervliet. It contains the extensive repair shops 
of the New York Central Railroad, and has, for 
many years, been widely known as one of the 
largest cattle markets in the United States. It is 
connected with the city by street cars, as well as by 
the Central Railroad. 

The United States Arsenal, situated on 105 acres, 
lying on the Hudson, near West Troy village, be- 
longing to the United States Government, was lo- 
cated in 1813. The building was commenced 
under Col. George Burnford in 18 14. 

The Albany Rural Cemetery, the St. Agnes 
Cemetery, the Anshe Emeth, lying contiguous to 
each other, unsurpassed in this country for natural 
and artistic fitness to their purpose, are situated in 
Watervliet, about two miles north from Albany. 

The very conveniently located and well-appointed 
County Agricultural Fair Grounds are nearly two 
miles north of Albany. The State Fairs have been 
held here. 

The New York Central and Rensselaer and Sara- 
toga Railwa3's, the Erie Canal, the Champlain 



Canal and the Watervliet Horse Railway all 
traverse portions of this town. Few towns surpass 
this in traveling facilities. 

The Schuyler Residence, at "the Flats," just 
south of the village of West Troy, near the banks 
of the river, is an interesting spot, associated as it 
is with the interesting scenes in the life of "Aunt 
Schuyler," Mrs. Grant's "American Lady." Dr. 
James Wade, Dr. E. M. Wade, Edward Wade, 
Esq., Gov. Leland Sanford, J. B. Jermain, Thomas 
Hdlhouse, Isaac Lawson, Joseph M. Lawson, Geo. 
L. Stedman, John W. McNamara, Dr. Michael 
Freleigh, Weare C. Little, Charles Van Zandt, are 
among the well-known natives or long-time resi- 
dents of this, our oldest town. Hon. Benj. F. 
Wade was once a teacher in this town, and Rev. 
William Arthur, father of Chester A. Arthur, taught 
a boarding school in one of its villages. 

Westerlo was named in honor of Rev. Eilardus 
Westerlo, a Dutch clergj'man, who was pastor of 
the First Reformed Church in Albany from 1760 to 
1 790. It was formed from Coej'mans and Rens- 
selaerville, March 16, 1815; has an area of 35,976 
acres ; and is bounded, north by Berne and New 
Scodand, east by New Scotland and Coeymans, 
south by Greene County, and west by Rensselaer- 

Its surface is broken and hilly, inclining southerly 
for the most part. Its valle)s are narrow ravines ; 
its ridges are adapted to pasturage. Sand and 

gravel mixed with muck and clay, lying on hard- 
pan, form the arable soil. Stone used in field 
walls is plenty, and flagging stones are taken from 
several fine quarries. The highest elevation is about 
800 feet above sea level. 

The leading industry is agriculture, hay being 
the principal product for the market. 

The manufactures are chiefly those demanded by 
a rural population. There is a cheese factory near 

The setdement of the town began before the 
Revolution. Among the early settlers were Nicholas 
Stoddard, Rev. Reuben Stanton, Josiah Hinckley, 
Isaac Winston, Dr. Jonathan Prosser, James Arnold, 
William Read, Abram Becker, William Haverland, 
Jacob and Lodowick Haynes. Philip Myers, a na- 
tive of Germany, came in 1763. Andrew Hannay 
came from Scodand later. In 1777, inspired by 
a spirit of patriotism, he raised a company of 
volunteers and came as far as Albany with them, 
to join Gen. Gates against Burgoyne, too late for 

Yankees came into the settlement more freely after 
the Revolution. The people, as a whole, are re- 
markable for good habits rural tastes, and domestic 

About 1 800 the Baptist Church, at Chesterville, 
was fc>rmed, with Roswell Beckwith, first pastor. 
About the same time, the Dutch Reformed Church 
at Van Leuven's Corners was formed. 



EARLY HISTORY.— The ofiice of Supervisor 
is one of the most ancient town and count}- 
offices in this State. It was established, though 
with ill-defined powers, under what is known as the 
' ' Duke's laws, " or Laws promulgated soon after 
the Duke of York acquired the title to the territory 
embraced in the province of New York — formerly- 
New Netherlands — through the Charter of his royal 
brother, Charles II. 

Under the Duke's Laws the province was method- 
ically laid out into towns and counties, and pro- 
visions were made for a Supervisor in each town, 
whose dut}- it was to oversee the financial affairs of 
the towns and counties. Provisions were also 
made for an annual meeting of all the Supervisors in 
the county, constituting a Board ofSupervisors, with 
powers to audit die accounts of the County Officers, 

At first, as we have seen, the office in this State 
was confined to the supervision of the finances of 
the town and county ; but, as time went on, its 
powers and jurisdiction -were enlarged, until it be- 
came essentially a legislative body — in a word, the 
legislature of the count}', having the same relaUon 
to the count}- that the legislature has to the State, 
each town in the county occupying the position in 
regard to the Board ofSupervisors that the counties 
do to the State Legislature.* 

*Under the State Laws, a Supervisor is a public olTicer, charged with 
certain duties to his town, his county and to the public at large. He is 
a creature of the Statute Law, and has no powers or rights other than 
those which the Legislature has expressly conferred upon him, and tliose 
which are incident to and necessary for a proper exercise of such express 
powers and rights. His functions are three fold: First, as a town 
officer, and which are to be discharged by him either individually or in 
connection with other town officers ; second, as a member of the Board 
of County Canvassers; third, as a County Officer, and which are to 
be discharged in connect'on with the other Supervisors of the county 
sitting as a board. 



One of the remarkable features in its history is the 
manner in which its local legislative powers have in- 
creased. For many years the office was limited to 
the duties we have described. 

On June 19, 1703, the Provincial Legislature 
or General Assembly passed an act, enlarging the 
powers and duties of Supervisors, which act was en- 
tided "An Act for the better explaining and more 
effectually putting in execution the duties ofSuper- 
visors and other town officers. " 

The curious and somewhat significant language 
of the following preamble to this act exhibits tlie 
construction which those early legislatures gave the 
duties and powers of the office. 

Preamble. "Forasmuch as many disputes, cavils, con- 
troversies and mistakes have happened and been occasioned 
as well by the Generality of the Words in a Certain Act of 
General Assembly, entitled ' An act for defraying of the 
publick and necessary charge throughout this Province, 
and for maintaining the poor and preventing Vagabonds, ' 
as many other Omissions and Defects Experience has found 
and observed in the same Act." 

The act provides for the election, by the free- 
hold inhabitants of each town in every count)' in 
the Province, of one Supervisor, a freeholder of 
the town, whose duty — lo use the language of 
the act — 

" It shall be to compute, ascertain, examine, oversee and 
allow the contingent, publick and necessary charge of each 
County; and also there shall be in each town, manor and 
precinct, by the freeholders thereof annually chosen, two 
Assessors and one Collector, which Supervisor, Assessors 
and Collector shall be annually chose in every town, on 
the first Tuesday in April. 

" The Supervisors so chosen shall meet annually at the 
county town iu each respective county, on the first Tuesday 
in October, and at such other times as they shall deem 
necessary to examine and compute all such publick necessary 
contingent charges as they shall find their respective counties 
properly chargeable with, and all such sum or sums of money 
as shall be brought and exhibited before them shall Ije im- 
posed and laid on the same counties, as provided by the law 
of the Colony." 

Provisions were matle for the collection of the 
said moneys b}' taxation on the valuation of the 
real estate in each of the towns in the count\', and 
hence the question of establi.shing the valuation of 
the lands in the respective towns earl}' became one 
of paramount importance. 

After the collection of the money, under the pro- 
vision of the act, it was paid into the hands of the 
County Treasurer, to be disbursed b}' that officer 
very much in the manner in which the county funds 
are now disbursed by the County Treasurer. 

This brings us to consider briefly the office of 
County Treasurer, whose duties are largely con- 
nected with the Board of Supervisors. This is 
another very ancient office in the State, one of the 
first established under the English Colonial laws; 
indeed, an office quite similar to that of County 
Treasurer which existed under the Dutch Colonial 

The duties of this officer under the act of 1 703 
differed but very little from those of County Treas- 
urers at the present time. He exhibited to the 
Supervisors a yearly account of all moneys received 
and disbursed by him during the year, with a state- 
ment of the sources through which he received the 
money, and the account upon which he disbursed 

it He was then, as now, liable to an action at the 
suit of the Supervisors for any default or miscarriage 
in the discharge of the duties of his office. 

Any Supervisor, Assessor or Collector refusing to act 
respectively forfeited five pounds, to be recovered by any 
person delayed, wronged or injured by any such refusal to 

It will be seen that Assessors and Town Collectors are of- 
ficers of great antiquity, and the reader of Colonial and State 
history is surprised that so many of the present State, County 
and Town officers, with similar powers, existed during the 
English Colonial Government of the province, notwithstand- 
ing the sweeping innovations made by the State Constitution 
and State laws. 

The act of 1703, concerning Supervisors, contin- 
ued in existence with some slight changes until 
March 24, 1772, when it was amended, so far as 
the County of Albany was concerned, to authorize 
the annual election of Supervisors in that County to 
take place on the first Tuesday of May. This act 
also provided for the election in Albany County, at 
the same time, of two Overseers of the Poor, two 
Constables, two Fence Viewers and o!ie Town Clerk. 

The duties of the office of Town Clerk were pre- 
viously to this discharged by the Supervisor of the 
Town. None but freeholders could vote for these 
respective officers. Alter the adoption of the first 
State Constitution, the office of Supervisor, and the 
time of their election was changed by an action of 
the Slate legislature, passed March 7, 1788, which 
provided for the holding of town meetings in the 
various towns in the State for the choice of Town 

The time for holding these meetings was on the 
first Tuesday in April of each and every year. At 
these meetings the following officers were elected in 
each town: A Supervisor, Town Clerk, one As- 
sessor, Collector, Overseer of the Poor, Commis- 
sioners of Highways, Overseer of the Highway or 
Pathmaster, four Constables, Fence Viewers and 
Pound -master. By this act the Town of Albany 
was empowered to elect two Assessors instead of 
one, as in other counties. 

Among the duties imposed by this act on the 
Board of Supervisors of the County of Albany, and 
many other counties in the State, but more largely 
exercised in Albany, was that of overseeing and 
executing the laws relative to the poor of the county 
and towns through the Overseers of the Poor elected 
in the various towns. 

The office of Superintendents of the Poor was not 
then in existence, and never has existed in the 
County of Albany. 

In our history of the Charities of the County and 
the Executors of the Poor Laws, it will be seen that 
the ancient office of Overseers of the Poor, with 
largely increased powers, still exists in the County 
of Albany. Their powers and duties will be more 
fully considered hereafter. 

The manner in which the powers and duties of 
the Board of Supervisors have from time to time 
been enlarged and extended will be described under 
the head of "Statutory and Legal History of the 

There has been considerable litigation in the State 
concerning the powers and duties of the Supervisors. 
The case of Downing vs. Rugar, reported 21 Wen- 



dell, i8i, will be read with profit and interest. 
The office of Supervisor and the duties of Boards 
of Supervisors continued to be the subject of legisla- 
tive enactment, varying the duties of the office in 
minor particulars, down to the adoption of the Re- 
vised Statutes by the State Legislature in 1830, by 
w^hich their powers and duties were greatly enlarged 
and the Board rendered more emphatically a legis- 
lative body, with powers of local legislation, since 
greatly enlarged. 

The powers and duties of Supeivisors in regard 
to the poorand charitable institutions of the County 
of Albany differ in many respects from those of 
Supervisors in that regard in other counties of the 
State. This subject will be more fully considered 
in another part of this work, in the chapter on Pub- 
lic Charities, in which the duties of Overseers of 
the Poor, the Superintendent and Overseers of the 
Almshouse, and other charitable institutions will 
be described. 

From the foregoing it will easily be seen that the 
history of the Board of Supervisors of the County of 
Albany is of the greatest importance, from the fact 
that it embraces such a variety of historical matter. 



One of the earliest acts of the Legislature touch- 
ing the Supeivisors of Albany, was an 

Act OF 1792. — An act passed the nth of April, 
1792, made it the duty of one of the judges and 
one of the Supervisors of the Counties of Colum- 
bia, Rensselaer and Saratoga to meet once in every 
year with the Supervisors and one or more of the 
judges of the County of Albany for inspecting and 
examining the mortgages, minutes and accounts of 
the Loan Officers appointed in the County of Al- 
bany. This act was amended on February 25, 
1799, rendering it lawful for Supervisors of the 
County of Albany, or a majority of them, together 
with one or more of the said judges of the 
said county, and such of the judges and Super- 
visors of the other counties as might appear, 
to perform the duties mentioned in the Act of 
April, 1792. 

Act Concerning Public Lands of County. — 
Doubts having arisen upon the operation of con- 
veyances of land, made to the Supervisors of the 
counties in this State for the use of such counties 
for public buildings and other county purposes, an 
act was passed April 25, 1799, vesting in the 
Supervisors of the counties in this State respective- 
ly and their successors such estate in the lands 
aforesaid, for the purposes aforesaid, as every such 
conveyance shall import to grant and convey for 
the uses therein expressed. 

This is a very important act, establishing the 
right of counties, through the respective Boards of 
Supervisors, to hold lands in fee for court-houses, 
jails, poor-houses and alms-houses, and other lands 
to be used for county purposes. 

Change of Time for Holding Elections. — 
Down to April, 1825, the annual meetings of the 

Board of Supervisors in the County of Albany 
were held in April. On April 29, 1825, an act 
was passed directing that the Supervisors of 
Albany and some other coundes should hold 
their annual meetings on the Tuesday next after 
the annual election in each and every year, 
and at the places before provided for by law 
for the meeting of the Board of Canvassers lor the 
votes at the annual election in the County of Al- 
bany and other counties. 

A Board of Canvass. — It was also enacted that 
in the County of Albany and some other counties 
the Board of Canvassers, including the Clerk 
of said counties or their deputies, should, on the 
Tuesday next after the annual election, meet at the 
places where the said respecti\'e Boards of Supervis- 
ors were in session, and then and there proceed to 
can\-ass and certify the votes given at such election 
in manner provided by the tenth section of the act 
'entitled "An act for regulating Elections," passed 
April, 1822. The act of April 19, 1825, was after- 
ward substantially extended to all the counties in 
the State. As may be seen, it made the Board 
of Supervisors in the County of Albany, as 
well as in all other counties, except New York, a 
Board of Canvassers. 

Appointing Power. — By the act to which we 
have referred the Supervisors of Albany Countv 
had conferred upon them the power, with the 
Judges of the Court of Common Pleas, of appoint- 
ing Justices of the Peace, and Commissioners to 
take the acknowledgment of deeds in the count\', 
and for that purpose they met on the ^^'ednesday 
next after the annual election in each and every 
county, in each and every year, at their usual place 
of meeting. 

Sites for County Buildings. — By an Act 
passed April 16, 1830, the Supervisors of 
the City and County of Albany were authorized 
to raise, levy and collect, in four annual 
installments, on and from the taxable prop- 
erty in said city and county, in the same 
manner as other county charges are levied and col- 
lected, the sum of fifteen thousand dollars, for the 
purchase of a site and for the erection of a build- 
ing in the City of Albany for city and county pur- 
poses, which sum, to be raised, levied and collect- 
ed, was to be paid over to the Mayor, Aldermen 
and Commonalty of the City of Alban}-, to be ap- 
plied for the purposes aforesaid. 

Unison of Affairs of City and County. — This 
act shows how closely the municipal aff'airs of the 
city and the affairs of the county were united — a 
unison that has continued, more or less, down to 
the present time. 

By the said act the Supervisors of the City and 
County were required, in addition to the fifteen 
thousand dollars, to raise upon the taxable prop- 
erty of the City of Albany alone such sums of 
money, not exceeding the sum of $40,000, to be 
applied to the purchase of the site and the erection 
of a building for city and county purposes. This 
building was what was known as the N'ew City Hall. 

Abolishment of the distinction between Town and 
County Poor, in the Cily and County 0/ Albany. — A 



law abolishing the distinction between town and 
county poor in the City and County of Albany 
was passed March 17, 1832. This act made it 
lawful for the Board of Supervisors of the County 
of Albany, and the Ma3'or, Aldermen and Com- 
monalty of the City of Albany, to enter into any 
contract or agreement between them to abolish all 
distinction between town and county poor in the 
said city and count}-, from and after the first day of 
May then next, and for appropriating the alms- 
house and farm belonging thereto, in the City of 
Albany, for the support of all poor in the city and 
county, transient and resident, and for the allow- 
ance of such sum, to be paid to the said city by the 
county for the use of the same, and for any addi- 
tional building and appurtenances, as the said Su- 
pervisors and the said Mayor, Aldermen and Com- 
monalty may agree upon. The act further pro- 
vided as follows : 

"Every poor person entitled to support, in the City and 
County of Albany, shall from and alter the 1st day of May, 
1832, be supported and maintained by the Mayor, Alder- 
men and Commonalty of the City of Albany, at the expense 
of the county. All such poor persons shall be removed by the 
Overseers of the Poor of the several towns, and the Over- 
seers of the Poor of the City of Albany, to the said Alms 
House, at the expense of the several towns and the city ; and 
thereafter the necessary expenses of the removal of any poor 
person from any town in the county shall be paid on the 
certificate of the Keeper of the Alms House by the Cham- 
berlain of the City of Albany. ' ' 

Mayor of Albaxy to have Charge of Alms 
House. — It was also provided that the Mayor, Al- 
dermen and Commonalty of the City of Albany 
should have the charge and care of said Alms 
House and farm, and of all the said persons who 
might be removed there for support, and that the}- 
should appoint a superintendent and physician, 
and employ other persons necessary for the man- 
agement and government of the same. All moneys 
which should be received by the Commissioners of 
Excise, and all moneys received by the Overseers 
of the Poor in their official capacity, were to be paid 
over to the Chamberlain of the City, for the Mayor, 
Aldermen and Commonalty, within thirty days af- 
ter the receipt thereof 

Temporary Relief for the Poor. — The act pro- 
vides that temporary relief might be granted to 
poor persons by the several Overseers of the Poor of 
the county, not exceeding the sum of ten dollars 
for anyone person or family, without the assent of 
the Supervisor of the town where such relief is 
granted, or, if in the City of Albany, without the 
consent of the Board of Magistrates for the relief 
and support of the poor of the city. This written 
consent must accompany the order of the Justice 
granting such relief, and entide the overseer to re- 
ceive any sum paid in pursuance of such order, 
from the Chamberlain of the city. 

City Chamberlain and Supervisors. — It was 
provided that at the next annual meeting of the 
Board of Supervisors, after the passage of the said 
act, and at each annual meeting thereafter, there 
shall be a general settlement between the Chamber- 
lain of the City and the Board of Supervisors in re- 
gard to the disbursements of all moneys connected 

with the poor, and all other matters connected with 
the poor of the county. 

It was provided that the act to which we have 
referred should continue in force for five years 
from the first day of May, 1832. Most of its pro- 
visions were retained by subsequent acts for many 
years, and some of them in a varied form down to 
the present time. It was one of the most impor- 
tant and practicable acts touching the maintenance 
of the poor in the county and city, and the man- 
agement of the Almshouse ever enacted, and it is 
the first act which fully and equitably abolished the 
distinction of county and city poor. 

Overseers of the Poor. — An act of April 15, 
1837, rendered it unnecessary for the Overseers of 
the Poor to obtain an order from Justices to au- 
thorize temporary relief. 

Salary of District Attorney. — By the act of 
February 21, 1840, the Supervisors were empow- 
ered to fix the salary of District Attorney. The 
act of May 14, 1840, fixed the time for the annual 
meeting of the Board of Supervisors for the first 
Monday of August of each year. The Board of 
Supervisors were to cause a corrected assessment roll 
of each town or ward in the city and county, or a 
fair copy thereof, to be delivered to the Collector of 
each town or ward on or before the 15th day of 
September of each year. 


The first step taken toward the erection of the Peniten- 
tiary in the County of Albany was the act of April 13, 
1844, entitled "An Act for the construction of a Penitentiary, 
and in relation to the relief of the Poor in the County of 
Albany." We shall refer more at length to this act in an- 
other part of this work, in our chapter on Penitentiaries and 
punitive establishments. 

The act directs that the Board of Supervisors of the 
County of Albany shall cause to be erected, at such place 
within the limits of the county as shall be directed, a suita- 
ble building or buildings for <i Penitentiary, for the safe 
keeping and employment of vagrants, disorderly persons 
and all prisoners (except in cases of conviction for felony), 
who shall be sentenced to confinement at hard labor, or to 
solitary imprisonment, by any Court held in the said counly 
or in the City of Albany. 

The act appointed Samuel Pruyn and Barent P. Staats, 
of Ihe City of Albany, and Louis M. Dayton, of Rensselaer- 
ville, in said county, commissioners to select a proper loca- 
tion for the site of the said Penitentiary, with proper grounds 
to be attached thereto, within six months after the passage 
of the said law, and to report such location, with a detailed 
plan for the construction, management and discipline of the 
Penitentiary, and an estimate of the expenses of the said land 
for the site, and of the construction thereof, to the Board of 
Supervisors. Upon the receipt of the said report the Board 
of Supervisors, with the Mayor and Recorder of the city, 
associated with the said Board for that purpose, were di- 
rected to examine the same and determine thereupon ; and 
the said Supervisors, Mayor and Recorder were empowered 
to alter, modify, reduce or increase the site, plan or expense 
of construction of said Penitentiary, as specified in the plan of 
said commissioners, in any manner as to them shall seem fit 
or necessary. The commissioners, at the expiration of 
ninety days after the making and delivery of said report to 
the chairman or clerk of the Board, were to procure the 
lands necessary lor the site of the said Penitentiary, and pro- 
ceed to consti'uct the same at such place and on such plan in 
all respects as the said Board of Supervisors, the Mayor and 
Recorder have approved and directed. 

The act further empowered the Board of Supervisors to 
borrow money, on the expense of the county, necessary to 



defray all ihe expenses of procuring the site and completiujj 
the erection of the said Penitentiary. The act further em- 
powered the Board of Supervisors to rent of the Common 
Council of the City of Albany the Almshouse and farm in 
the said city, together with all the fixtures and appurtenan- 
ces thereto (the property of the Common Council), upon 
such terms as could be agreed upon between the said Com- 
mon Council and the said Board of Supervisors. It also 
empowered the said Board of Supervisors, and the Mayor 
and Recorder of the city, by their votes in joint meeting, to 
let or farm out the aforesaid Almshouse and farm (with all 
the fixtures and appurtenances thereto), with the inmates 
therein, for a term of years not exceeding five, and to ap- 
point one or more persons to exercise a supervisory inspect- 
ing and directing power over the general treatment, fare and 
well-being of the paupers. The Supervisors, Mayor and 
Recorder were directed to make such rules and regulations 
in relation to temporary relief to the poor, by the Overseers 
of the Poor in the city, and in the several towns in the 
said county, as they shall deem expedient. They also reg- 
ulate the salaries of the Overseers of the Poor, look to the 
payment of physicians, council fees relating to the poor — in 
cases relating to the poor accruing in the said city. 

(The foregoing prescribes the duties assigned the Super- 
visors touching the erection of the Penitentiary. It is an- 
other important instance in which the interests of the city 
and county are intimately united. The directions as to the 
management, etc., of the Penitentiary will be considered 

This act of April 13, 1844, was amended by an act 
passed May 13, 1847. The Penitentiary had then been lo- 
cated and erected in the City of Albany, and had been the 
receptacle of prisoners for over one year and a half. The 
amendment to which we have alluded, therefore, referred 
to the convicts in the said Penitentiary, their government 
and management, etc. 

Another Act in Regard to the District 
Attorney. — The act of 1849 repealed the law di- 
recting the Board of Supervisors to fix the fees of 
District Attorneys. About that time, that office 
was a salaried office, the salary being fi.xed by the 
Board of Supervisors. 

Alteration of Town Boundaries. — The duties 
of the Legislature in regard to the alteration of 
town boundaries and the erection of new towns 
had increased to such an enormous extent that the 
matter of vesting in the Board of Supervisors certain 
legislative powers began to be largely agitated in 
the State. This agitation culminated on April 3, 
1849, 'i^ '^^ ^*^' entitled 

" An Act to vest in the Board of Supervisors certain 
legislative powers, and to prescribe their fees for certain 

Section i of the act empowers the Board of Supervisors 
to alter the town boundaries upon the application to the 
Board of at least twelve freeholders of the town, and, with 
Sec. 2, prescribes the necessary steps to be taken in re- 
gard to the alteration of boundaries or the erection of new 

Sec. 3 authorizes them to name the new town, and 
under what circumstances the new name shall be given. 

Sec. 4, with fourteen subdivisions thereto, authorizes the 
Supervisor to purchase lands on which to erect poor- 
houses; to purchase any real estate necessary for the erec 
tion of any court-house, jail. Clerk's or Surrogate's office, 
poorhouse, or any other county buildings, and to erect 
such buildings; to fix the site of any such building; to au- 
thorize the sale or leasing of any real estate belonging to 
the county ; to remove or designate a new site for any county 
building when such a removal shall not exceed one mile; to 
raise money by tax for the erection of such buildings, not 
exceeding the sum of $5,000 in any one year; to borrow 
money for the use of such county, to be expended in the 
purchase of real estate or the erection of public buildings; 
to authorize any town in a county, by a vote of such town, 
to borrow any sum of money, not exceeding $4,000 in one 

year, to build or repair any roads or bridges in such town, 
and to prescribe the time for the payment of the same, 
which shall be within ten years, and for assessing the prin- 
ciple and interest thereof upon such town ; to fix the time 
and place for holding their annual meeting; to extend and 
determine, by resolution at their annual meeting, the time 
when each collector in the county shall make return to the 
county treasurer; but such time shall in no case extend be- 
yond the first day of March then next. 

To make laws, and to provide for the enforcement of the 
same, for the destruction of wild beasts, thistles and other 
noxious weeds; to prevent the injury and destruction of 
sheep by dogs, and to levy and enforce the collection of any 
tax upon dogs, and to direct the application of such tax; to 
provide for the protection of all kinds of game; of shell 
and other fish within the waters of their respective counties. 

This section repealed all laws of this State then 
existing in relation to preserving or destroying and 
taking wild beasts or birds, fish and shellfish, 
which repeal took place on the first dav of January, 

County Officers to Report Coxcernixg Salary. 
— An important feature of this act required any 
officer of Albany Count}- and other counties, whose 
salary is to be paid by the county, to make a re- 
port under oath, to the Supervisor of the county, 
on any subject or matter whate\er connected with 
the duties of their office; and to make such report 
whenever called upon b}- resolution of any such 
board. A neglect or refusal on the part of any such 
officer was made a misdemeanor. Provisions are 
made in the said act for loaning money from the 
Comptroller, by towns, on the execution by the 
Supervisor of such town.s. The act established the 
following Fees for .Supervisors : 

Each Supervisor shall receive, over and above the per 
diem compensation now allowed by law, eight cents per 
mile for all necessary travel in the discharge of his ofiicial 
duties, and three cents for each name (for making a copy of 
the assessment roll of his town, and making out the tax bill 
to be delivered to the collector) for the first hundred names, 
two cents per name for the second hundred names, and one 
cent per name for each name over two hundred. But no 
per diem allowance shall be made to any Supervisor while 
employed in making out such copy or tax. 

Supervisor a Salaried Officer. — ^An important 
act touching the office of Supervisor in the County 
of Albany was passed, April 13, 1857; it made it 
a salaried office, and regulated the compensation 
of the clerk. We give the act entire : 

Section i. Every Supervisor elected for any town or Super- 
visor district in the County of Albany shall receive, as a com- 
pensation for his services and expenses as such Supervisor, a 
salary as such Supervisor of one hundred dollars per annum, 
besides the travel fees now allowed by law ; and no such 
Supervisor shall be paid or shall receive any other or 
greater sum than as herein provided for any services or ex- 
penses as such Supervisor, or as an agent or committee ot 
the Board of Supervisors of said county. 

Sec. 2. It shall not be lawful for the Board of Supervisors 
of said county to pay for the services of any clerk or clerks 
of the said Board a greater amount in the aggregate than 
the sum of five hundred dollars in any one year. 

Sec. 3. No member of the Board ot Supervisors of the 
County of Albany shall vote for any extra allowance to any 
pereon who is paid by salary; nor shall the Treasurer of 
said county knowingly pay to any such person any extia 
allowance. Every offense against the provisions of this 
section shall be a misdemeanor, punishable by a fine not 
less than the amount of such extra allowance, or by im- 
prisonment in the county jail for a period not exceeding six 
months, or by both such fine and imprisonment 

Sec. 4. This act shall take effect immediately. 



By the act of April 15, 1859, the Supervisors of 
each ward of the City of Albany are directed to be 
elected at the Charter election held upon the 
second Tuesday of April of each year. The act 
repeals all other laws inconsistent therewith. 

Salary of Supervisors. — The Act of May 3, 
1871, fixed the salary of the Supervisors of Albany 
County, in the following language : 

Sec. I. Every Supervisor hereafter to be elected for any 
tovi^n or ward in the County of Albany shall receive as a 
compensation for his service and expenses as such Super- 
visor a salary of three hundred and fifty dollars per annum, 
• besides travel fees now allowed by law; and no such Super- 
visor shall be paid or shall receive any other or greater sum 
than is herein provided for any services or expenses as such 
Supervisor or as an agent or Committee of the Board of 
Supervisors of said County, except for copying assessment 
books, for which the Supervisor of the town of Watervliet 
shall receive not to exceed the sum of seventy-five dollars, 
and the Svipervisors of the remaining towns and wards of 
the County not to exceed twenty-five dollars each. 

Sec. 2. Every offense against the provisions of the above 
section shall be a misdemeanor punishable by a fine of not 
less than fifty nor more than five hundred dollars, or by im- 
prisonment in the County jail for a period not exceeding six 
months, or by both such fine and imprisonment. 

Amendment of above Act. — The Legislature 
passed an act June 7,1875, amending section i 
of the act in relation to the salary of Supervisors 
of Albany County above described, so as to read 
as follows : 

supervisors' compensation. 

Every Supervisor hereafter to be elected for any town or 
ward m the County of Albany shall receive as a compensa- 
tion for his services and expenses as such Supervisor a sal- 
ary of three hundred and fifty dollars per annum, besides 
travel fees now allowed by law, and no Supervisor shall 
be paid or shall receive any other or greater sum than is 
herein provided for any services or expenses as such Super- 
visor, or as an agent or Committee of the Board of Super- 
visors of said County, except for copying and extending as- 
sessment books, for which the Supervisor of the town of 
Watervliet shall receive not to exceed the sum of seventy- 
five dollars, and the Supervisors of the remaining towns 
and the City of Cohoes not to exceed twenty-five dollars 
each. The work of copying and extending the assessment 
books of the several wards of the City of Albany shall be 
hereafter done by the assessors of the said City of Albany, 
who shall be paid for such work not to exceed in all the sum 
of twenty-five dollars for each ward in said city. 

Further Powers of Local Legislation. — We have 
already referred to the powers of local legislation of Boards 
of Supervisors, by an act of the Legislature, passed June 7, 
1875. Further powers of local legislation and administration 
were conferred on the Boards of Supervisors in the several 
counties of this State, except in cities whose boundaries are 
the same as those of the county, to make and administer 
within their respective counties laws and regulations as 

To purchase, or otherwise acquire for the use of the county, 
real estate for sites for court houses, clerks' offices, and other 
buildings for county offices, and for jails and such other 
places of confinement as may be authorized or required by 
law, to borrow money on county bonds, or other county 
obligations, for a period not exceeding fifteen years, to be 
paid in annual installments, for the purposes specified in this 
subdivision ; but in all cases where a supposed issue of county 
bonds shall, with the amount of bonds issued under any 
previous authority and still outstanding, exceed the sum of 
$r,ooo, no additional issue shall be authorized, except in the 
Counties of Albany, Erie and Kings, unless by the consent 
of a majority of all the electors voting on the question; to 
change the location of county buildings, and to sell or apply 
to other county uses the old sites and buildings in cases where 
the location may be changed, and to apply the proceeds 

toward the payment of obligations incurred for new sites 
and buildings, and subject to Section IJ, Art. 6, of the con- 
stitution; to fix the salaries and per diem allowance of county 
officers, whose compensation may be a county charge and 
which shall not be changed during the term of such officers 
respectively, and to prescribe the mode of appointment and 
to fix the number, grades and pay of the deputies, clerks 
and subordinate employees in such offices; to authorize the 
location and construction of any bridge (except on the Hudson 
River below Waterford, and on the East River or over the 
waters forming the boundaries of the State ) which shall be 
applied for in any of the towns jointly, or by any corporation 
in form pursuant to the general laws of the State, or by any 
corporation or individual for private purposes; and in case 
of a public bridge erected by a corporation, to establish the 
rates of toll collected for crossing such bridge. Where any 
bridge crosses any navigable stream or water, a suitable draw 
must be erected to prevent any impeding of the navigation 
in such stream or water, and in case of a private bridge the 
draw shall be kept open to permit all vessels to pass without 
loss of headway. Where any bridge shall be on any stream 
or water forming at the point of crossing the dividing line of 
counties, the action of the Board of Supervisors of each 
county shall be necessary to give the jurisdiction permitted 
by the act; to apportion the expenses of bridges over streams 
or other water forming boundary line of counties, and in all 
such counties shall each pay not less than one-sixth of the 
expenses of such bridge. If the bridge is of great benefit to 
the county, and the payment of two-thirds of the expenses 
by the towns liable would be unjust to the towns, the Super- 
visors shall determine the additional proportion, and 
what proportion of such expenses to be borne by the 
counties; to direct that the care of the bridges, the main- 
tenance of which are a joint charge on the counties; to 
authorize the towns to borrow money for bridge purposes. 
The Supervisors have powers, under certain conditions, 
over plank, macadamized or turnpike roads, and over 
streets and avenues in territories adjoining a city; to lay 
out highways of a less width than is required by law, and of 
reducing highways now in existence; to cause surveys to 
be made, at the cost of the town, of any and all highways in 
such town, and to make a complete and systematic record 
thereof, and to cause records to be placed with the Town 
Clerk; to authorize the County Treasurer to extend the 
time for collection of State, county and town taxes in 
any town or ward, to a period not beyond the first day of 
April in any year, under certain conditions ; to impose taxes 
on dogs ; to direct the payment by Justices of the Peace of 
all fines and penalties imposed by and paid to such Justices; 
to enact laws for the preservation of game and fish; to di- 
rect the employment of offenders below the grade of felons; 
to establish the jail limits of the county jails for the pur- 
poses defined by statutes ; to call and hold special town- 
meetings ; to authorize any town, under certain conditions, 
to purchase a site for a town or village hall, and to pur- 
chase or erect buildings for such a hall, and to raise money 
for the care, preservation and improvement of such 
halls ; to authorize any incorporated village, under certain 
conditions, whose charter does not give sufficient power, to apparatus for the extinguishing of fire, etc., etc. ; 
to give the proper authorities general power over 
village or town cemetery lots ; to authorize any town which 
shall make application therefor, by the vote of an annual 
town meeting, to elect a receiver instead of a collector of 
taxes, whenever the aggregate of State, county and town 
taxes in such town shall exceed the sum of fifty thousand 
dollars; to authorize the annual town meetings and all 
special town meetings in a town to be held by election dis- 
tricts; to designate, under conditions, the number of Assess- 
ors in each town, and to increase the compensation to an 
amount not exceeding three dollars per diem ; to au- 
thorize Trustees of Boards of Education, in any union free 
school district established according to law, to sell or ex- 
change real estate; to determine after the 15th of Novem- 
per, 1875 — except in the County ol Kings--in what newspa- 
pers, not exceeding two, the election notice issued by the 
Secretary of State, and the official canvass, shall be pub- 
lished, and to fix the compensation for such publication; but 
in places where publication shall be ordered to be made in 
two newspapers, such papers shall be of opposite political 



Extending the Tekm of Supervisors. — The act 
of May 14, 1878, provides that the Supervisors of 
the several towns and wards in cities, in the Coun- 
ties of Albany, Livingston, Rensselaer and Mon- 
roe, shall be elected and hold office for a term of 
two years ; it is also provided that all acts or parts 
of acts inconsistent with this act, so far as the same 
applies to the County of Albany, are repealed ; and 
the said act took effect at the first election in 

Claims Against the County. —A very important 
act in relation to the powers and duties of the 
Board of Supervisors of Albany County was passed 
by the Legislature, May 14, 1881. This act was 
in reference to claims and demands against the 
County of Albany, making it necessary to have all 
such claims passed upon by the Board of Super- 
visors, and that all claims presented to the Board 
in the form of accounts must be itemized and veri- 
fied, and after being presented to the Clerk of the 
Board they are to be printed under the direction of 
the said Clerk, at an expense not exceeding the or- 
dinary price for such work, and distributed under 
his direction to each member of the Board within 
eight days after such accounts have been presented. 
No claim or demand aganist the county of the 
above character shall be in any manner acted upon 
by the Board (except to refer the same 
to an appropriate committee for examination 
and report) until three days after such account 
has been printed and distributed as required. It 
is a misdemeanor to neglect the directions afore- 

*' The account," continues the act, *' must state when and 
where the work was performed and material furnished, under 
what contract or under what authority it was performed and 
the materials furnished; and must state, with reasonable de- 
tail, the character and amount of the work done, and the ma- 
terials furnished. It must contain the name of each person 
interested in the same, or who makes any claim to any share 
or portion of the sum to be paid." 

Verification. — It must be verified by one, at least, of 
the parties in whose name the same is presented, and must 
be to the effect that the same is presented in the name or 
names of the real party or parties in interest, and that the 
contract was not made, or the work performed, or materials 
furnished, in the name of one person for the interest of an- 
other; and that no county officer, or member of any board 
or commission of the county or salaried employee thereof, is 
or has been, directly or indirectly, interested therein, either 
in the doing of the work or furnishing the material, or has 
been paid or promised anything for the letting of the con- 
tract; that the work, as charged, was actually done, and the 
material specified was actually furnished and used at the 
time and places mentioned, and are of the value charged, or 
at the prices specified in the contract ; that no bill has been 
presented nor claim made therefor, for the payment of such 
work or materials, or for any part or item of such work or 
materials, except as therein stated ; and if such bill has been 
theretofore presented, or such claim has been theretofore 
made for the whole, or any part thereof, it shall be stated to 
whom or what board, body or commission it was presented 
or made, the time or times thereof, and the action of such 
person, board, body or commission thereon, and when such 
action was taken. 

In no county of the State is the law touching the presen- 
tation and payment of claims to the Board of Supervisors 
more strictly or more properly guarded than in Albany 

Blanks for Verification. — The Clerk of the 
Board prepares a printed blank form of verification, 

to be approved b\' the District Attorney, gratui- 
tously to all persons demanding the same. 

Proceedings to be Printed. — The proceedings 
of the Board of Supervisors must be printed and 
distributed under the direction of the clerk within 
the time mentioned for the printing and distribution 
of the aforesaid accounts. 

Payment of Ten Dollars. — Upon payment of 
ten dollars to the County Treasurer of the county 
an}' tax-payer may have for one year a printed copy 
of the proceedings of the Board, and of the printed 
bills as they are from time to time distributed, 
and at the times above described for their delivery 
to the members of the Board, delivered to him at 
some place to be designated by him, and within 
one quarter of a mile from the place where the 
Board holds its meetings. 

Persons Exempted. — None of the pro\'isions of 
this act shall be held to effect the salaries of county 
officers, or the mode or manner in which payment 
is made, nor the wages of the laborers of the City 
of Albany. None of the provisions of this act shall 
apply to the employment of counsel to aid the Dis- 
trict Attorney in any legal matters in which the 
county is interested when such employment is by 
authority of law. 

Extending Powers of Local Legislation. — The 
act of 1875, conferring on Boards of Supervisors 
further local powers of legislation and administra- 
tion, and regulating the compensation of Super- 
visors, was amended by an act of the Legislature, 
passed April 10, 1882; but the Counties of Albany, 
New York, Rensselaer, Kings, Oneida and Erie 
were exempted from the amendments of that act. 


The act of May 22, 1882, empowers the District Attorney 
of any county in which a capital case is to be tried, with the 
approval in writing ol the County Judge of the county, which 
shall first be filed in the County Clerk's office, to employ 
counsel to assist him on such trials, at the cost and expense 
of the county, after being audited by the Board of Super- 
visors of the county in which the indictment on the case was 
found ; and the amount shall be assessed, levied and collected 
by the Board of Supervisors of such county at its next annual 
assessment, levy and collection of county taxes after such 
services shall have been performed, and thereupon paid to 
the party entitled to the same. 

County Buildings. — Some of the provisions of 
the act of April 3, 1849, ^re modified by the act of 
May 28, 1884 (as well as some acts previous to 
this date), especially in that it requires 

Detailed statements to be made and proposals for doing 
work and furnishing goods for any county buildings. It 
directs the form of the proposals, and that they shall be 
presented to the County Treasurer; defines the duties of the 
County Treasurer touching the same, and in case he shall 
refuse to order the materials to be furnished, or the work to 
be done, under any of the proposals, on the grounds that the 
work is unnecessary, or that its expense is not a county 
charge, or that he has reason to believe that any fraud is 
being practiced upon the county connected with it, he shall 
give the county officer or person making the requisition, and 
also to any tax-payer filing with him written objections to 
his granting an order for work or materials, written notice, 
of a time and place within ten days after receiving the re- 
quisition, when the matter will be brought to ihe attention 
of the County Judge. The act then defines the duties of 
the County Judge as to hearing the matter and things con- 
nected therewith and the time and place of hearing and 



within what time his order or decision in the matter shall be 
made, and provides for an appeal to the General Term of 
the Supreme Court from his order or judgment. 

It defines the duties of officers having charge of county 
buildings in the County of Albany, in regard to the work of 
superintending repairs or alterations to be made by them on 
such buildings. It renders it obligatory on him to super- 
intend such work. It defines the duties of the treasurer 
of Albany County in regard to the payment of bills for such 
work; and if the treasurer refuses to pay any bill for fur- 
nishing material or doing such work, under the provisions 
of this act, the parties not paid may present their account 
to the Board of Supervisors of the County in the form and 
manner, and with the verifications required by the law we 
have already quoted, a verified claim thereof, attaching 
thereto a copy of the detailed statement made in respect 
thereto, etc., etc. 

Expense Limited by Act. — No expense exceeding two 
hundred dollars in amount shall be incurred during any one 
period of six months, from January first or July first, in any 
year, for any one alteration or repair, or for alterations or 
repairs of the same character to or in connection with any 
one building, or except for fuel, or any materials, or supplies 
of tlie same general character or class, to or in connection 
with the use of any one building, unless it shall have been 
previously authorized by <i Board of Supervisors of the 
County of Albany. 

The act makes strong regulations in regard to any sta- 
tionery or printing of any kind, including blank forms used 
in the Surrogate's and District Attorney's offices. 

It directs that the salaries of the Members of the Board of 
Supervisors of Albany County shall be paid, one-half there- 
of on December first in each year, and the other half at the 
time of final adjournment sine die, every fall session of said 
Board. It also directs that the provisions of the act shall 
not apply to the Penitentiary, Almshouse, the City Hall in 
the City of Albany, or to the care, repairs, alterations or 
management thereof 

We have now given the statutoiy and legal his- 
tor}' of the Board gf Supervisors of Albany County. 
In it will be found, substantially, all the important 
acts of the Legislature concerning the powers and 
duties of these Supervisors from the organization 
of the State Government down to the present time. 
It is interesting to observe how those powers and 
duties gradually extended and widened out from a 
mere Board of County and Town Audit into a leg- 
islative body which has taken from the State Leg- 
islature a very large part of its powers to enact 
local laws touching towns in the County. These 
powers having been conferred upon the Board of 
Supervisors from time to time. 

Owing to the loss and partial destruction of 
many of the records containing the proceedings of 
the Board of Supervisors, we have found it very 
diiEcult and in some cases impossible, to prepare 
a connected history of its proceedings. We find 
but little history of the Supervisors, from the adop- 
tion of the first Constitution to 1818. We are only 
able to give a list of the Supervisors from that 
period to 1861. From that time we are enabled to 
give a condensed history of the proceedings of the 
Board down to and including 1884. 



City First ward George Shepard. 

Second ward John Van Schaick. 

Third ward Nicholas Bleecker. 

Fourth ward 

Fifth ward Isaac Fryer. 

Towns .... Berne John Jost Dietz. 

Bethlehem Moses De Long. 

Coeymans Archibald Stevens. 

Guilderland William McKown. 

Rensselacrville Asa Colvard. 

Watervliet John Schuyler, Jr. 


John Schuyler, Jr., Moderator. 


City First ward George Shepard. 

Second ward John Van Schaick. 

Third ward Nicholas Bleecker. 

Fourth ward Peter Boyd. 

Fifth ward Jno. N. Quackenbush. 

Towns Berne Gideon Taber. 

Bethlehem David Burhans. 

Coeymans John N. Huyck. 

Guilderland William McKown. 

Rensselaerville Eli Hutchinson . 

Watervliet John Schuyler, Jr. 

Westerlo William Wheeler. 

John Schuyler, Jr., Moderator. 


City First ward James La Grange. 

Second ward Isaac Hamilton. 

Third ward Nicholas Bleecker. 

Fourth ward Benjamin Knower. 

Fifth ward Isaac I. Fryer. 

Towns . . . Berne Gideon Taber. 

Belhlehem David Burhans. 

Coeymans John N. Huyck. 

Guilderland William McKown. 

Rensselaerville Eli Hutchinson. 

Watervliet John Schuyler, Jr. 

Westerlo Sylvester Ford. 

John Schuyler, Jr., Moderator. 


City First ward Jesse Buel. 

Second ward Isaac Hamilton. 

Third ward Nicholas Bleecker. 

Fourth ward Alexander Davidson. 

Filth ward Jno. N. Quackenbush. 

Towns. . . .Berne Malachi Whipple. 

Bethlehem Henry L. Mead. 

Coeymans John N. Huyck, 

Guilderland William McKown. 

Rensselaerville Eli Hutchinson. 

Watervliet John Schuyler, Jr. 

Westerlo Moses Smith. 

John Schuyler, Jr., Modei-ator. 


City First ward John J. Ostrander. 

Second ward Isaac Hamilton. 

Third ward Nicholas Bleecker. 

Fourth ward Alexander Davidson. 

Fifth ward Jno. N. Quackenbush. 

Towns .... Berne Jesse Wood. 

Bethlehem William N. Sill. 

Coeymans Israel Shear. 

Guilderland William McKown. 

Knox Malachi Whipple. 

Rensselaerville Nathaniel Rider. 

Watervliet John Schuyler, Jr. 

Westerlo Thomas Smith. 

John Schuyler, Jr., Moderator. 


City First ward Isaac Denniston. 

Second ward John F. Bacon. 

Third ward Nicholas Bleecker. 

Fourth ward William Mayell. 

Fifth ward Jno. N. Quackenbush. 

Towns. . . . Berne Jesse Wood. 

Bethlehem William N. Sill. 

Coeymans Israel Shear. 


Towns . . . Guilderland William McKown. 

Knox Malachi Whipple. 

Rensselaerville Nathaniel Rider. 

Watervliet John Schuyler, Jr. 

Westerlo D. J. D. Verplanck. 

John Schuyler, Jr., Moderator. 


City First ward James McKown. 

Second ward Isaac Hamilton. 

Third ward Tennis Van Vechten. 

Fourth ward William Mayell. 

Fifth ward Jno. N. Quackenbush. 

Towns. . . Berne Stephen Willes. 

Bethlehem William N. Sill. 

Coeymans Israel Shear. 

Guilderland William McKown. 

Knox Malachi Whipple. 

Rensselaerville Isaac Gardiner. 

Watervliet Lucas G. Whitbeck. 

Westerlo D. J. D. Verplanck. 

Teunis Van Vechten, Moderator. 


City First ward James McKown. 

Second ward Isaac Hamilton. 

Third ward Nicholas Bleecker. 

Fourth ward Peter Bain. 

Fifth ward Jno. N. Quackenbush. 

Towns. . . . Berne James D. Gardiner. 

Bethlehem William N. Sill. 

Coeymans Israel Shear. 

Guilderland George Batterman. 

Knox Erastus Williams. 

Rensselaerville Joshua Gardiner. 

Watervliet Lucas G. Whitbeck, 

Westerlo Moses Smith. 

John N. Quackenbush, Moderator. 


City First ward James McKown. 

Second ward Isaac Hamilton. 

Third ward Nicholas Bleecker. 

Fourth ward William Mayell. 

Fifth ward Jno. N. Quackenbush. 

Towns Berne James D. Gardiner. 

Bethlehem Matthew Bullock. 

Coeymans Abraham Verplanck. 

Guilderland George Batterman. 

Knox Egbert Schoonmaker. 

Rensselaerville Wheeler Watson. 

Watervliet Lucas G. Whitbeck. 

Weslerlo Henry Peers. 

James McKown, Moderator. 


City First ward Barent P. Staats. 

Second ward Isaac Hamilton. 

Third ward Nicholas Bleecker. 

Fourth ward William Mayell. 

Fifth ward Jno. N. Quackenbush. 

Towns Berne Chester Willis. 

Bethlehem Matthew Bullock. 

Coeymans Abraham Verplanck. 

Guilderland George Batterman. 

Knox Egbert Schoonmaker. 

Rensselaerville Wheeler Watson. 

Watervliet Francis Lansing. 

Westerlo Henry Peers. 

John N. Quackenbush, Moderator. 


City First ward Barent P. Staats. 

Second ward William Seymour. 

Third ward Nicholas Bleecker. 

Fourth ward William Mayell. 

Fifth ward Jno. N. Quackenbush. 

Towns Berne Henry H. Lawson. 

Bethlehem Gerrit Hogan. 

Towns Coeymans Abraham Verplanck. 

Guilderland George Batterman. 

Knox Egbert Schoonmaker. 

Rensselaerville Joseph Connor. 

WatervUet Francis Lansing. 

Westerlo Thomas Jenks. 

John N. Quackenbush, Moderator. 


City First ward Barent P. Staats. 

Second ward William Seymour. 

Third ward Nicholas Bleecker. 

Fourth ward Joseph Alexander. 

Fifth ward Jno. N.Quackenbush. 

Towns Berne Albert Gallup. 

Bethlehem James Alexander. 

Coeymans Andrew Whitbeck. 

Guilderland George Batterman. 

Knox Egbert Schoonmaker. 

Rensselaerville Joseph Connor. 

Watervliet Francis Lansing. 

Westerlo Thomas Jenks. 

John N. Quackenbush, Moderator. 

City First ward Barent P. Staats. 

Second ward Josiah Winants. 

Third ward Nicholas Bleecker. 

Fourth ward Stephen Fowler. 

Fifth ward Jno. N. Quackenbush. 

Towns Berne Henry H. Lawson. 

Bethlehem James Alexander. 

Coeymans Andrew Whitbeck. 

Guilderland George Batterman. 

Knox Egbert Schoonmaker. 

Rensselaerville Jolin Niles. 

Watervliet Francis Lansing. 

Westerlo Peter Onderdonk. 

John N. Quackenbush, Chairman. 


City First ward Barent P. Staats. 

Second ward William Seymour. 

Third ward Nicholas Bleecker. 

Fourth ward Lemuel Steele. 

Fifth ward Robert Shepard. 

Towns .... Berne Malachi Whipple. 

Bethlehem Leonard G.Ten Eyck. 

Coeymans Andrew Whitbeck. 

Guilderland Aaron Livingston. 

Knox Egbert Schoonmaker. 

Rensselaerville John Niles. 

Watervliet Francis Lansing. 

Westerlo Charles Hyndman. 

Nicholas Bleecker, Chairman. 

In this year Supervisor Staats made a motion 
that the Board should agree to a resolution, with a 
recital, ^^•hich was read and unanimously agreed to, 
and is in the words following, to wit : 

Whereas, James Van Ingen, the present Clerk of this 
Board, was appointed to that office on the 6th day of Octo- 
ber, 1807, in the room of Jacob Bleecker, Jr., Esq., deceased, 
and has vmanimously continued as Clerk ever since his ap- 
pointment, and has uniformly given satisfaction to the sev- 
eral Boards of Supervisors whose Clerk he has been; there- 

Resolved, That the said James Van Ingen be continued 
as Clerk to this Board for the current year. 

City First ward Barent P. Staats. 

Second ward John I. Burton. 

Third ward Nicholas Bleecker. 

Fourth ward Samuel S. Fowler. 

Fifth ward Jno. N. Quackenbush. 

Towns Berne Malachi Whipple. 

Bethlehem Leonard G. Ten Eyck. 

Coeymans Henry Niles. 



Towns Guilderland Aaron Livingston. 

Knox Frederick Bassler, Jr. 

Rensselaerville Nathaniel Kider. 

Water vliet Francis Lansing. 

Westerlo . ■. Charles Hyndman. 

John N. Quackenbush, Chairman. 

Thomas W. Harmon, Clerk. 


City First ward Barent P. Staats. 

Second ward John I. Burton. 

Third ward Egbert Egberts. 

Fourth ward Samuel S. Fowler. 

Fifth ward Jno.N. Quackenbush. 

Towns Berne Daniel Simmons. 

Bethlehem William N. Sill. 

Coeymans Henry Niles. 

Guilderland Chris. Batterman. 

Knox Frederick Bassler, Jr. 

New Scotland James Reid. 

Rensselaerville Nathaniel Rider. 

Watervliet John C. Schuyler. 

Westerlo Anthony Miller. 

John N. Quackenbush, Chairman . 


City First ward Angus McDufHe. 

Second ward Ichabod L. Judson. 

Third ward Egbert Egberts. 

Fourth ward Daniel Wilcox. 

Fitth ward John Van Ness, Jr. 

Towns . Berne Lawrence Van Duzen. 

Bethlehem Leonard G. Ten Eyck. 

Coeymans Henry Niles. 

Guilderland Chris. Batterman. 

Knox Frederick Bassler. 

New Scotland James Reid. 

Rensselaerville Charles L. Mulford. 

Watervliet John C. Schuyler. 

Westerlo Anthony Miller. 

Leonard G. Ten Eyck, Chairman. 

Heman C. Whelpley, Clerk. 


City First ward Stephen Paddock. 

Second ward John L Burton. 

Third ward Egbert Egberts. 

Fourth ward Samuel S. Fowler. 

Fifth ward Robert Shepard. 

Towns Berne James G. Gardner. 

Bethlehem Daniel Springsteed. 

Coeymans Cornelius Vanderzee. 

Guilderland Chris. Batterman. 

Knox Frederick Bassler. 

New Scotland James Reid. 

Rensselaerville Charles L. Mulford. 

Watervliet John C. Schuyler. 

Westerlo David Wooster. 

Samuel S. Fowler, Chairman. Calvin Pepper, Clerk. 


City First ward Stephen Paddock. 

Second ward John L Burton. 

Third ward Egbert Egberts. 

Fourth ward . . . . , Peter P. Staats. 

Fifth ward Jiio. N. Quackenbush. 

Towns. . . Berne Moses Patten. 

Bethlehem James B. Wands. 

Coeymans Cornelius Van Derzce. 

Guilderland Chris. Batterman. 

Knox Frederick Bassler. 

Rensselaerville Tames Reid. 

Watervliet John C. Schuyler. 

Westerlo David Wooster. 

John N. Quackenbush, Chairman. 


City First ward Chris. W. Bender. 

Second ward Itazael Kane. 


City Third ward Friend Humphrey. 

Fourth ward Peter P. StaatsT* 

Fifth ward Harman V. Hart, 

Towns . . Berne Moses Patten. 

Bethlehem James B. Wands. 

Coeymans Cornelius Van Derzce. 

Guilderland Chris. Batterman. 

Knox Frederick Bassler. 

New Scotland James Reid. 

Rensselaerville Samuel Niles. 

Watervliet John C. Schuyler. 

Westerlo William Bentley. 

Christopher Batterman, Chairman. 

Calvin Pepper, Jr., Clerk. 


City First ward Chris. W. Bender. 

Second ward Hazael Kane. 

Third ward Friend Humphrey. 

Fourth ward Charles A. Keeler. 

Fifth ward CJiles Sandford. 

Towns. . . . Berne Moses Patten. 

Bethlehem Joshua F. Babcock. 

Coeymans Jonas Shear. 

Guilderland Chris. Batterman. 

Knox Egbert Schoonmaker. 

New Scotland James Reid. 

Rensselaerville Louis M. Dayton. 

Watervliet Jeremiah Schuyler. 

Westerlo William Bentley. 

Christopher Batterman, Chairman. 

Calvin Pepper, Jr., Clerk. 


City First ward Chris. W. Bender. 

Second ward William Newton. 

Third ward George Dexter. 

Fourth ward Henry Greene. 

Fifth ward Giles Sandford. 

Towns Berne John Warner. 

Bethlehem Joshua F. Babcock . 

Coeymans Jonas Shear. 

Guilderland Chris. Batterman. 

Knox Egbert Schoonmaker. 

New Scotland Aaron Van Schaick. 

Rensselaerville Louis M. Dayton 

Watervliet Gilbert I. Van Zandt. 

Westerlo Zelum Hitchcock. 

Christopher Batterman, Chairman. 


City First ward Chris. Vv^. Bender. 

Second ward William Newton. 

« Third ward George Dexter. 

Fourth ward Henry Greene. 

Fifth ward Daniel D. Shaw. 

Towns Berne Jacob Settle. 

Bethlehem Abner Udell. 

Coeymans Jonas Shear. 

Guilderland Henry Sloan. 

Knox Potter Gage. 

New Scotland Aaron Van Schaick. 

Rensselaerville Joseph Connor. 

Watervliet Gilbert I. Van Zandt. 

Westerlo Zelum Hitchcock. 

Christopher W. Bender, Chairman. 

Calvin Pepper, Jr., Clerk. 


City First and Second wards.. Andrew MooilJ. 

'I'hird ward Chris. W. Bender. 

Fourth ward Horace Meech. 

Fifth ward George Dexter. 

Sixth ward Samuel Pruyn. 

Seventh ward Daniel D. Shaw. 

Eighth ward James A. Putnam. 

Ninth and Tenth wards. . John D. Livingston. 
Towns. . . .Berne Jacob Settle. 

Bethlehem Abner Udell. 



Towns Coeymans Garret Whitbeck. 

Guaderland Henry Sloan. 

Knox Potter Gage. 

New Scotland William Murphy. 

Rensselaerville Benjamin E. Mackey . 

Watervliet Gilbert I. Van Zandt 

Westerlo Fred. H. Rosekrantz. 

Christopher W. Bender, Chairman. 

C. J. Cuyler, Clerk. 


City First and Second wards. . Andrew Moore. 

Third ward W. J. Fryer. 

Fourth ward Horace Meecli. 

Fifth ward Elisha W. Skinner. 

Sixth ward Samuel Pruyn. 

Seventh ward Daniel D. Shaw. 

Eighth ward W. B. Stanton. 

Ninth and Tenth wards. , George Traver. 
Towns Berne Henry I. Devoe. 

Bethlehem And. Vanderheyden. 

Coeymans Garret Whitbeck. 

Guilderland Peter Shaver. 

New Scotland WilUam Murphy. 

Knox Alexander Crounse. 

■Rensselaerville Benjamin E. Mackey. 

Watervliet Gilbert I. Van Zandt. 

Westerlo Fred. H. Rosekrantz. 

Gilbert I. Van Zandt, Chairman. 

Jacob M. Shuttle, Clerk. 


City First and Second wards . . John McEvoy. 

Third ward Stephen Van Schaick. 

Fourth ward Levi Chapman. 

Fifth ward Elisha W. Skinner. 

Sixth ward Samuel Pruyn. 

Seventh ward David Martin. 

Eighth ward Heman A. Fay. 

Ninth and Tenth wards. . William H. Bender. 
Towns Berne Henry I. Devoe. 

Bethlehem And. Vanderheyden. 

Coeymans Garret Whitbeck. 

Guilderland Peter Shaver. 

Knox Alexander Crounse. 

New Scotland William Murphy. 

Rensselaerville James G, Clark. 

Watervliet Gilbert I. Van Zandt. 

Westerlo Abram Griffin. 

Gilbert I. Van Zandt, Chairman. 

Joseph P. Sigsbee, Clerk. 


City First ward John McEvoy. * 

Second ward Peler P. Staats. 

Third ward Charles A. De Forest. 

Fourth ward Horace Meech. 

Fifth ward William Thorburn. 

Sixth ward Samuel Pruyn. 

Seventh ward George W. Welch. 

Eighth ward Heman A. Fay. 

Ninth ward Bradford R. Wood. 

Tenth ward Jesse Buel. 

Towns. . . .Berne Oscar Tyler. 

Bethlehem And. Vanderheyden. 

Coeymans John Mead. 

Guilderland Peter Shaver. 

Knox Charles Cheesbro. 

New Scotland AVilliam Mui-phy. 

Rensselaerville Shadrach I. Porter. 

Watervliet Gilbert I. Van Zandt. 

Westerlo ; Abraham Griffin. 

Gilbert I. Van Zandt, Chainnan. 

Jacob P. Sigsbee, Clerk. 


City First ward William Chambers. 

Second ward Peter P. Staats. 

Third ward John C. Ward. 

City Fourth ward Horace Meech. 

Fifth ward William Thorburn. 

Sixth ward Samuel Pruyn. 

Seventh ward George W. Welch. 

Eighth ward Heman A. Fay. 

Ninth ward Ichabod L. Judson. 

Tenth ward Jacob Henry. 

Towns .... Berne John Crosby. 

Bethlehem Francis I. Shaver. 

Coeymans John Mead. 

Guilderland Peter Shaver. 

Knox Charles Cheesbro. 

New Scotland Coonrad Mathias. 

Rensselaei-ville Valentine Tread well. 

Watervliet Thomas Hillhouse. 

Westerlo Abram Vrooman. 

Peter P. Staats, Chairman. 

Hugh Scott, Clerk. 


City First ward Bernard Lynch. 

Second ward Andrew Moore. 

Third ward Silvester F. Shepard. 

Fourth ward Charles S. Olmstead. 

Fifth ward Thomas McMullen. 

Sixth ward Samuel Pruyn. 

Seventh ward J. Van Valkenburgh. 

Eighth ward William Jones. 

Ninth ward Isaac N. Comstock. 

Tenth ward William Beardsley. 

Towns. . . .Berne Samuel H. Davis. 

Bethlehem John McHarg. 

Coeymans Elwell Blodget. 

Guilderland John Fuller. 

Knox David Van Auken. 

New Scotland Coonrad Mathias. 

Rensselaerville Valentine Treadwell. 

Watervliet Gilbert I. Van Zandt. 

Westerlo Abraham Vrooman. 

Gilbert 1. Van Zandt, Chairman. 

Peter Settle, Clerk. 


City First ward Bernard Lynch. 

Second ward Brown S. Spencer. 

Third ward Sylvester S. Shepard. 

Fourth ward Charles S. Olmstead. 

Fifth ward Coorurad A.Ten Eyck. 

Sixth ward Samuel Pruyn. 

Seventh ward Parker Sargent. 

Eighth ward Oliver Wallace. 

Ninth ward Christopher Adams. 

Tenth ward Adam Van Allen. 

Towns Berne Samuel H. Davis. 

Bethlehem John McHarg. 

Coeymans Elwell Blodget. 

Guilderland John Fuller. 

Knox David Van Auken. 

New Scotland Robert Taylor. 

Rensselaerville S. M. Hallenbeck. 

Watervliet Archibald A. Dunlop. 

Westerlo Avery Slade. 

Charles S. Olmstead, Chairman. 

Peter Settle, Clerk. 


City First ward Richard Parr. 

Seconi ward Matthew McMahon. 

Third ward John Hurdis. 

Fourth ward Franklin Townsend. 

Fifth ward William White. 

Sixth ward ; Samuel Pruyn. 

Seventh ward George W. Welch. 

Eighth ward Oliver Wallace. 

Ninth ward James A. Tremere. 

Tenth ward Adam Van Allen. 

towns Berne John J. Bogardus. 

Betlilehem Jeremiah Mead. 

Coeymans John Van Derzee. 



Towns Guilderland Jacob J. Fryer. 

Knox Perez Fink, Jr. 

New Scotland Robert Taylor. 

Rensselaerville Stephen Hallenbeck. 

Watervliet Archibald A. Dunlop. 

Westerlo Avery Slade. 

Samuel Pruyn, Chairman. 

James F. Wheli^ley, Clerk. 


City First ward John McEvoy. 

Second ward Matthew McMahon . 

Third ward John Hurdis. 

Fourth ward Franklin Townscnd. 

Fifth ward William White. 

Si.xth ward Samuel Pruyn. 

Seventh ward Josiah Patterson. 

Eighth ward James M. French. 

Ninth ward Richard J. Grant. 

Tenth ward Joshua G. Cortell. 

Towns. . . .Berne Daniel G. Fisher. 

Bethlehem Jeremiah Mead. 

Coeymans John Van Derzee. 

Guilderland Jacob J. Fryer. 

Knox Perez Frink. 

New Scotland Robert Taylor. 

Rensselaerville William Aley. 

Watervliet Gilbert I. Van Zandt. 

Westerlo Caleb Smith. 

Samuel Pruyn, Chairman. 

James M. Whelpley, Clerk. 


City First ward James McCaffery. 

Second ward Matthew McMahon. 

Third ward Chaiies A. De Forest. 

Fourth ward Charles S. Olmstead. 

Fifth ward William White. 

Sixth ward David Martin. 

Seventh ward Charles H. Radcliff. 

Eighth ward Samuel N. Payn. 

Ninth ward William McBride. 

Tenth ward Joshua G. Cortell. 

Tovifns .... Berne Henry A. Van \\'ie. 

Bethlehem Jeremiah Mead. 

Coeymans Nathaniel Niles. 

Guilderland Elijah Spawn. 

Knox Lyman Witters. 

New Scotland John McEwen. 

Rensselaerville William Aley. 

Watervliet Gilbert I. Van Zandt. 

Westerlo Caleb Smith. 

Gilbert I. Van Zandt, Chairman. 

Orville H. Chittenden, Clerk. 

City First ward Philip Foy. ' 

Second ward Matthew McMahon. 

Third ward John A. Sickles. 

Fourth ward Henry C. Southwick. 

Fifth ward Michael Clark. 

Sixth ward J. V.P. Quackenbush. 

Seventh ward Charles Miller. 

Eighth ward Oliver Wallace. 

Ninth ward Isaac Vandcrpoel. 

Tenth ward Adam Van Allen. 

Towns. . . .Berne Henry A. Van Wie. 

Bethlehem Elias Milbanks. 

Coeymans Nathaniel Niles. 

Guilderland Elijah Spawn. 

Knox Lyman Witters. 

New Scotland John McEwen. 

Rensselaerville Daniel A. Mackey. 

Watervliet Archibald A. Dunlop. 

Westerlo Samuel F. Powell. 

Matthew McMahon, Chairman. 

Orville H. Chittenden, Clerk. 

City First ward Philip Foy. 

City Second ward , John Reynolds. 

Third ward 

Fourth ward William Boardman. 

Fifth ward Michael Clark. 

Sixth ward Stephen Lush. 

Seventh ward Charles Miller. 

Eighth ward Thomas Gillespie. 

Ninth ward Ten Eyck La Moure. 

Tenth ward Adam Van Allen. 

Towns. . . .Berne Jackson King. 

Bethlehem Elias Milbanks. 

Coeymans Willet Serls. 

Guilderland Wendell Vine. 

Knox Stephen Merselis, Jr. 

New Scotland John Mathias. 

Rensselaerville William Aley. 

Watervliet James H. Brisbin. 

Westerlo Samuel F. Powell. 

James H. Brisbin, Chairman. 

George Wolford, Clerk. 


City First ward John Lawless. 

Second ward John Stuart. 

Third ward Alexander Davidson. 

Fourth ward William Boardman. 

Fifth ward Michael Clarke. 

Sixth ward Stephen Lush. 

Seventh ward Charles Miller. 

Eighth ward Lawrence Dovvd. 

Ninth ward John Sager. 

Tenth ward Andrew Fisher. 

Towns. . . .Berne Jackson King. 

Bethlehem George F. Imbrie. 

Coeymans Willet Serls. 

Guilderland Wendell Vine. 

Knox Stephen Merselis, Jr. 

New Scotland John Mathias. 

Rensselaerville Benjamin F. Sayre. 

Watervliet John C. Schuyler. 

Westerlo Samuel F. Powell. 

Alexander Davidson, Chairman. 

George Wolford, Clerk. 


City First ward John Lawless. 

Second ward James Taylor. 

Third ward Geo. A. H.Englehart. 

Fourth ward Abram Koonz. 

Fifth ward Michael Clarke. 

Sixth ward Stephen Lush. 

Seventh ward John Benson. 

Eighth ward William B. Scott. 

Ninth ward William McBride, Jr. 

Tenth ward Andrew Fisher. 

Towns. . . .Berne. . . . : Silas Wright. 

Bethlehem John Patterson. 

Coeymans Garrit Whitbeck. 

Guilderland George Y. Johnson. 

Knox Henry Barckley. 

New Scotland Wm. Van Allen. 

Rensselaerville William Aley. 

Watervliet Dillon Beebe. 

Westerlo George H. Bentley. 

Abram Koonz, Chairman. 

George Wolford, Clerk. 


City First ward James Lamb. 

Second ward John M. Kimball. 

Third ward "William H. Rice. 

Fourth ward Henry Rector. 

Fifth ward John E. Gavitt. 

Sixth ward James C. Crocker. 

Seventh ward Thomas Farley. 

Eighth ward James Jones. 

Ninth ward Alonzo Bruce. 

Tenth ward B. S. De Forest. 

Towns. . . .Berne Silas Wright. 

Bethlehem Leonard G. Ten Eyck 



Towns Coeymaiis Gerrit Whilbeck. 

Guilderland George Y. Johnson. 

Knox Henry Barckley. 

New Scotland P. V. W. Brooks. 

Rensselaerville Norman A. Ford. 

Watervliet Gilbert I. Van Zandt. 

Westerlo George H. Bentley . 

George Y. Johnson, Chairman. 

George Wolford, Clerk. 


City First ward James Lamb. 

Second ward William J. Caldwell. 

Third ward William H. Rice. 

Fourth ward Abram Koonz. 

Fifth ward Robert Raby. 

Sixth ward Uavid V. N. Radcliff. 

Seventh ward Thomas Earley. 

Eighth ward William Redden. 

Ninth ward Philip Spencer. 

Tenth ward Ezra A. Sutliff. 

Towns Berne Samuel H. Davis. 

Bethlehem Leonard G.Ten Eyck. 

Coeymans Gerrit Whitbeck. 

Guilderland George Y. Johnson. 

Knox John Keenholtz. 

New Scotland Peter V. W. Brooks. 

Rensselaerville Norman A. Ford. 

Watervliet Gilbert I. Van Zandt. 

Westerlo Abraham Griffin. 

Abraham Koonz, Chairman. 

William Aley, Clerk. 


City First ward William Welch. 

Second ward William J. Caldwell. 

Third ward Thomas O. Wands. 

Fourth ward Isaac Lederer. 

Fitth ward Silas B. Hamilton . 

Sixth ward D. V. N. Radcliff. 

Seventh ward Thomas Earley. 

Eighth ward Thomas Dolan, 

Ninth ward James D. Wasson. 

Tenth ward Charles L. Austin. 

Towns Berne Samuel H. Davis. 

Bethlehem Leonard G.Ten Eyck. 

Coeymans Gerrit Whitbeck. 

Guilderland Henry Hilton. 

Knox John Keenholtz. 

New Scotland James Slingerland. 

Rensselaerville Norman A. Ford. 

Watervliet ^ WiUiam J. Wheeler. 

Westerlo Abram Griffin. 

Charles L. Austin, Chairman. 

William Aley, Clerk. 


City First ward William Welch. 

Second ward Charles E. White. 

Third ward Thomas O. Wands. 

Fourth ward Abram Koonz. 

Fifth ward Silas B. Hamilton. 

Sixth ward D. V. N. Radchff. 

Seventh ward Thomas Earley. 

Eighth ward Philip McGuire. 

Ninth ward John Lossing. 

Tenth ward Joseph Fellows. 

Towns Berne Zebadiah A. Dyer. 

Bethlehem Leonard G.Ten Eyck. 

Coeymans John B. Shear. 

Guilderland Henry Hilton. 

Knox Samuel Gallup. 

New Scotland James Slingerland. 

Rensselaerville Andrew Felter. 

Watervliet William G. Caw. 

Westerlo Thomas Saxton. 

Leonard G. Ten Eyck, Chairman. 

Allen B. Durant, Clerk. 


City First ward Jeremiah Kieley. 

Second ward Charles W. Bentley. 

Third ward Matthew W. Bender. 

Fourth ward John McMickin. 

Fifth ward John Van Gaasbeck. 

Sixth ward D. V. N. Radcliff. 

Se.venth ward Thomas Earley. 

Eighth ward Timothy Seymour. 

Ninth ward William T. Wooley. 

Tenth ward Thomas W. Griffin. 

Towns Berne Zebadiah A. Dyer. 

Bethlehem John Wilkes. 

Coeymans John B. Shear. 

Guilderland Henry Hilton. 

Knox Samuel Gallup . 

New Scotland Samuel Rowe. 

Rensselaerville Andrew Felter. 

Watervliet William G. Caw. 

Westerlo Thomas Saxton. 

Henry Hilton, Chairman. 

James A. Colvin, Clerk. 


City First ward Daniel Sullivan. 

Second ward Charles E. White. 

Third ward Matthew W. Bender. 

Fourth ward Francis N. Sill. 

Fifth ward Isaac A. Chapman. 

Sixth ward Wm, Frothingham. 

Seventh ward Thomas Earley. 

Eighth ward Stephen McKnight. 

Ninth ward William McBride. 

Tenth ward James Milwain. 

Towns. . . .Berne Henry I. Devoe. 

Bethlehem John Wilkes. 

Coeymans David A. Whitbeck. 

Guilderland Leonard Wilkins. 

Knox Samuel Warren. 

New Scotland James Slingerland. 

Rensselaerville James E. Mackey. 

Watervliet William G. Caw. 

Westerlo Abijah C. Disbrow. 

Stephen McKnight, Chairman. 

G. V. Shafer, Clerk. 

THE BOARD FROM i86i TO 1884. 

No regular record of the proceedings of the 
Board of Supervisors of Albany County is now in 
existence, except that which begins with the year 
1861. From that time down to the present writing 
the records of the Board are well preser\'ed, from 
which we compile the reinainder of our history of 
the Board. 

Proceedings of the annual session of the Board, 
held pursuant to statute, at the City Hall, in the 
City of Albany, commencing on the 14th day of 
IMay, 1 86 1. 

The following were the members of the Board 
present : 

Albany. . . .First ward Patrick Whitty. 

Second ward Matthew Kendrick. 

Third ward James Mclntyre. 

Fourth ward John Kelso. 

Fifth ward Abraham A. Wimple. 

Sixth ward Thomas Earley. 

Seventh ward Hugh Byrne. 

Eighth ward George N. Geary. 

Tenth ward James Milwain. 

Towns Bethlehem John Wilkes. 

Berne Henry I. Devoe. 

Coeymans David A. Whitlseck. 

Guilderland Stephen B. Frederick. 

I'^Jiox , Samuel Warner. 



Towns New Scotland Henry Crounse. 

Rensselaerville James E. Mackey. 

Watervliet Garrit Van Olinda. 

Westerlo Abijah C. Disbrow. 

Abijah C. Disbrow, Chairman. 

G. V. Thacher, Clerk. 

Dr. Staatz Winne was duly elected County 
Physician for the ensuing year. 

John Gannon was elected doorkeeper. 

At the next meeting the Chairman announced the 
following standing committees : 

Finance, and to Examine Treasurer' s Accounts. — Messrs. 
Whitbeck, Earley and Milwain. 

To Examine the Books, Mortgages and Minutes of the 
Loan Officers, and Commissioners of Loans. — Messrs. De- 
voe, Wemple and Kelso. 

On all Accounts and Matters Relating to the Poor. — 
Messrs. Earley, Whitty and Wemple. 

On all Accounts of Judges, Justices of the Peace, Dis- 
trict Attorney, Coroner, and Criers of Courts. — Messrs. 
Wilkes, Devoe and Warner. 

The annual statement of Thomas Kearney, the County 
Treasurer, shows the receipts into the Treasury for the year 
ending December, 1861, from all sources, to be $253,881.26; 
the disbursements to be deducted therefrom to be $253,- 
881.26; the balance-sheet of the Treasurer showed there 
was due the County, in his hands, $8,300.30. 

The Committee on Equalization agreed upon 
the following valuation, per acre, in the several 
Towns : 

Berne, $17.50; Bethlehem, $56.50, Coeymans, $35,50; 
Guilderland, $37.50; Kno.x, $17.50; New Scotland, $38.00; 
Rensselaerville, $18.50; Westerlo, $20.50; \\'atervliet, 

The percentage of taxation was as follows : 
For the City, $1.61 per $100; Berne, $1.58 per $100; 
Bethlehem, 75 cents per $100; Coeymans, 84 cents per 
$100; Guilderland, $1.28 per $100; Knox, $1.13 per $100; 
New Scotland, 96 cents per $100; Rensselaerville, 90 cents 
per $100. Westerlo, 94 cents per $100; Watervliet, 94 cents 
per %\ca; Village of West Troy, 97)4 cents per $100; Vil- 
lage of Cohoes, 95^ cents per $100. 

The total amount to be raised by tax that year 
in the City of Albany was $391,533-30. 

The towns most burdened for building and re- 
pairing roads and bridges that year were : 

Berne, $100; Coeymans, $110; Bethlehem, $100; Guilder- 
land, $120; Knox, $30; New Scotland, $ico; Rensselaer- 
ville, $100; Westerlo, $90; separate road districts, Ninth and 
Tenth Wards, $250; total, $1,000. 

A motion to enlarge the Penitentiary was lost by 
a vote of 7 to 11. A resolution was adopted de- 
claring the Registry Law vexatious, exhaustingly 
expensive to taxpayers, and should be repealed. 


The annual meeting of the Board of Supervisors 
began at the City Hall, in the City of Albany, May 
13, 1862. The following members of the Board 
were present : 

First Ward, Patrick Whitty; Second Ward, Richard H. 
Scott; Third Ward, James Mclntyre; Fourth Ward, Francis 
N. Sill; Fifth Ward, John N. Barker; Sixth Ward, Daniel 
Shaw; Seventh Ward, Asa Fassett; Eighth Ward, Henry 
N. Wickes; Ninth Ward, Wm. McCIusky; Tenth Ward, 
Benjamin F. Rice; Berne, David Conger; Bethlehem, 
Albertus W. Becker; Coeymans, Jonas Shear; Guilderland, 
.Stephen V. Frederick; New Scotland, James Slingerland; 
Rensselaerville, George H. I^araway; Westerlo, Abijah C. 
Disbrow ; Watervliet, Garrit Van Olinda. 

Abijah C. Disbrow was elected Chairman of the 
Board, George V. Thacher Clerk; Dr. John J. 

Meyers was elected County Physician, and Fred- 
erick M. Johnson doorkeeper. 

The death of Samuel Pruyn, Esq., one of the In- 
spectors of the Penitentiary from its first organiza- 
tion, and for many years one of the Supervisors of 
the City and County of Albany, was announced. 

The resolution was adopted directing the Treas- 
urer to pay each member of the Board for the year 
i860 the sum of ten dollars and traveling fees 
allowed by law for services rendered as canvassers 
of the special election for members of Assembly. 

The Alias and Argtis, Times and Courier, ]\Iorn- 
ing Express and Evening Journal were designated 
as the papers to publish the proceedings of the 
Board. Mr. D. A. Manning was designated as 
reporter for the Alias and Argus, Mr. Edward 
Leslie for the Times and Courier ; Mr. Coney of the 
Walervliet Democrat was also appointed a reporter. 

A special meeting of the Board, called to devise 
measures to aid in the enrollment of a regiment in 
the i3tli Senatorial District, convened at the City 
Hall on the 29th of July, 1862. Patriotic resolu- 
tions were passed to take measures to sustain the 
President in a call then recently made for 300,000 
additional volunteers to supply the places of those 
who had fallen victims to the casualties of war, 
and to so increase the strength of our effective 
force as to crush the rebellion. A bounty of fifty 
dollars was established for each recruit enlisted in 
the Albany Co. regiment in addition to the boun- 
ties before offered by the general and state govern- 
ments. The proceedings of this session were all 
directed to patriotic purposes. 

The annual November session of the Board of 
Supervisors commenced on the nth of Novem- 
ber, 1862. 

The apportionment of the city and county tax 
was reported at the following ratio of taxation : 

City east of Partridge street, $1.80 per $100 ; city west of 
Partridge street to Allen, $1.45 per $ioo; city west of Allen, 
$1.39 per $100; Berne, $1.65 per $100; Bethlehem, 92c. 
per $100; Coeymans, 95c. per $100 ; Guilderland, $1.48 
per $100 ; Knox, $1.44 per $100 ; New Scotland, $1.19 per 
$100 ; Rensselaerville, $i.i6per $ick) ; Westerlo, $1.15 per 
$100; Watervliet, $r. 06 per $100 ; West Troy, $1.07^ per 
$100; Green Island, $1.14 per $100; Cohoes, 1.06^ per 

The Chairman of the Finance Committee sub- 
mitted an annual statement of moneys received and 
disbursed from Dec. 10, 1861, to Dec. ro, 1862. 

The report showed a balance in favor of the 
county of $15,690. 78, made up as follows : 

Due redemption fund $1,037 00 

" court " 3,24909 

" military " 97' 72 

Total $5,257 81 

Balance applicable to county purposes $10,432 97 

Out of that balance there was paid at that time 
on accormt of election expenses since Dec. 10, 
1862 1,579 25 

Leaving $8,853 7^ 

The annual report of Thomas Kearney, County 
Treasurer, shows that there was paid into the 
county treasury during the )'ear from all sources 
$368,638.49. There was disbursed the sum of 



1368,638.49. The amount of bounties paid that 
year was 1175,000. 

There was a balance belonging to the county 
bounty fund of 1 18, 400. 

Proceedings of the Board of Supervisors at their 
May session, held at the City Hall, in the City of 
Albany, May 12, 1863. The following supervisors 
were present : 

First Ward, Joseph Kresser ; Second Ward, Philip 
O'Brien ; Third Ward, Martin V. B. Winne ; Fourth Ward, 
Abram Koonz ; Fifth Ward, Barent P. Staats ; Sixth Ward, 
David V. N. RadcUffe ; Seventh Ward, Thomas Early ; 
Eighth Ward, Timothy Seymour ; Ninth Ward, Frederick 
Porth ; Tenth Ward, Thomas O. Wands ; Berne, WUliam 
D. Strevell ; Bethlehem, WilHam Kimmey ; Coeymans, 
Jonas Shear ; Guilderland, Stephen V. Frederick ; Knox, 
John Keenholts ; New Scotland, John R. Taylor ; Rens- 
selaerville, George H. Laraway ; Watervliet, Gerrit Van 
Olinda ; Westerlo, Jared T. Reynolds. 

George H. Laraway, Esq., appointed chairman ; 
George V. Thacher, clerk ; Dr. Winne was 
elected phj'sician, and James Ogsbury, of Knox, 
was appointed doorkeeper. 

Mr. Staats submitted a report showing that the 
expenses of the county and the Excise Commis- 
sioners, "for driving rum out of the city and 
county," was something over $16,000 for the pre- 
ceding year. 

The Board adjourned till the loth of November, 

Proceedings of the November session of the 
Board of Supervisors, held at the City Hall in 
Albany, commencing November 10, 1863. 

On the opening of the session, November 11, 
the death of Frederick Porth, late Supervisor of the 
Ninth Ward, was announced, and resolutions ex- 
pressive of the sorrow of the Board at his loss were 
unanimously passed. 

The Treasurer reported the amount of fines re- 
ceived by the Justices of the Peace of the county 
to amount to the sum of $1,122. 

Amount of moneys borrowed and received from 
all sources for the support of the war during the 
year was $205,098. 13. 


A resolution had been adopted, that the County 
Clerk be authorized to re-index the mortgages of 
record in his oflBce pursuant to a system of vowel- 
ization, and to transcribe and arrange the index of 
deeds upon the plan followed in directories and 
dictionaries. This work had been successfully 
prosecuted, according to the report " submitted by 
the Clerk, in which it appeared that a great number 
of errors, and some very dangerous ones, had been 
discovered and rectified. That the contents of the 
old indexes — eight in number, and comprising the 
period from 1753 to 1863 — thus sifted and verified, 
were contained in two books, arranged upon the 
new or vowelized system. That the work done 
down to that time had been upon the indices of 
grantors, including the period from 1656 to 1863. 
That the work already completed comprised 3,541 
pages, or 106,320 names. That his account for 

indexing, as referred to in the above report, 
amounted to $10,623. 

Mr. Staats presented a statement from the United 
States Collector, showing the number of liquor 
dealers in the city and county of Albany to be 
1,013, as follows : 

West Troy, 105 ; Watervliet, 45 ; Sixth, Seventh and 
Eighth Wards, 181 ; Fifth Ward, 41 ; Fourth Ward, ^3 ; 
Third Ward, 92 ; First and Second Wards, 178 ; Tenth 
Ward, 53 ; Ninth Ward, 88 ; Knox, Guilderland and Berne, 
22 ; IBethlehem and New Scotland, 45 ; Coeymans, West- 
erlo and Rensselaerville, 18 ; Cohoes, 62. 

A report from the Excise Commissioners showed 
that out of a large number of prosecutions for in- 
fractions of the excise law only $450 had been col- 
lected ; the cost of collection was double that. 

The Committee of Equalization in the city and 
county fixed the valuation of the towns as follows: 

Berne, $17.50 per acre; Bethlehem, S57.50 per acre; 
Coeymans, $35.50 per acre; Guilderland, $37.50 per acre; 
Knox, $17.50 per acre; New Scotland, $38 per acre; Rens- 
selaerville, $18.50; Westerlo, $20.50; Watervliet, $60. 

The annual statement of the County Treasurer 
shows that there was received in his office from all 
sources $419,460.18; the disbursements from the 
office, $419,460. 18. 

There was paid to the Sheriff this year for serv- 
ing notices, etc., etc., $2,637.95; board of prison- 
ers, $6,718; making in all a total of $9,355.95. 

There was paid to reporters the sum of $499. 
The expense- of City Government was $240, 700; 
police force, $40,000. 

Annual May Session of the Board of Supervisors 
held at City Hall, in Albany, May 10, 1864. 

Supervisors present : 

First Ward, Joseph Kresser; Second Ward, PhUip O'Brien; 
Third Ward, James M. Carlin ; Fourth Ward, Abram Koonz; 
Fifth Ward, Barent P. Staats; Sixth Ward, James H. Carroll; 
Seventh Ward, Thomas Early; Eighth Ward, Philip Mc- 
Guire; Ninth Ward, Frank Marshall; Tenth Ward, Chris- 
topher W. Bender; Berne, David Conger; Bethlehem, William 
Kimmey ; Coeymans, Peter Keefer; Guilderland, Stephen V. 
Frederick; Knox, IraVanAuken; New Scotland, John R. 
Taylor; Rensselaerville, George H. Laraway; Watervliet, 
Gerrit Van Olinda; Westerlo, Jared I. Reynolds. 

George H. Laraway, Chairman. 

George V. Thacher, Clerk. 

Dr. Barent P. Staats, County Physician. 

James McAneeny, Doorkeeper. 

A statement of the moneys borrowed by resolu- 
tion of the Board, December 17, 1863, and dis- 
bursed to pay bounties from December 4, 1863, to 
July 18, 1864, inclusive, showed that $1,074,217. 28 
had been disbursed in that time. There was a 
balance on hand of $227,442.97; the interest due 
on bonds, September i, 1864, amounted to 


When this statement was given. Dr. Staats rose 
and said that the draft was not in accordance with 
our State Constitution; that that instrument was 
opposed to lotteries, and the draft was nothing 
more nor less than a lottery, only there were 
more prizes in a draft than in a lottery. 

He "believed in making the rich man, whose 
property and interests were at stake, pay liberally 



toward saving the country from a draft, by fur- 
nishing money to procure volunteers, and moved 
that the Board favor the paying of a bounty." 
His resolution was adopted. He then moved that 
a committee of six be appointed to draft resolu- 
tions and report a plan to fill the quotas under the 
President's last call for 500,000 men. This resolu- 
sion was also adopted, to the effect that it was de- 
sirable and expedient to fill the quota of Albany 
by volunteers, instead of by draft. 

Active measures were taken to carry this resolu- 
tion into effect. 

Lincoln's proclamation. 

Several special meetings were called to consider 
the President's proclamation, made July 18, 1864, 
calling for 500,000 volunteers for the military ser- 
vice. Without going into particulars, it is suffi- 
cient to say that the action of the Board of Super- 
visors in regard to that proclamation was prompt, 
patriotic and in every sense efficient, showing that 
the capital county of the State was foremost in 
coming to the rescue of our country. 

The Board of Supervisors convened on the 15th 
of November, 1864, all the members of the board 
being present. 

The City Budget, presented on the 21st of 
November, showed a gross amount of $370,000. 
Mr. Staats called attention to the fact " that many 
charges are made against the county for post 
moriem examinations, when there was never the 
slightest necessity for such examinations." He 
instanced "one case where a bill for $30 had been 
presented, and it was ascertained that the man 
died from having the bones of his head knocked 
in ; when the physicians were asked whv they 
made such examination, they replied, for their own 
information and nothing more, and now they pre- 
sent a bill for $30, and in this manner nearly one- 
half of coronors' bills are gotten up." 

This 3-ear L. C. Tuttle and Hon. John C. Nott, 
now county judge, were school commissioners 
of the county. 

The annual statement of Thomas Kearney shows 
that the receipts of the county treasurer during the 
year from all sources was $472,945.19; the dis- 
bursements amounted to $472,945.19. He also 
presented his annual statement of money received 
and disbursed on account of bounty fund from 
Dec. 4, 1863, to Dec. 10, 1864, which amounted 
to $1,914,642.62. 


Mr. J. R. Hilton, attorney for the Excise Com- 
missioners, having obtained judgment to the 
amount of 16,472.76 agamst the county, on pre- 
senting his bill for the same the Supervisors refused 
to pay the judgment in full. A long controversy 
ensued in regard to the matter, Mr. Hilton refus- 
ing to accept any sum except the full amount of 
his claim. The matter was finally referred to the 
committee. A referee reported in favor of a sum 
due Mr. Hilton, including costs and interest, of 


Mr. Staats offered a resolution that the sum of 
$6,472.76 be allowed Mr. Hilton. This resolu- 
tion was adopted. 

The equalization of real estate in the city and 
county of Albany was fixed as follows : 

Berne, per acre, $17.50; Bethlehem, per acre, $57.50; 
Coeymans, per acre, $35.50; Guilderland, per acre, S37.50; 
Knox, per acre, $r8 ; New Scotland, per acre, $38; Rens- 
selaerville, per acre, $18.50; Westerlo, per acre, $20; Water- 
vliet, per acre, $60. 

The meeting of this board continued by adjourn- 
ments until March 6, 1865. 

Proceedings of the Board of Supervisors at their 
annual session, May 9, 1865. Members present: 

First Ward, Joseph Kresser; Second \\'ard, James Brice; 
Third Ward, Lee Chamberlain; Fourth Ward, Abram 
Koonz; Fifth Ward, Barent P. Staats; Sixth Ward,W. C. Mc- 
Harg; Seventh Ward, David Prest; Eighth Ward, John 
McCall; Ninth Ward, Frank Marshall; Tenth ^\'ard, Chris- 
topher W. Bender; Bethlehem, Wm. Kimmey; Berne, David 
S. Dyeri( Coeymans, Peter Keefer; Guilderland, Steven 
V. Frederick; Knox, Ira Van Auken; New Scotland, Daniel 
Callahan: Rensselaerville, George H. Laraway; Water- 
vliet, Gerrit Van Olinda; Westerlo, Jared T. Reynolds. 
George H. Laraway, Chairman; George V. Thacher, Clerk; 
Barent P. Staats, County Physician; Joseph W. Reynolds, 

As soon as an organization was effected Mr. 
Brice, from the Second Ward, arose and in touch- 
ing, eloquent language announced the death of 
President Lincoln. Having concluded his re- 
marks, he presented an appropriate preamble and 
resolutions expressive of the feelings of the mem- 
bers of the Board in regard to the awful crime 
■which resulted in the President's death, and of 
their veneration for him, and that they recognized 
in him "that able executive ability, tempered with 
that mild and genial feeling of mere)', which has 
engraven his name in the hearts of his countrymen, 
and left him a character on the scroll of fame 
which no time can erase." 

The City Budget was presented November 22, 
1865, and amounted in all to $446,703.05, of 
which $10,000 was the Sinking Fund account, 
$40,000 temporary outdoor relief of the poor, 
$42,979.44 for public schools, pursuant to chapter 
516, laws of 1855; $80,123.61 of this was the pro- 
portionate part of the Police expenses apportioned to 
the City of Albany for the fiscal year ending Octo- 
ber I, 1866, and for deficiency to October i, 1865, 
pursuant to section 46, chapter 554, laws of 1865. 

At the meeting of the Board, November 28, 1865, 
an interesting statement showing the war expenses 
of the whole county during the war, which 
amounted in grossto $4,485, 276.45. The statement 
also shows that the county paid bounties, accord- 
ing to different quotas, for the years 1862, 1863, 
1864 and 1865, to 8,456 men. This, it will be 
seen, does not include i86i,northe full number 
of men enlisted in Albany County during the war. 
A statement showing this will be found elsewhere in 
this work. In addition to the above amount, hand- 
money and other expenses were paid during the 
years 1863, '64 and '65, amounting to $93,403.72. 

The following table shows the bonds issued in 
Albany County: 




4_, C2 tn 

f^ ^ S 

^ <L» aj 










On December 5, 1865, on motion of Mr. Mc- 
Harg, the salary of the District Attorney from and 
after the first of January, 1866, was fixed at the 
sum of $3, 500 per annum. 

A voluminous document, containing the names 
of all persons licensed to sell liquor during the 
year down to December 5, was presented, from 
which we make the following recapitulation : 

Albany.— First Ward, i22;Second Ward,75;Third Ward, 
96; Fourth Ward, 103; Fifth Ward, 47; Sixth and Eight 
Wards, 118; Seventh Ward, 90; Ninth Ward, 58; Tenth 
Ward, 97; total, 806. 

Towns. — Watervliet, 59; Berne and Guilderland, 21; 
Bethlehem and New Scotland, 40; Coeymans and Westerlo, 
15; West Troy, 112; Cohoes, 67; total, 314; city and towns, 

On December 6, 1865, the County Treasurer pre- 
sented a CouNiY Budget amounting in all to $766,- 

On the 14th of December, Mr. Frederick, of the 
Finance Committee, offered the following resolu- 
tion : 

" Resolved, That there be assessed upon the taxable 
property of the county $766,094.89, the same to be applied 
for the purpose mentioned in the County Budget as pre- 
sented on the sixth of December; also the sum of §87,114.91, 
for Audited Accounts." 

Which resolution was adopted. Mr. Frederick 
also reported the City Budget, as adopted by the 
Common Council and presented to the Board on 
the 2 2d of November, at $446, 703. 05, also the sum 
of $8,423.06 for Audited Accounts, and the same 
was adopted. 

The equalization of Real Estate in the City and 
County of Albany was fixed at the rate per acre : 

Berne, 517.50; Bethlehem, $57.57; Coeymans, $35.50; 
Guilderland, $37.50; Knox, $18; New Scotland, $38.50; 
Reiisselaerville, $18.50; Westerlo, $19.50; Watervliet, $60. 

The County Treasurer reports the receipts of 
money this year to the amount of $1,083,013.66, 
and the disbursements to the amount of $1,083,- 

The Argus and The Express were designated for 

county papers for 1866, 

and the Albany County Democrat, Freie Blatter and 
Evening Post were authorized to publish the 
County Audits. 

The Board adjourned, sine die, December 14, 

The proceedings of the Board of Supervisors of 
the county of Albany at the annual meeting held 
at the City Hall, in the city of Albany, May 8, 

Members present : 

First Ward, Robert J. McCormick ; Second Ward, James 
Brice ; Third Ward, John W. Harcourt ; Fourth Ward, 
Abraham Koonz ; Fifth Ward, Barent P. Staats ; Sixth 
Ward, David Rose ; Seventh Ward, David Brest ; Eighth 
Ward, John McElroy ; Ninth Ward, Mathias J. Severance ; 
Tenth Ward, Christopher W. Bender ; Berne, David Con- 
ger ; Bethlehem, William Kimmey ; Coeymans, John B. 
Shear ; Guilderland, Stephen V. Frederick ;- Knox, Peter 
Schoonmaker ; New Scotland, Nicholas A. Delong ; Rens- 
selaerville, George H. Laraway ; Watervliet, William J. 
Wheeler ; Westerlo, Charles Bently. Chairman, George 
H. Laraway ; Clerk, Owen McDermott ; County Physi- 
cian, Dr. B. P. Staats ; Doorkeeper, Christian Hartline. 



Death of Gerrit Van Olinda. — The board 
being thus organized, Dr. Staats arose and an- 
nounced the death of Mr. Gerrit Van OHnda, 
long a useful and honored member of the board 
from Watervliet. 

After the transaction of some business the board 
adjourned to June 19, 1866. 

Special Session. 

On Tuesday, June 19, the board met pursuant 
to Chapter 607 of the laws of the State of New 
York fori 866. 

Jurors' Pay. — Mr. Prest, from the finance com- 
mittee, offered the following in regard to pay of 
grand and petit jurors : 

" Whereas, The Legislature of the State of New York, 
on the 31st of March, 1866, passed an act which reads as 
follows : The several boards of supervisors in this State 
may, at their first or any subsequent meeting after the 
passage of this act, direct a sum not exceeding two dollars 
a day to be allowed to every grand and petit juror, for 
attending the courts of record held within their several 
counties ; and they may also direct an allowance to be 
made to such jurors for traveling in coming and returning 
from such courts, not exceeding five cents a mile; there- 

"Resolved, That the county treasurer be authorized and 
directed to pay to every grand and petit juror who shall 
have been regularly drawn from the box since June i, 
1866, provided by law for attending the courts of record 
held in and for the said County ot Albany, the additional 
sum of fifty cents for each day's attendance, and also that 
each juror who shall have been so drawn as aforesaid 
shall be allowed five cents per mile for coming to and 
returning from the City Hall, the place of holding the 
several courts of record for this county." 

At November session, Nov. 13, 1866, the board 
met pursuant to adjournment as a board of can- 
vassers, the members all being present. Having 
completed the canvass the board adjourned until 
the 14th. 

At this meeting the comptroller presented the 
following communication : 

Comptroller's Office, Albany, Sept. 29, 1866. 

Contest Concerxixg Clerk. — It will be seen 
that Owen McDermott was elected clerk of the 
board at the annual meeting. This was done 
against considerable opposition, which was not 
quieted by his election. The matter rested, how- 
ever, until the special session of June 19, when 
Mr. Kimmey presented the following : 

" Whereas, The appointment of the present clerk of this 
board was forced upon the board against the wishes ot a 
large majority of its members; and 

" Whereas, Said board are not satisfied, and do not con- 
sider said clerk competent to fully discharge the duties ot 
his position; therefore 

"Resolved, That George V. Thacher be, and he is hereby 
appointed clerk of said board for the ensuing year, in place 
of Owen McDermott, removed." 

After considerable discussion the resolution was 
adopted by a vote of eleven ayes and seven noes. 

The board voted Mr. McDermott the sum of 
$100 for his services. 

The following communication from the Comp- 
troller of the State was read by the Clerk : 

To the Clerk of the Board of Supervisors of the County 
of Albany : 

Sir: — The Board of Equalization of Taxes, in pursuance 
of chapter 312 of the Laws of 1859, have fixed the aggre- 
gate valuation of property in your county at the sum of 
$42,403,645, upon which amount a State tax of $235,870.28 
must be levied for the current year, being 5-j*j- mills on the 
dollar, for the following purposes, viz, ; 

For Schools, |4^ of a mill, per chapter 555, Laws of 1864. 

For General Purposes, i^ mills, per chapter 677, Laws 
of 1866. 

For Canals, | of a mill, per chapter 271, Laws of 1859. 

For Canals, ^j of a mill, per chapter 219, Laws of i856. 

For Extension of Chenango Canal, -f^, °f ^ rcSA, per chap- 
ter 649, I^aws of i865. 

For Champlain Canal, -^j of a mill, per chapter 156, 
Laws of 1866. 

For Bounty Debt, 2j mills, per chapter 325, Laws of 

Total, 5y»5mills. 

Your obedient servant, 

Thos. Hii.lhouse, 


P. S. — The non-resident taxes credited to your county for 
1865 amount to $537.76. 

Referred to Finance Committee. 

A communication was received from Mr. Mc- 
Dermott, the removed Clerk of the Board, stating 
that by his removal he had sustained pecuniary 
loss, and he asked the Board for an appropriation 
to indemnify him in some degree for the injury 
sustained by such removal . 1 his elicited a spirited 
debate. The friends of Mr. McDermott insisted 
that his removal was the result of personal and 
political hatred. The communication was referred 
to the Committee on Grievances. 

Buildings for the Insane. 

At a meeting of the Board, November 20, Mr. 
Staats offered the following : 

Resolved, That a committee be appointed from this Board 
to confer with a committee of the Common Council of the 
City of Albany, for the purpose of erecting suitable accomo- 
dations for the insane of the county, and to apply for such 
Legislative aid as maybe necessary to accomplish the above 

l\Ir. Staats, in support of said resolution, said : 
That "not only humanity, but the best interests of the 
county require that suitable buikhngs be erected for the 
insane; that our State institlitions are entirely inadequate 
to contain half the applicants for admission, and that the 
price of admission was exorbitant. We are paying six 
thousand dollars a year to the Utica Asylum, besides having 
over one hundred in our Alms House, without the means of 
proper care and treatment. That a building properly con- 
structed, and a law permitting the taking of boarders from 
other counties, would be a self-sustaining institution." 

The resolution was adopted. 

The City Budget was presented November 21, 
which amounted in all to $496,832. 

Excise. — James A. McKown, in 1858, was ap- 
pointed, upon the recommendation of a committee 
of the Board of Supervisors and his Honor the 
IMayor of the City of Albany, a Special Police Con- 
stable, for the purpose of reporting violations of 
the Excise law, and was also reappointed for the 
same duty in the years 1859, i860, '61, '62, '63 
and '64; and that from 1859 to 1864, inclusive, he 
received the following amount : $1,820.50. And 
he also received from the county for licenses granted, 
for the same time, the amount of $137,028.63. 



At a meeting of the Board, November 28, the 
account of Henry Fitch, Sheriff, was presented, in 
which he claimed $17,131.72, which account was 
allowed at 115,131.72. 

County Budget. — On December 7, 1866, the 
County Budget was presented, which amounted 
to $876,053.28. 

Anti-Rent Difficulties. — During the year 1866, 
the anti-rent difficulties in the county had increas- 
ed to such proportions that the Sheriff was obliged 
to call on the military to aid in serving and en- 
forcing processes. This was attended with con- 
siderable expense to the county, and we give the 
following claims as an interesting item in the his- 
tory of the anti-rent difficulties : 

Claimed. Allowed. 

Leonard & Bradt $1,295 7^ $1.26859 

Edward Scannell l.o5.'5 00 576 00 

Tenth Regiment, N. G. S. N. Y. .. 992 25 992 25 

Company F, 25th Regiment " . . 762 24 762 24 

Company C, " " " . . 626 40 626 40 

Company G, " " " .. 256 92 256 92 

Lord & Thornton 500 02 498 02 

Albany & Susquehanna R. R. Co. . 228 80 228 80 

John Cutler 157 00 150 00 

Augustus Brewster 122 00 80 00 

Walter S. Church 115 00 Disallowed. 

At a meeting of the Board of Supervisors, held 
December 14, 1866, the Treasurers Annual State- 
ment of Receipts of money for the year 1866 was 
presented, which amounted in all to $1,355,794.62. 
He disbursed the sum of $1,355,794.62. He 
also reported a balance on hand December i, 
1866, of $14,658.20. 

Proceedings of the Board of Supervisors of the 
City and County of Albany at the annual meeting, 
held at the City Hall, in the City of Albany, May 
14, 1867. 

The following were the members present : 

First Ward, Robert J. McCormick; Second Ward, Michael 
Delehanty ; Third Ward, Jonathan R. Herrick ; Fourth Ward, 
William Orr; Fifth Ward, Barent P. Staats; Sixth Ward, 
Alexander A. Edmeston; Seventh Ward, Michael Lyman; 
Eighth Ward, Michael D. McGue; Ninth Ward, M. Joseph 
Severance; Tenth Ward, Christopher W. Bender; Bethlehem, 
George C. Adams; Berne, Adams J. Warner; Coeymans, 
John B. Shear; Guilderland, Hiram Griggs; Knox, Peter 
Schoonmaker; New Scotland, Nicholas Uelong; Rensse- 
laerville, George H. Laraway; Westerlo, Charles Bentley; 
Watervliet, Wm. J. Wheeler. 

Chairman, Wm. J. Wheeler. 

Clerk, George V. Thacher. 

County Physician, Dr. Barent P. Staats. 

Doorkeeper, Edward Dooley. 

On May 15 the Board met according to ad- 
journment, and in the usual order of business the 
Chairman announced the standing committees for 
the ensuing year. 

After some immaterial business, the Board ad- 

At a meeting of the Board of Supervisors at the 
City Hall, in the City of Albany, pursuant to ad- 

November 12, 1867, all the members being 
present. After discharging their duties as Count}' 
Canvassers, the Board adjourned. 

On November 19 the Board met according to 

adjournment, at which meeting the City Budget 
was presented, which amounted to $493,202. 

Grand Jurors. — The apportionment of Grand 
Jurors according to the census of i860 was as 
follows : 

First Ward, 24; Second Ward, 13 ; Third Ward, 15 ; Fourth 
Ward, 10; Fifth Ward, 6; Sixth Ward, 9; Seventh Ward, 17; 
Eighth Ward, 21 ; Ninth Ward, 22; Tenth Ward, 28; Bethle- 
hem, 19; Berne, 8; Coeymans, 8; Cohoes, 23; Green Island, 
4; Guilderland, 9; Knox, 5 ; New Scotland, 9; Rensselaerville, 
9; Westerlo, 9; West Troy, 23; Watervliet, 16; total, 300. 


At a meeting of the Board of Supervisors held 
Dec. 5, 1867, Mr. Staats made an attack upon the 
registry law, asserting in an address on the subject 
that the law was very onerous and expensive, and 
did not answer any good or useful purpose. 

On December 6 the County Budget was pre- 
sented, amounting in all to $776,990.21, to which 
was added audited accounts of $1,334. 15. 

COUNTY treasurer's REPORT. 

Stephen Frederick also submitted his annual 
statement of money received and disbursed from 
the first day of January, 1867, to Dec. i, 1867, 
which showed that he had received from all sources 
$886,414.58; that he had paid out during that 
time the sum of $886,414.58. 

The equalization of the value of real estate in 
the County of Albany was fixed by the committee 
of equalization as follows : 

Berne, per acre, $17.50; Bethlehem, per acre, $57.50; 
Coeymans, per acre, $35.50; Guilderland, per acre, $37.50; 
Knox, per acre, $18; New Scotland, per acre, $38; Rens- 
selaer, per acre, $18.50; Westerlo, per acre, $19.50; Water- 
vliet, per acre, $60. 

It was also adopted that in the city of Albany 
the assessed valuation be the equalized valuation. 

After a spirited debate it was resolved that the 
County Treasurer be authorized to borrow $100,000 
upon the credit of the county to pay bonds due 
March i, 1868. 

Percentage of Taxation. — The following was 
reported as the percentage of taxation in the city 
and several towns, which was agreed to : 

City, 3.56; city west of Partridge street, 3.09; city west 
of Allen street, 3.00; Berne, 3.60; Bethlehem, 1.86; Coey- 
mans, 1.84; Guilderland, 2.96; Knox, 3.08; New Scotland, 
2.30; Rensselaerville, 2.18; Westerlo, 2.48; Watervliet, 
1.72; West Troy, 2.04; Cohoes and Green Island, 2.04. 


Annual Session of 1868— May 12, 1868. 

Supervisors present : 

First Ward, William J. Weaver; Second Ward, Lawrence 
Carey; Ihird Ward, John Kelly; Fourth Ward, John C. 
Feltman; Filth Ward, Barent P. Staats; Sixth Ward, 
Alexander A. Edmeston: Seventh Ward, Bernard Kavan- 
augh; Eighth Ward, Henry T. O'Connor; Ninth Ward, 
Edward Whitty; Tenth Ward, Christopher Bender; Berne, 
James A. Reamer; Bethlehem, George C. Adams- Coey- 
mans, John B. Shear; Guilderland, Hiram Griggs; Knox, 
Peter Schoonmaker; New Scotland, Samuel Patton- Rensl 
selaerville, William Magivny; Watervliet, William J. 
Wheeler. William J. Wheeler was elected chairman- 
George V. Thacher, clerk; Dr. Barent P. Staats, county 
physician ; William Doody, doorkeeper. 



On Wednesday, May 13, the Chairman an- 
nounced the standing committees. 


The Chairman presented a communication from 
Hon. Henry Smith, District Attorney, showing the 
lamentable condition of the County Jail. He says : 

" In the main apartment you will find sixty male pris- 
oners, including some children, confined in one common 
room, where those youthful in years, and those who have 
committed their first criminal error, perhaps those who are 
entirely innocent, are exposed to the influences, and often 
to the physical tortures, of the most depraved of men. 

" In another room, of about fifteen by eighteen, you will 
find some twenty-two females of various ages, even to ex- 
treme old age ; some reasonably tidy and others repulsively 
filthy; some apparently well and others suffering from loath- 
some diseases, crowded together in a space where there is 
scarcely room for all to lie down at once. In short, you 
will find a state of things that would shame a semi-civilized 
community, and would not be tolerated by the people of 
this county for one hour if they could for a moment look in 
upon the appalling horrors of that fearful den, kept under 
their authority, for the detention of persons accused of 
crime. This state of affirs, ' ' Mr. Smith continues, "is no 
fault of the Sheriff or Jailer, but results from want of suitable 

Mr. Smith's report of the condition of the jail 
produced the most profound sensation throughout 
the city and county, resulting, as we shall see, in 
an entire change in the management of the jail. A 
special committee was appointed with power to 
expend at least $4,000. 

The following was adopted : 

Resolved, That the Superintendent of the Capital Police 
be and is hereby instructed to notify the several captains 
and sergeants of the Police of the Town of Watervliet to 
convey prisoners under sentence to the Penitentiary, in 
place of leaving them at the County Jail. 

A Special Meeting was held June 16, 1868. 
The principal business under consideration was 
the improvement of the County Jail. The follow- 
ing resolution was adopted : 

Resolved, That the Special Committee, to whom was re- 
ferred the necessity of altering the County Jail, be author- 
ized to receive proposals in accordance with the plans sub- 
mitted to the Board, with the additional story with a wing 
on the east side, as presented by Mr. Edmeston, at an ex- 
pense not exceeding $2,500. 


The Board convened as County Canvassers, 
November 10, 1868, all the Supervisors present. 
After concluding the canvass, the Board adjourned 
until Wednesday, November 11. 

Mr. Edmeston offered the following : 

Resolved, That the County Treasurer be and he is hereby 
authorized to pay to the contractors upon jail improvement 
the sum of $4,000, upon the said contractors presenting 
certificates, signed by the architect and Chairman of the 
Committee on Jail Improvement, stating that such sum is 
actually due them. 

Which was adopted. 

Mr. Reamer offered the following : 

Whereas, The enlargement of the County Jail during the 
summer has been a source of great inconvenience to the 
Jailer, and attended with considerable extra expense, he 
having been obliged to send his family into the country for 
several months ; therefore 

Resolved, That the County Treasurer be authorized to 
pay Albert Gallup extra compensation as Jailer of the 
County of Albany. 

Which was adopted. 

Grand Jurors. — On December 8 Mr. Shear pre- 
sented the following apportionment of Grand 
Jurors in and for the County of Albany: 

City — First Ward, 21; Second Ward, 11; Third Ward, 11; 
Fourth Ward, 10; Fifth Ward, 6; Sixth Ward, 9; Seventh 
Ward, 14; Eighth Ward, 21; Ninth Ward, 21; Tenth Ward, 
30. Towns — Berne, 7; Bethlehem, 16; Coeymans, 10; 
Guilderland, 11; Knox, 6; New Scotland, 9; Rensselacr- 
ville, 9; Westerlo, 8; Cohoes, 15; Green Island, 5; West 
Troy, 24; Watervliet, 16. 

City Budget. — Mr. Bender presented the City 
Budget. This amounted, in gross, to the sum of 
$616,611.37, of which the sum of $82,766,87 was 
the proportionate part of Police expenses appor- 
tioned to the City of Albany for the fiscal year end- 
ing October I, 1869, pursuant to section 45, chapter 
544, laws of 1865. 

Improvements on Jail. — Mr. Edmeston, from 
the Special Committee on the improvements of the 
Jail, presented a report showing, among other 
things, that the total cost of the entire improvements 
on the Jail amounted to $8,142.18. 

Official County Papers. — The Argus and Ex- 
press were, on ballot, designated as the official 
county papers. 

County Budget. — On December n the County 
Budget was presented, which amounted to $585,- 
168.29. O'"^ motion of Mr. Gregg it was 

Resolved, That there be levied and assessed upon the 
taxable property of the County the sum of $660,000, being 
the amount mentioned in the County Budget presented this 
day to the Board, and including the audited accounts of 
this Board. 

The resolution was adopted. 

Death of Supervisor Reamer. — On the as- 
sembling of the Board in the afternoon of Decem- 
ber II, Supervisor Schoonmaker arose and, in 
touching language, announced the death of Super- 
visor Reamer, of Berne. The tribute he paid to his 
memory was as just as it was eloquent and impres- 
sive. He closed by saying: 

" I feel a bereavement which will cast a deep gloom over 
all who are numbered as his acquaintances. A political 
antagonist and a neighbor, never has an event occurred to 
mar the harmony of our intercourse, and no man could have 
been taken from us whose loss all would more deeply 

He then submitted an impressive preamble, fol- 
lowed by equally impressive resolutions, touching 
the exemplary life and useful career of the deceased 
Supervisor. Among the resolutions was one to 
the effect that the Chairman's and Clerk's desks 
and the vacant chair of the deceased be draped in 
mourning. It was also resolved that the Board at- 
tend the funeral in a bod}', and to adjourn until 
Tuesday next at 3:30 p. m. 

Mr. Feltman, in seconding the resolutions, 
which were adopted, paid a well-deserved tribute 
to the memory of the deceased. 

Treasurer's Annual Statement. — On Decem- 
ber 15, 1868, the Board met pursuant to adjourn- 



ment, and Stephen V. Frederick presented his an- 
nual statement of moneys received and disbursed 
from the ist day of December, 1867, to the ist day 
of December, 1868, which amounted in all to 
$857,492.54; disbursements amounted to $857,- 
492.54. His report showed a balance in his hands 
of $1,537-70. 

County Bounty Fund. — 


Balance on hand $3,313 0° 

Proceeds of sale of County Bonds 150,000 00 

Premiums 3,6i8 76 

Transferred from General Fund 213,000 00 

$37o,°3i 76 


Cash paid bonds due March i, ]858 1248,100 00 

Cash paid bonds due March i, 1867 2,200 00 

Six per cent, interest on $29,000 870 00 

Coupons due March i, 1868 58,329 25 

Coupons due September i, 1868 53,744 00 

Coupons due March i, 1867 267 75 

Coupons due September i, 1867 1,603 °° 

Coupons due March i, 1865 105 00 

Coupons due September i, 1865 299 25 

Certificate of bond to Ira Heaphy 552 50 

Certificate of bond to Nelson Van Patten to 

S. Tuttle 587 50 

Interest on $30,000 to Loan Committee 2, 100 00 

Balance 1,273 26 

$37°.o3i 76 

Excise. — The whole number of licenses granted 
in the County for the year 1868 was 640. 

The County was divided this 3"ear into three 
licensed districts, each placed in charge of one excise 
commissioner. Mr. S. F. Powell was one; Mr. E. 
Newcomb was the second; Mr. Gonsalus was the 

The whole number of licenses granted in Mr. 
Powell's district was 161, at $30 each, making 

The whole number issued in Mr. Newcomb's dis- 
trict was 159 ; 157 of which were at $30 each, one 
at $150, and one at $75. 

The whole number in Mr. Gonsalus' district, 
was 140, as follows : 

West Troy, 55 ; Cohoes, 33 ; Green Island 6 ; 
Watervliet, 16 ; Seventh Ward, 30 ; total, 
140, at $30 each, amounting to $4,200 00 

Paid county treasurer 3,55° 00 

Balance on hand $650 00 

Sum total of Mr. Powell's district $4,830 00 

" " " " Newcomb's district 4,935 00 

" " " " Gonsalus' district 4,20000 

Total $13,965 00 

Total amount paid to county treas- 
urer by Mr. Powell $3, 500 00 

Total amount paid to county treas- 
urer by Mr. Newcomb 4, 105 00 

Total amount paid to county treas- 

lu-er by Mr. Gonsalus 3,55° 0° 

$11,155 00 

Total S2,8io 00 

Ttie excise question this year, and for several 
years previous, was a matter of great embarrass- 
ment and expense to the county. A large number 
of suits for the violation of excise laws had been 
commenced. Numerous judgments had been 
obtained without any return to the county, and at 
a very heav}- expense to the taxpayers. This sub- 
ject occupied much of the time of this session. 
Finally on Jan. 6, 1869, on motion of Mr. Weaver, 
the Board resolved to settle all judgments now on 
file for violation of the then present excise law for 
the sum of twenty-five cents on the dollar upon all 
sums represented by such judgment and costs, pro- 
vided the amount was paid to Geo. V. Thacher, 
the present Clerk of the Board, on or before the 
first day of April, 1869. 

Mr. Staats introduced a resolution denouncing 
the excise law, and moved that the committee on 
application to the Legislature be requested to pre- 
pare a law which will invest the whole power of 
excise in the Police Commissioners so far as the 
police districts exist in this county, and that where 
they do not exist the supervisors of the several 
towns shall grant licenses for the sale of malt and 
alcoholic liquors. This resolution was adopted. 

]\lr. Weaver moved that the following be added 
to the resolution relative to judgments obtamed by 
the Excise Commissioners : 

Resolved, That if it be found that any of the parties 
against whom these judgments are held are in such cir- 
cumstances that they are utterly unable to pay the same, 
that such non-payments be, upon the recommendation of 
the supervisor of the ward or town in which such parties 
reside, canceled for the sum of one dollar. 


When it is known that each of the defendants in 
those judgments could, on executions issued 
upon them, have been arrested and imprisoned for 
non-payment, the lenity of the Board in regard to 
them will be fully appreciated. After some other 
business the board adjourned sine die. 

Proceedings of the Annual Spring Session of the 
Board of Supervisors of the City and County of 
Albany, held in the City Hall, in the City of Albany, 
May II, 1869. 

Members present : 

First Ward, Wm. J. Weaver; Second Ward, Lawrence 
Csrey; Third Ward. Aaron B.Pratt; Fourth Ward, John C. 
Feltman; Fifth Ward, Wm. Haskell ; Sixth Ward, Alexander 
A. Edmeston; Seventh Ward, John Fitzgerald ; Eighth Ward, 
James D. Walsh; Ninth Ward, Christian Schurr; Tenth 
Ward, Dr. GallcE; Berne, Alfred Hungerford; Bethlehem, 
George C. Adams; Coeymans, JohnB. Shear; Guilderland, 
Hiram Griggs; Knox, Peter Schoonmaker; New Scotland, 
Nicholas B. Houck; Rensselaerville, William ilagivny; 
Watervliet, Wm. J. Wheeler; Westerlo, Julius Thayer. 

Chairman, Wm. J. Wheeler. 

Clerk, Charles J. Pease. 

County Physician, Milton M. Lamb. 

Doorkeeper, Anthony Daug. 

The Board met according to adjournment on 
May 13, 1869. The minutes of the last meeting 
read and approved. 

The Chairman then announced the Standing 
CojiiiiTTEES for the ensuing year. 

After conducting some business, the Board ad- 
journed till the 




On November 9, 1869, the Board convened ac- 
cording to adjournment; all the Supervisors present. 
In the absence of Mr. Wheeler, Mr. Shear was 
chosen Chairman /ro leni. 

After discharging the duties of County Canvass- 
ers, the Board adjourned. 

At the meeting held November 10, an interesting 
statement in regard to taxes in the County was pre- 

Mr. Weaver presented this statement to the 
Board, in the following manner : 


We here find that the assessed value of real and personal 
estate for the City of Albany has increased from 1 860 to 
1868 §1,118,426, being an increase of four and one-half per 
cent. ; while the equahzed value in the same period has in- 
creased $3,158,461, being an increase of thirteen and one- 
sixteenth per cent. 

Now, while the assessed value of the City of Albany has 
increased four and one-quarter per cent., the assessed value 
of all the towns combined has increased eighteen and one- 
sixth per cent., and while the equalized value for the City of 
Albany has increased thirteen and one-sixteenth per cent, 
the increase in all the other towns combined is but nine and 
one-half per cent. 

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In the above table nearly $1,000,000 of the in- 
creased assessed value in the town of Watervliet is 
credited to the year 1868. 

City Budget — For the year i5 
all to 1601,188.29. 

amounted in 

The salary of the County Phj'sician was fixed 
by resolution at the sum of $500 per annum. 

County Budget. — The county budget for the 
3'ear 1869 amounted in all to 1583,517.98. 

County Treasurer. — Mr. Theyer presented the 
bond of County Treasurer-elect Alexander Kennedy, 
Esq. It was signed by Jonathan R. Henrick, 
Jas. A. McDonald and Philip O'Brien. It was in 
the penalty of $100,000. 

The supervisor of the town of Coe}'mans was 
authorized to borrow on the credit of the town the 
sum of $2,000 to pay damages and expenses in 
rebuilding and repairing bridges and roads damaged 
by a flood in the said town. 

Excise. — The Commissioners of Excise, Messrs. 
E. Newcomb, J. Rejaiolds and G. W. Gonsalus, 
reported the following as the whole number of 
licenses and amounts of money received for the 
same for the year 1869 : 

Whole number granted at $30 410 

" 10 27 

■' 75 I 

" 150 I 

Total number in the county 448 

As follows: 419 at $30 $12,570 00 

27" 1° 27000 

I " 75 75 00 

I " 150 15000 

Total receipts $13,065 00 

Paid county treasurer 11, 163 00 

County Treasurer's Statement. — The County 
Treasurer transmitted his annual statement of 
money received and disbursed from the first day of 
December, 1868, to the first day of December, 
1869, showing a balance on hand : 

Receipts from all sources $818,158 54 


Resolution $305 89 

Audit accounts 130,640 1 1 

Total with remainder of 

disbursements $818,158 54 

Stephen V. Frederick, County Treasurer, in ac- 
count with County of Albany : 

1868. Dr. 

Dec. I, to balance on hand $1,273 26 

March I, to net proceeds from sale of Albany 

County bonds 253,761 55 

Transferred from general account 205,000 00 

$460,034 81 

December, to balance $1,130 56 

1869. Cr. 

Paid bonds due March, 1869 $348,000 00 

" " " ". 1868 70000 

" interest on $29,000 (6 per cent.) 87000 

" coupons of 1867, 1868, 1869 109,33425 

By balance i, 130 56 

$460,034 81 

Proceedings of the Board of Supervisors of 
Albany city and count)' at the annual meeting held 



at the City Hall in the City of Albany, May lo, 
The members present were : 

First Ward, Wolfgang Meyer ; Second Ward, Frederick 
Schifferdecker ; Third Ward, Wm. J. Weaver ; Fourth 
Ward, George P. Lynd ; Fifth Ward, Thomas H. Craven ; 
Sixth Ward, John C. Feltman ; Seventh Ward, Abraham 
B. Garfield ; Eighth Ward, Henry R. Haskins; Ninth Ward, 
James Bartley ; Tenth Ward, Thomas Kanary; Eleventh 
Ward, John R. Stewart; Twelfth Ward, John McKenna; 
Thirteenth Ward, PhilipFrederick; Fourteenth Ward, M. H. 
Kenneally; Fifteenth Ward, David W. Seeley; Sixteenth 
Ward, George B. Hoyt. 


First Ward, Joseph Coleman ; Second Ward, W. Taylor 
Dodge; Third Ward, John Scully ; Fourth Ward, Solomon 


Berne, Alfred Hungerford ; Bethlehem, George C. 
Adams ; Coeymans, John B. Shear ; Guilderland, lliram 
Griggs; Knox, Peter Schoonmaker ; New Scotland, Alonzo 
B. Voorhees; RensselaervUle, Wm. Magivny; Watervliet, 
Wm. J. Wheeler; Westerlo, Orson L. Hannay. Chairman, 
Wm. J. Weaver; Clerk, Charles J. Pease; County Physician, 
Milton M. Lamb; Doorkeeper, Daniel McClary. 

After the transaction of some unimportant busi- 
ness the Board adjourned. 

A special meeting of the Board took place in the 
Common Council Chamber, at which all the mem- 
bers were present. Ihis meeting was called for 
the purpose of hearing a report from the special 
committee appointed to take charge of the altera- 
tion of the Supervisors' room. A somewhat heated 
discussion arose, after which the report was read, 
showing that the work had been let to Messrs. 
Norman and Treadwell, architects, of Albany, who 
made plans and specifications for the work which 
had been adopted. 

They advertised in the county papers for pro- 
posals for the work as follows : 

For carpenter work. 

For carpenter and mason work. 

For carpenter, mason work and painting. 

For mason work. 

For painting. 

The committee had awarded the work as fol- 
lows : 

Carpenter work to George Martin, Troy, for $963 43 

Mason work to Alex. Shanelley for 70 00 

Painting to Wm . Griffin 184 00 

Total 51,217 42 

The committee sold the old furniture and 
carpets at auction for $79, less $7.90 expenses. 

Fall Session. — The Board convened November 
5, 1870. A full Board present, except Supervisor- 

Ax Interesting Question touching Excise. — 
at a previous meeting of the Board, a resolution 
was adopted denying the Commissioners of Excise 
the right to employ counsel to prosecute suits for 
them and conferring the right to employ counsel 
for them upon the Law Committee of the Super- 
visors. The Commissioners denied the right of the 
supervisors to interfere in the matter. Litigation 

ensued and the case finally terminated in the Court 
of Appeals, which court decided that the Commis- 
sioners of Excise had the power to employ counsel 
to prosecute such claims as they decided were 
proper to prosecute for any violation of the excise 
law. On Nov. 21, 1870, the report of the Com- 
mittee on Equalization was presented. It is an 
interesting and instructive report, too long, how- 
ever, to be inserted in this work; but the reader is 
referred to pages 37-38 of the journal of the Board 
of Supervisors for 1870 for the tabulated report, 
and to pages 39, 40, 41, 42, 43. 44, 45 for the pro- 
ceedings of the Supervisors, and the opinion of the 
Attorney General in relation to the said report. 

On November 28, Joseph C. Y. Paige, City 
Chamberlain, made a report to the Supervisors of 
the county, pursuant to chapter 77, section 43, 
laws of 1870, that according to his estimate it 
would require for the expenses of the District 
Attorney's office for the ensuing year ending Oct. 
31, 1871, the sum of $3,000 for the following pur- 
poses, viz. : 

Salaries of two special officials at Si, 200 $2,400 00 

Traveling and other necessary expenses 600 00 

Total $3,000 00 

Grand Jurors. — On December i, 1870, Mr. 
Adams, from the committee appointed to appor- 
tion the Grand Jurors for the County of Albany, 
reported as follows : 

First Ward, 8; Second Ward, 8; Third Ward, 9; Fourth 
Ward, 13; Fifth Ward, 10; Sixth Ward, 14; Seventh Ward, 6 ; 
Eighth Ward, 10; Ninth Ward, 8; Tenth Ward, 6; Eleventh 
Ward, 13 ; Twelfth Ward, 9 ; Thirteenth Ward, II; Four- 
teenth Ward, 9; Fifteenth Ward, 11 ; Sixteenth Ward, 11. 

-Berne, 7; Bethlehem, 15; Coeymans, 10; Knox, 6; 
New Scotland, 9 ; Rensselaerville, 9 ; Guilderland, 1 1 ; 
Westerlo, 8 ; Cohoes, First Ward, 7 ; Cohoes, Second 
Ward, 5; Cohoes, Third Ward, 8; Cohoes, Fourth Ward, 5; 
Green Island, 5 ; West Troy, 24 ; Watervliet, 15. 

City Budget. — On December 5 the City 
Budget was presented to the Board, which 
amounted in all to $675,573, $195,730 of which 
was for the support of Public Schools, pursuant to 
chapter 444, laws of 1866. 

County Treasurer. — On December 7 Alexan- 
ander Kennedy, County Treasurer, transmitted his 
annual statement of money received and disbursed 
from January i, 1870, to December i, 1870. 

The receipts amounted to $891,000 67 

The disbursements were 891,000 67 

equalization of assessments, county- of alban-y', 

ANNUAL session OF 187I. 

The Board convened pursuant to statute, at the 
City Hall in the City of Albany, Tuesdav, May 
9, 1871. Supervisors present: 


First Ward, Peter Halpen ; Second Ward, Frederick 
SchifTerdecker ; Third Ward, William J. Weaver ; Fourth 
Ward, Richard Bortle ; Fiftli Ward, Thomas H. Craven ; 
Sixth Ward, John C. Feltman ; Seventh Ward, Ira Porter ; 
Eighth Ward, Henry R. Haskins ; Ninth Ward, Andrew 



Kean; Tenth Ward, Andrew R. Hunter; Eleventh Ward, 
John McHafEe; Twelfth Ward, John McKenna; Thirteenth 
Ward, Edmund J. Lord ; Feurteenth Ward, Michael H. 
Kenneally; Fifteenlh Ward, Jacob H. Ten Eyck; Sixteenth 
Ward, Patrick H. Daly. 

First Ward, Joseph Coleman ; Second Ward, W. Taylor 
Dodge ; Third Ward, John Scully ; Fourth Ward, Solomon 

Berne, William Zeh; Bethlehem, Albertus W. Becker; 
Coeymans, John B. Shear; Guilderland, Hiram Griggs; 
Knox, Peter Schoonmaker; New Scotland, Robert Taylor; 
Rensselaerville, Walter R. Tanner; Watervliet, Emmet 
Flagler; Westerlo, Warren Rosenkrans. 

The following were the officers chosen for the 
year 1871 : 

President, William J. Wlieeler; Clerk, Charles L. Pease; 
County Physician, Dr. Milton M. Lamb; Doorkeeper, Ed- 
ward J. Flanagan. 

Standing Committees. — On May 10, 1871, 
the President announced the Standing Com- 

Fall Session. — The Board met according to 
adjournment, November 14, 1871, all members 
being present. After attending to the duties re- 
quired of them as a Board of Canvassers, they ad- 

County Judge's Salary. — On November 21, 
1 87 1, a communication was presented to the Board 
of Supervisors, signed by Hon. Hamilton Harris, 
Hon. Wm. L. Learned, Hon. Amasa J. Parker, 
Hon. Lyman Tremain, Hon. Samuel Hand, War- 
ren S. Kelley, Esq., Simeon W. Rosendale, Esq., 
M. Frothingham, Esq., N. Swartz, Esq., and 
nearly every member of the profession in the city, 
setting forth that the duties of the County Judge 
would thereafter be very largely increased, in con- 
sequence of the enlarged jurisdiction given to the 
County Courts by the late amendments of the Con- 
stitution of the State, and that a salary of $5,000 
per year would be no more than an adequate com- 
pensation for the performance of the duties of 
County Judge ; and, therefore, as a matter of 
justice to the occupant of the office as for the 
dignity of the position, they respectfully ask the 
Board to fix the future salary of that office at a 
sum not less than $5,000. In accordance with 
this communication a resolution was adopted 
fixing the salary of County Judge on and after 
the ist day of January then ne.xt at $5,000, in 
quarterly payments. 

The County Treasurer transmitted his annual 
statement of moneys received and disbursed from 
the 1st of December, 1870, to the ist of Decem- 
ber, ibi7i, showing a balance on hand. 

The whole amount of such receipts amounted 
to the sum of $1,164,420.11; the disbursements 
amounted that year to $1,164,420.11. 

Equalized valuation of the City and County of 
Albany : 

President Weaver, from the Committee on Equal- 
ization of Ta.xes, made the following report, which 
was adopted : 


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annual spring session, 1872. 

Proceedings of the Board of Supervisors of the 
City and County of Albany, held at the City Hall, 
in the City of Albany, May 14, 1872. Members 


First Ward, Charles A. Dennison; Second Ward, Peter 
Hal pen; Third Ward, Moses Wliite; Fourth Ward, Thomas 
H. Craven; Fifth Ward, Francis N. Sill; Sixth Ward, 
Horatio P. Prime; Seventh Ward, Marshall Tebbutt; 
Eighth Ward, John Daly; Ninth Ward, James McMurray; 
Tenth Ward, Leopold C. G. Kshinka; Eleventh Ward, 
John McHaflie; Twelith Ward, William Hutchinson; Thir- 
teenth Ward, Edmund J. Lord; Fourteenth Ward, Jacob 
H. Ten Eyck; Fifteenth Ward, George B. Hoyt; Sixteenth 
Ward, Robert S. Dumont. 

First Ward, Michael Sherlock; Second Ward, W. Taylor 
Dodge; Third Ward, James McGuirk; Fourth Ward, 
William Nelligan. 


Berne, William Zeh; Bethlehem, Albertus W. Becker; 
Coeymans, Cornelius Van Derzee; Guilderland, Hiram 
Griggs; Knox, Peter Schoonmaker; New Scotland, Robert 
Taylor; Rensselaerville, William R. Tanner; Watervliet, 
Emmet Flagler; Westerlo, Orson L. Hannay. 

Mr. Flagler offered the follo\ving resolution : 

Resolved, That the following-named persons be and are 
hereby appomted permanent officers of the Board of Super- 
visors of Albany County for the ensuing year: 

President, Hiram Griggs; Clerk, William Anderson; 
County Physician, James F. McKown; Doorkeeper, Richard 
B. Hagadorn. 

At a meeting of the Board May 15, 1872, the 
Chairman announced the standing committees. 



At a meeting of the Board December 7, 1872, 
the Chairman from the Committee on Equaliza- 
tion reported as follows : 



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H. Griggs, Geo. B. Hoyt, Jno. McHaffie, W. 
T. Dodge, H. A. Prince, A. W. Becker, O. L. 
Hannay, Wm. R. Tanner, L. C. G. Kshinka, 
Peter Halpin, Committee. 

Report adopted. 

The City Budget was also presented at this 

Mr. Schoonniaker, Chairman of the Finance 
Committee, moved that $200,000 of the war debt 
of the County be funded, which motion was 

Coi XTY Budget. — A motion was presented order- 
ing that the sum of $771,626.31 be levied and 
assessed on the taxable property of the Count}- of 
Albany, to be applied for various purposes, among 
which were the following : 

State and school tax $452,323 39 

Support of Alms house 15,000 co 

Support of Patients in State Lunatic Asylum. . 25,000 00 

Supervisors and officers 13,000 00 

Pnncipal due on County bonds 174,000 00 

Audited accounts iio.oco 00 

Contingents 15,000 00 

Making with other items $971,626 39 

Less the sum of $200,000 ordered funded by the 

The ratio of taxation for State and County pur- 
poses was fixed by the Board at $1.54. The ratio 
of taxation in the City of Albany, City of Cohoes, 
and the several towns was fixed as follows : 

City of Albany, $4.10; City of Cohoes, $1.72; Berne, 
$3.06; Bethlehem, $1.70; Coeymans, $1.80; Gilderland, 
S2.88; Knox, $2.00; New Scotland, $1-64; Rensselaerville, 
$3.00; Westerlo, $2.40; Watervliet, S2.24. 

The great looseness in the form of accounts for 
legal services which had been presented to the 
Board, and also in the manner ot their verification, 
led to the following by Mr. Kshinka : 

Resolved, That no accounts for legal services rendered in 
any proceedings before any Justice of the Peace or Police 
Justice, shall be audited by the Board of Supervisors of 
Albany County, unless certified by the Justice before whom 
such proceedings shall be had that such services were ac- 
tually necessary and rendered at his request, and all such 
accounts shall be accompanied by a statement showing the 
re?ult of the proceedings in each case; which resolution was 

The salary of the District Attorney was fixed and 
established at $4, 500 per annum, commencing on 
the 1st of January, 1872. 

Mr. Schoonmaker, from the Finance Committee, 
reported the following : 

Resolved, That there be levied upon the taxable property 
of Albany the sum of $867,562.15 for the following pur- 

City Budget $631,441 57 

Police Department 1 16,500 00 

Park Commissioners 61,864 56 

Citycharges 11,79429 

Unpaid Taxes due the County 45,961 73 

Total $867,562 15 

The Board adjourned December 19. 


The board met at their rooms in the City Hall, 
Tuesday, May 13, 1873. 
Supervisors present: 


First Ward, Charles A. Dennison; Second Ward, John 
Lyons; Third Ward, Moses White; Fourth Ward, James 
Macfarlane; Fifth Ward, Alexander H. Wands; Sixth 
Ward, Horatio P. Prime; Seventh Ward, Marshall Tebbutt; 
Eighth Ward, John Daly; Ninth Ward, James Condon; 
Tenth Ward, Leopold C. G. Kshinka; Eleventh Ward, John 
McHaffie; Twelfth Ward, Wm. E. Murphy; Thirteenth 
Ward, Edmund J, Lord; Fourteenth Ward. Jacob H. Ten 
Eyck; Fifteenth Ward, Charles L. Pease; Sixteenth Ward, 
Warren S. I^ow. 


First Ward, Silas Owen ; Second Ward, George E. 
Simmons; Third Ward, James McGuirk; Fourth Ward, Cor- 
nelius Vandercook. 


Berne, William Zeh; Bethlehem, Albertus W. Becker; 
Coeymans, Cornelius Vanderzee; Guilderland, Hiram 
Griggs; Knox, Tunis Slingerland; New Scotland, Horace 
T. Dcvereux, Watervliet, Jesse C. Dayton; Westerlo, 
Orison L. Hannay. Chairman, Hiram Griggs; Clerk, 
Michael J. Powers; County Physician, Dr. J. F. McKown. 

This session of the Board of Supervisors in its 
organization and appointments resembled the 
Assembly in many respects. 



Among the matters of resemblance, two pages 
were on motion appointed, and their appointment 
was given to the Chairman, and seats were drawn. 
Spectators were impressed with the dignity, abiUty 
and courtesy which characterized the proceedings 
of the Board. It was indeed in all respects what 
the Legislature of the capital county of the State 
ought to be. 

After the usual routine of business the Board 

Special Session. — August 20, 1873, 'he Board 
met in special session. On the 26th of August the 
Supervisors met the State Board of Assessors at 
Albany. This meeting was the only business trans- 
acted at this session, and that was ot little impor- 

Fall Session. — The Board met November 11, 
1873; all the members present. After concluding 
their business as canvasseis they adjourned till 
November 12, and proceeded with the regular 
order of business, presentation of petitions, of 
accounts, reports of standing committees and mis- 
cellaneous business. 

A communication was read from N. K. Hopkins, 
Comptroller of the State, stating that the Board of 
Equalization of Taxes, in pursuance of chapter 312 
of the laws of 1859, had fixed the aggregate 
valuation of property in Albany County at the 
sum of !i;49,63i,oo6, upon which a State tax 
of $344,935.49 had to be levied for the then 
current fiscal year beginning October i, 1S73, 
being ()^\ mills on the dollar, for the following 
purposes : 


For schools i|^ 

For general purposes i^ 

For bounty debt 2 

For new Capitol i J 

For asylums and reformatories y^ 
For canal floating debt under 

chap. 171, laws 1859 -J 

For new work on canals and 

extra repairs \ 

For payment of awards by 
Canal Appraisers and Canal 
Commissioners, pay certifi- 
cates of indebtedness and 
deficiency in sinking fund... .jL 
F'or academics and union 
schools ^-jr 


Laws of 













The following interesting report shows the 
amount which had been contributed from criminals 
by way of fines and penalties to the treasury of the 
Count}' during the year 1873 : 

From Court of Oyer and Terminer and Court of 

County Sessions $575 00 

Amount due County Treasurer last report 55 °° 

By amount paid County Treasurer S630 00 

From Court Special Sessions $1,514 28 

Amount due City Chamberlain last report 182 00 

$i,6g6 28 
IJy amount paid City Chamberlain 1,633 28 

By amount due " " $63 00 


The County Treasurer's report from January i 
to November 29, 1873, inclusive, shows that the 
receipts to that time were |i, 21 1,922.53; the dis- 
bursements were $1,211,922.53. The amount on 
hand as per report was $52,500. 

Printing Accounts. — Among the accounts for 
printing was the Times printing account, which 
was allowed and audited at $1,648.25. The 
amount paid the Argus Company for printing was 
allowed at $3,868.04. 

Henly & Co. were also allowed the sum of 
$1,690.36 for printing; the h\\yi.x\y Knickerbocker, 
$789-75; Albany Evening Post, $627.75; Albany 
Counly Democrat, $209.25; Albany Publishing 
Compan}', $861.75; William Bean, $320; making 
a sum total of $9,955. 14. 

War Loan Bonds. — As there was to fall due on 
the istofMarch, 1874, the sum of 8183,000 of War 
Loan Bonds of the County, the payment of which 
would largely increase the rate of taxation, already 
excessively large, it was proposed that the Finance 
Committee borrow, on the credit of the County, 
that sum and issue Count}' bonds therefor, with 
interest payable semi-annually, and the principal 
in three annual installments, payable March i, 
1881, 1882 and 1883. That such bonds be issued 
in the sums of $100, $500 and $1,000 each. 

Coroners. — The amount of Coroners' and Phy- 
sicians' fees for holding /o^/ mortem examinations 
from December 31, 1868, to December 31, 1873, 
inclusive, amounted to the sum of $13,742. As 
these bills were yearly in the increase, many of the 
members of the Board pronounced the charges ex- 
orbitant, and therefore proposed to make the office 
of the Coroner of Albany County a salaried office, 
giving the Board of Supervisors power to determine 
the amount. 

The assessment roll of the city this year showed 
a total value of real estate to be $29,417,870; per- 
sonal, $4,970,457.50; total, $34,388,327.50. 

The assessment roll of the City of Cohoes for 
the year showed a total valuation of real estate to 
be $3,084,208; personal, $378,400; total, $3,462,- 

The assessment rolls of the towns in the County 
of Albany showed a total valuation of real estate to 
be $11,610,523; personal, $1, 158,899. 17; making 
a grand total of $12,769,422. 17. 

Grand totals of Albany, Cohoes, and the towns 
in the county, $50,610,357.67. 

Homeopathic Hospital. — The sum of $1,000 
was ordered to be paid by the County Treasurer 
toward the Homeopathic Hospital. 









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City Budget. — The amount levied upon the tax- 
able property of the City of Albany this year was 
$201,444. 1 1 ; as follows : 

Police Department $116,500 00 

Park Commissioners 35.43' 0° 

City charges 15.013 0° 

Unpaid taxes due county 34.5°° 1 1 

Total $201,444 II 

There was levied on the taxable property of the 
county this year the sum of $955,162.49, less 
$150,000, ordered funded by the Board, the same 
to be applied to the salaries of officers, etc. The 
largest item in the making of this account is the 
State and school tax, which amounted to $344,- 

Publishing the Audits. — The Sunday Press, 
the Cohoes N'ews, and Times and Pos/, were desig- 
nated as papers to print the count}- audits. 

New County Buildings. — On December 10, 
1873, Hon. Amasa J. Parker and Hon. Henry 
Smith addressed the Board concerning the erection 
of a new county building. Among other things, 
Judge Parker recommended that the lot fronting 
on Maiden lane, between the City Hall and jail, 
be obtained for the purpose of erecting thereon a 
suitable county building, so that prisoners could 
be conducted immediatelj' from the jail to the 
court-room without danger of escape, and with no 
undue exposure. It would seem that the conve- 

nient causeway between the jail and the New City 
Hall was the result of Judge Parker's suggestion, 
referred to in his address. 

The County Treasurer's report for the year 1873 
shows that his receipts amounted to $1,211,922.53; 
the disbursements amounted to $r, 21 1,922.53; the 
balance on hand was $52,500. 

Town Audits. — The town audits for this year 
were as follows : 

Berne $3,618 87 

Bethlehem 2,933 ^5 

Coeymans '.954 ^9 

Guilderland 2,024 68 

Knox 762 II 

New Scotland 1,050 5 1 

Rensselaerville 4.368 22 

Westerlo 1,423 91 

Watervliet 46,875 85 

Election accounts and town elections : 
Cohoes City, election accounts arising in the sev- 
eral wards at the general election of 1873. . . $688.89 
Albany City 362,007.51 


The Annual Spring Session of the Board of Su- 
pervisors for this year commenced on Tuesday, 
May 12. Supervisors present : 

First Ward, Augustus Whitman; Second Ward, Peter 
Lasch; Third Ward, John H. Finn; Fourth Ward, James 
Macfarlane; Fifth Ward, James Allanson; Sixth Ward, 
Horatio P. Prime; Seventh Ward, Worthington Poland; 
Eighth Ward, John Daly; Ninth Ward, John Kirkpatrick; 
Tenth Ward, George Messer; Eleventh Ward, Edward 
Kays; Twelfth Ward, John H. Grogan; Thirteenth Ward, 
Charles H. Smith; Fourteenth Ward, Jacob H. Ten Eyck; 
Fifteenth Ward, Charles L. Pease ; Sixteenth Ward, War- 
ren S. Low, Jr. 


First Ward, Thomas O'Dea; Second Ward, George E. 
Simmons; Third Ward, James Quirk; Fourth Ward, Mau- 
rice Fitzgerald. 


Berne, George H. Reinhart; Bethlehem, Albertus W. 
Becker; Coeymans, Nelson Schermerhorn ; Knox, Hiram 
Gage; Guilderland, Hiram Griggs; New Scotland, Henry 
H. Meed; Rensselaerville, Horace T. Devereux; Westerlo, 
Daniel M. Wooster; Watervliet, Jesse C. Dayton. 

The following officers were elected : 

President, Jesse C. Dayton ; Clerk, Michael J. Powers ; 
County Physician, Dr. D. V. O'Leary; Doorkeeper, James 

At a meeting held May 14 the President an- 
nounced the Standing Committees. 

The Albany Argus and Express were appointed 
to be the county papers for the ensuing year. 

Drawing of Jurors. — It was 

Resolved, That a wheel-box, similar to those usually used 
in drafts for military purposes, be procured, to be used by 
the County Clerk, Judge and Sheriff in the drawing ot 
Grand and Petit Jurors; that these officers superintend such 
drawing ; that any member of this Board may at any time 
visit said box and see that all the names are placed therein. 

Fall Session. — The Board convened on No- 
vember 10, 1874, all the members being present. 
After discharging their duties as County Canvassers 
the Board adjourned. 

The County Buildings. — The committee to 
whom the subject of erecting County Buildings was 



committed submitted a very able and elaborate re- 
port. They reported a building providing accom- 
modation for all the County officers of the Tenth 
regiment, a County Court-room much larger than 
the present one, and a smaller Court-room which 
might be used when, as frequently occurs, several 
Courts are in session at the same time. If the 
building was entirely fireproof it would cost 
$164,000; if only basement and first floor fireproof, 

To this the cost of property to be purchased of 
private parties had to be added. The site was 
between the City Hall and the County Jail, running 
through from Pine street to Maiden lane, and was 
owned in part by the City of Albany, the County 
of Albany and private parties. 

Assessed Value of Property. — The assessed 
value of real estate in this county for the year T869 
was $35,345,497. The State Board of Equaliza- 
tion placed the equalized valuation at $40,000,000, 
being $4,654,503 above the assessed value. 

The assessed value of real estate for the year 

1873 was $44, 188,85 1 

Wliile theequahzed was placed at 43,161,203 

Being less than the assessed $1,027,648 

Thus it will be seen that in 1870 the county was 

equalized above assessed $4,654,503 

While in 1873 the equalized was less than 1,027,648 

Making a sum of $5,682,151 

The Chairman presented a communication, 
showing the number of days which had been oc- 
cupied by the different Courts in the city during 
the 3'ear : 

Special Term, 16 days; General Term, 5 1 ; Circuit and 
Court of Oyer and Terminer, 102; County Court and Court 
of Sessions, 95 ; Special Session Supreme Court, 54— mak- 
iug in all 318 days. 

City Budget — Amounted this year to the sum of 

The amount of uncollected personal tax was 

Unlicensed Physicians. — The following was 
adopted : 

Resolved, That hereafter this Board will not allow any 
physician's claim unless he be a member of a county medical 
society, or has received a license to practice his profession 
from some medical college or board of censors. 

The annual account ofN. D. Wendell, Treasurer 
of the Count}', shows receipts from all sources 
amounted this year to $1,250,840.19. Disburse- 
ments were $1,250,840. 19. The balance on hand 
was $57,000.00. 

Albany Police Force. — The sum of $114,000 
was designated as the sum required to defray the 
expenses of the Police force of the City of Albany 
for the year ending November 30, 1875, pursuant 
to the provision of Sec. 37, Chap. ']'] of the Laws 
of 1870. 

The Special Committee appointed to make the 
apportionment of Grand Jurors for the different 
cities and towns reported as follows : 


First Ward, 8; Second Ward, 10; Third Ward, 10; Fourth 
Ward, 14; Fifth Ward, 10; Sixth Ward, 11; Seventh Ward, 
7; Eighth Ward, 13; Ninth Ward, 9; Tenth Ward, 11; 
Eleventh Ward, 13; Twelfth Ward, 10; Thirteenth Ward, 
II; Fourteenth Ward, n ; Fifteenth Ward, 10; Sixteenth 
Ward, II. 

1 OWNS. 

Bethlehem, 11; New Scotland 8; Guilderland, 10; Coey- 
mans, 9; Berne, 6; Rensselaer, 7; Westerlo, 6; Knox, 5. 


First Ward, 9; Second Ward, 8; Third Ward, 9; Fourth 
Ward, 5; Green Island, 5; West Troy, 21; Watervliet, 12. 

City of Albany, for 1875. 

Value of real property $30,386,889 00 

" personal property 4,284,050 00 

Total $34,670,939 00 

City of Cohoes. 

Value of real property $3,182,06900 

" personal property 425,909 00 

Total $3,607,968 00 


Value of real property $ 1 1 , 734, 1 74 60 

" personal property 1,128,038 60 

Total $12,862,212 20 

Grand total of real and personal property. $5 1, 140, 110 20 ' 


A Tabular Statement of Principal and Interest coming due 
yearly from i8j ^ to i88 b, inclusive. Principal pay- 
able March i. Interest payabte sevii-annually on the 
first days of March and September. 







$174,900 00 
71,600 00 

$71,600 00 

,<;i26,ooo 00 
70,000 00 

$70,000 00 

$246,500 00 

$196,000 00 







$150,000 00 
6i,200 00 

$61,200 00 

$250,000 00 
50,700 00 

$50,700 00 

$211,200 00 

$300,700 00 







$87,000 00 
33,000 00 

$33,000 00 

$87,000 00 
27,000 00 

$27,000 00 

$120,000 00 

$114,000 00 

* Leaving $1,000,000 outstanding after thobe due in 1875 are paid. 








550,000 00 
17,500 00 


$50,000 00 
21,000 00 

$21,000 00 

$17,500 00 

$71,000 00 

$67,500 00 







$50,000 00 
14,000 00 

$14,000 00 

$50,000 00 
10,500 00 

$10,500 00 

$64,000 00 

$60,500 00 







$50,000 00 
7,000 00 

$7,000 00 

$50,000 00 
3,500 00 

$3,500 00 

$57,000 00 

$53,500 00 



The Board met at their rooms in the City Hall, 
Tuesday, May 11, 1875. Supervisors present: 

First Ward, Charles Kirchner; Second Ward, Peter 
Lasch; Third Ward, Samuel J. Mee; Fourth Ward, James 
Macfarlane; Fifth Ward, Peter Kennear; Sixth Ward, E. C. 
Koonze; Seventh Ward, H. R. Haskins; Eighth Ward, 
William Dwyer; Ninth Ward, John Kirkpatrick; Tenth 
Ward, James Rooney; Eleventh Ward, Edward Kays; 
Twelfth Ward, William J. Carroll, Charles Gaus; Thirteenth 
Ward, Charles H. Gaus; Fourteenth Ward, WiUiam H. 
Haskell ; Fifteenth Ward, Charles L. Pease; Sixteenth 
Ward, Warren S. Low, Jr. 


First Ward, Thomas O'Dea; Second Ward, Frank Brown, 
Jr.; Third Ward, Thomas B. Golden; Fourth Ward, Solomon 


Berne, George H. Reinhart; Bethlehem, John Wemple; 
Coeymans, Nelson Schemerhom; Knox, James M. Chesebro; 
Guilderland, Hiram Griggs; New Scotland, Tunis Slinger- 
land; Rensselaerville, Horace T. Devereux; Westerlo, 
Daniel M. Wooster; Watervliet, Jesse C. Dayton. 


President, Henry R. Haskins; Clerk, M. J. Powers; 
County Physician, Dr. D. V. O'Leaiy; Doorkeeper, John 
McGrath, Jr. 

After drawing seats and the appointment of pages 
the Board adjourned until the ne.xt day, when the 
President named the Standing Committees. 

Jail at West Troy. — After the announcement 
of the Standing Committees Dr. Buffington was ap- 
pointed Physician at West Troy. 

The several justices of the peace of the county 
were on motion directed to forward to the Board, 
by the 1 5th of November, their next report of the 
names of all persons sentenced to confinement in 
the Albany jail since January i, 1875. 

Extra Session. — An extra session of the Board 
convened August 3, 1875, for the purpose of con- 
sidering the census claims. All the members were 
present. After full consideration and settlement 
of this matter the Board adjourned until the fall 

Fall Session. — This session convened Tuesday, 
November 9, 1875, all the members present 
except President Haskins, whereupon Hiram Griggs 
was elected president /ro tem. 

City Budget. — On November 30 the city 
budget was received from Martin Delehanty, Clerk 
of the Common Council, which amounted m gross 
to $599,05046. Under a recent act the adoption 
of the report of the budgets required a vote of two- 
thirds of all the members. As two-thirds of the 
members present voted in favor of the budget, it 
was adopted. 

County Treasurer's Report. — On December 
2 the County Treasurer submitted the annual 
report, showing that the money received by him 
during the year from all sources amounted to 
$1,146,128.92; disbursements, $1,146,128.92. 
This report was submitted to the Finance Com- 

Sealer of Weights and Measures. — On a formal 
ballot J. D. Burger was elected sealer of weights 
and measures for the then ensuing year. 

JivENiLE Delinquents. — By the laws of 1874, 
page 570, section 29, boards of supervisors, as we 
have seen, in the several counties, are empowered 
to determine the compensation of officers conduct- 
ing juvenile delinquents to the House of Refuge, 
and of lunatics to the Lunatic Asylum. A resolu- 
tion was therefore presented to the Board fixing the 
compensation fees for such services as follows: 

For conveying one prisoner $20 00 

Two prisoners on one day 35 00 

County Budget. — On December 7, 1875, the 
county budget was presented and adopted, which 
amounted in gross to 5739,667.40; this sum was 
less amount funded $100,000. The following 
was adopted: 

Resolved, That there be levied upon the taxable property 
of the city of Albany the sum of $839,367.40, less one hun- 
dred thousand dollars ordered funded by the Board, and 
that the same be applied according to the amounts named in 
the said budget. 

Physicians and Coroners Again. — The difficulty 
and embarrassment connected with the fees of phy- 
sicians and coroners continued, notwithstanding 
strenuous efforts to adjust the difficulties, until De- 
cember 23, 1875, when the Board went into Com- 
mittee of the Whole, Mr. Haskell in the chair, on 
the following resolution: 

Resolved, That all physicians of this county shall receive 
for their services, when attending post viorlem examinations 
by order of a coroner, the following fees : 



For viewing the body and external examinations, and a 
certificate given to show cause of death, three dollars. 

For viewing a body as to external appearances, with de- 
scription of bruises, cuts, etc., five dollars. 

Post mortem examination of thoracic cavity and dissection 
of heart and lungs, seven dollars. 

Post mortem examination of thoracic and abdominal cavi- 
ties, with dissection of their respective organs, ten dollars. 

Post mortem examination of thoracic and abdominal 
organs and dissection of brain, fifteen dollars. 

Examination as to sanity, five dollars. 

Examination microscopically of the muscular tissues, as in 
trichinosis, by order of the Board of Health, twenty-five 

The title was fixed, " Regulating the fees of physicians of 
Albany County." This resolution was ordered to a third 

On Januarj' 6, 1876, the Board went into Com- 
mittee of the Whole on the following: 

Resolved, That no coroner of the county shall hereafter 
order 3. post mortcvi examination of any case unless there is 
a suspicion that death has been caused by foul play or other 
mysterious cause, nor until he shall have consulted with the 
District Attorney of the county or his deputy, and received 
the opinion of those officers as to the propriety of such ex- 

No claim- for post mortem examination shall be hereafter 
audited unless bearing the affidavit of the coroner that the 
services therein charged were in fact rendered, and the 
certificate of the County Physician and District Attorney or 
his deputy that such examination was, in their opinion, 
necessary. Hereafter the coroner shall be allowed no fee 
for mileage while attending an inquest within the limits of 
the city in which the coroner resides. 

The title was fixed, "An act providing for the manner of 
holding /(7j^ wortoK examinations," and was ordered to a 
third reading. 

The Annual Spring Session of the Board of Su- 
pervisors was held at the City Hall, in the City of 
Albany, May 9, 1876. 

The following members present: 


First Ward, Augustus Whitman; Second Ward, Tohn 
Lyons; Third Ward, Robert J. McCormick; Fourth Ward, 
Edward A. Maher; Fifth Ward, Wm. J. Flynn; Sixth Ward, 
E. C. Koonz; Seventh \\'ard, James Young; Eighth \\'ard, 
Wm, Dwyer; Ninth Ward, John Kirkpatrick; Tenth Ward, 
Thomas Hyde; Eleventh Ward, Edward Keays; Twelfth 
Ward, William A. Carroll; Thirteenth Ward, Charles H. 
Gaus; Fourteenth Ward, Wm. H. Haskell; Fifteenth Ward, 
Patrick H. Daly; Sixteenth Ward, D. J. Norton. 

First Ward, Thomas Murphy; Second Ward, Frank 
Brown, Jr. ; Third Ward, Thomas B. Golden; Fourth Ward, 
Joseph Stewart; Fifth Ward, George E. .Simmons. 

Berne, T. J. Wood; Bethlehem, John Wemple; Coey- 
mans, James N. Powell; Guilderland, Hiram Griggs; Knox, 
James M. Cheseboro; New Scotland, D. J. Raynsford; 
Rensselaerville, Albert T. Moore; Westerlo, D. M. Wooster; 
Watervliet, J. C. Dayton. 

The calling of the roll of members proceeded 
until Wm. Dwyer, of the Eighth Ward, was called, 
when Mr. Wm. Rahill presented a protest against 
calling the name of an)' person from the Eighth 
Ward, as Supervisor, except his own, and sub- 
mitted a certificate of that office from the Common 
Council of the City, and also the certificate of the 
County Clerk that he had duly qualified as required 
by law. 

The Board adjourned till afternoon, when a 
somewhat bitter contest ensued over the matter. A 
motion to adjourn was lost; but after more argu- 
ment an adjournment until evening was agreed to. 

At five o'clock, there being no quorum, the Board 

In formal session, November 20, 1876, the Board 
convened; the Board was present with the excep- 
tion of Messrs. Brown and Moore. 

The Board assembled to take action in regard to 
the death of Michael J. Powers, late Clerk of the 

Appropriate resolutions expressive of esteem were 
presented by the Chairman of the Committee, Mr. 
Wm. J. Flynn, which were adopted. 

At a meeting held November 21, 1876, the 
Board proceeded to ballot for officers, which re- 
sulted as follows: 

President, Wm. H. Haskell. 

Clerk, Daniel Fitzpatrick. 

Journal Clerk, John Marcellus. 

Doorkeeper, George Carroll. 

County Physician, John M. Bigelow. 

The President announced as pages Charles Sands 
and John Arthur. 

At the afternoon session the President announced 
the list of Standing Committees. 

At a meeting of the Board December 4, 1876, 
THE Annual Report of the County Treasurer, 
showing receipts and disbursements of the office 
for the year ending November 30, 1876 : 

Balance on hand at last report $1,700 03 

Total receipts Si,o8i,oo8 16 


State general tax $327,817 40 

Rejected taxes 784 33 

$328,601 73 
Oty of Albany. 

School fund $45,864 00 

Alms house 20,000 00 

District Attorney's office. . . 2,500 00 

Water rents, 1875 \\,^\<) 55 

r-, fri. $79.38355 

City of Cohoes. 

Schoolfunds $9,723 44 

County Towns. 

School funds $27,058 87 

Audited accounts 140 807 6t; 

Asylum accounts 51,627 aa 

Court expenses 4[!96q 02 

Salary account ^r 76, „, 

Balance :::;::, f^l4,V(> 

Other Items not here included which make 

"P^i total $1,081,008 16 

Estimate of disbursements for December. . . . 50.000 00 

The Chairman presented the following resolu- 
tion : 

Resolved, That the Board of Supervisors of the County 
be and are hereby requested to cause to be raised, assessed 
and collected by fax upon the taxable property in the City 
of Albany, in the manner provided by law, the followino- 
sum: $609,409.25. " 



Then follows a table setting forth the different 
uses for which the sum is to be expended. 

The Mayor, Hon. A. Bleecker Banks, presented 
the following amendment, which was accepted : 

I approve all the items in the foregoing, except the follow- 
mg, to which 1 object : 

Homeopathic hospital $2,000 

Albany hospital and dispensary 3,000 

St. Peter's hospital and dispensary 3,ooo 


Leaving the sum to be raised by tax at 

The sum of $c,ooo was apportioned to the 
Committee on Roads and Bridges for the different 
towns in the county. 

At a meeting of the Board Friday, December 8, 
the Committee on Finance reported favorably on 
the adoption of the following : 

Resolved, That the Finance Committee be and they are 
hereby authorized to borrow on the credit of the county the 
sum of $100,000, to pay a portion of the bonds maturing 
during the year 1877, and to issue therefor county bonds 
with interest at six per cent., payable semi-annually, and 
the principal payable March i, 1889 and 1890, §50,000 
each; and that each bond be signed by the Chairman of this 
Board and the County Treasurer; and that such bonds be 
issued in the sum of Si, 000 each; and that the bonds be sold 
at public auction on the 15th of February, 1877, the sale to be 
advertised for two weeks in the official county papers; and 
that the Finance Committee receive proposals for engrav- 
ing and printing such bonds, and let the same to the lowest 
responsible bidder; and that the Finance Committee pay to 
the County Treasurer the proceeds of the sale of said 

The F'inance Committee were also directed to 
apply to the next Legislature for a law authorizing 
this County to issue bonds to the amount of $100,- 
000, to replace in part the amount coming due 
March i, 1877. 

The following is a statement of the real and 
PERSONAL property of Albany County as assessed in 

City of Albany. 

Total real estate $31,759,294 00 

Total personal 3.857.850 00 

Grand total $35,617,144 00 

City of Cohoes. 

Total $3,273,913 00 

Total personal 420,200 00 

Grand total $3,694,113 00 


Total real estate $12,006,691 00 

Total personal 1,022,100 68 

Grand total 13,028,791 68 

The grand total of Albany, Cohoes and towns : 

Real estate $47,039,898 00 

Personal 5.3°°. 15° 68 

Grand total 1:52,340,048 68 

Report on equalized valuation of real estate 
per acre in the towns of the. County are as follows: 

Berne, $17.45; Bethlehem, $65.20; Coeymans, $40; 
Guilderland, $28,35; Knox, $16; New Scotland, $39.50; 
Rensselaerville, $18.25; Westerlo, $19.77; Watervliet, 

It was also adopted that the rates of taxation be 
fixed as follows: 

City of Albany, for that portion added to the city in 1870, 
$2.18; portion west of Allen street, $2.38; remainder of the 
city, $3.38. 

On each $100 of the assessed valuation for city 
and county purposes: 

For the town of Berne, $2.74; for the town of Bethlehem, 
$1.53; for the town of Guilderland, $1.60; for the town of 
Knox, $1.66; for the town of Rensselaerville, $1.96; for the 
town of Westerlo, $2.04; for the town of Coeymans, $1 50; 
for the town of Cohoes, $1.36; for the town of Watervliet, 
$2.08; for the town of New Scotland, $1.36. 

At a meeting of the Board, December 13, the 
balloting for papers to publish the -audits at $60 
per paper. The following were the papers 
designated: Argus, Cohoes Daily News, Evening 
Journal, Rensselaerville Press, Cohoes Democrat, 
Evening Times, Morning Express and Albany 

The death of Warren S. Low, a former member 
of the Board of Supervisors, was announced by 
Mr. Norton, who offered a preamble and resolu- 
tions, which were copied and transmitted 10 the 
family of the deceased. 

The proceedings of the annual spring session of 
the Board of Supervisors of the City and County of 
Albany, held May 8, 1877. 

Members of new Board: 


First Ward, Jacob Steigleman; Second Ward, Thomas 
Powers; Third Ward, Edward H. Long; Fourth Ward, 
Edward A. Maher; Fifth Ward, Wm. J. Flynn; Sixth Ward, 
James A. Shattuck; Seventh Ward, James Young; Eighth 
Ward, Michael J. McDonald; Ninth Ward, Mathew J. 
Tiernan; Tenth Ward, John Hedrick; Eleventh Ward, 
Isaac N. Lansing; Twelfth Ward, William H. McCall; 
Thirteenth Ward, Charles H. Smith; Fourteenth Ward, 
Charles R. Knowles; Fifteenth Ward, Patrick H. Daly; 
Sixteenth Ward, Wm. H. Murray. 

First Ward, Thomas Murphy; Second Ward, Frank C. 
Reavy; Third Ward, Frank Tessier; Fourth Ward, John P. 
Weber; Fifth Ward, George E. Simmons. 

Berne, Frederick W. Conger; Bethlehem, W. C. Hotal- 
ing; Coeymans, J. H. Powell; Guilderland, J. C. Grant; 
Knox, J. M. Chesebro; New Scotland, D. V. S. Raynesford; 
Rensselaerville, Albert T. Moore; Watervliet, Jesse C. 
Dayton; Westerlo, D. M. Wooster. President, J. C. Day- 
ton; Clerk, Thomas H. Craven; County Physician, William 
Geoghegan, Jr.; Journal Clerk, Wm. E. Murphy; Sealer of 
Weights and Measures, Philip Madden ; Doorkeeper, James 

The Board adjourned till May 8. 

The Supervisors convened at 2.50 o'clock on 
Wednesday, May 8; the minutes of the former 
meeting read and approved, after which the Presi- 
dent made the announcement of standing com- 
mittees for the ensuing year. 

Mr. Daly offered the following, which was 

Whereas, At a meeting ot the Board of Supervisors held 
December 8, 1874, a resolution was adopted authorizing 
the governors of the Albany Hospital to execute a mort- 
gage on the hospital lot and buildings in this city to the ex- 
tent of $30,000; 



Whereas, The said hospital is in an embarrassed condi- 
tion, judgments are recorded against the hospital, and the 
property is advertised to be sold at sheriff's sale; therefore. 

Resolved, That a committee of three members be ap- 
pointed, together with the District Attorney, to look after 
the interest of the County. 

Messrs. Flynn, Daly and Knowles were appointed such 


The Argus and Times were chosen as Counl_v 

Board adjourned. 

Fall Session. — November 13, 1877, the Board 
convened. All members present. On motion of 
Mr. Maher the Board adjourned as a Board of 
Supervisors, and agreed to meet as a Board of 
Canvassers November 14. 

trouble with newspaper publishers. 

B}' the provisions of chapter 2 1 5 of the laws of 
1870, it was made the duly of each supervisor in 
the State, at the annual meeting of the boards, to 
appoint printers for publishing the laws of their 
respebtive counties. The act provides that the act 
shall be made as follows : 

Each member of the Board shall designate by ballot one 
newspaper printed in the county to publish the laws, and the 
paper having the highest number of votes, and the paper 
having the next highest number of votes, shall be the papers 
designated for printing the laws; provided such papers be of 
the opposite politics and fairly represent the two political 
parties into which the people of the county arc divided; and 
if said papers so balloted for and chosen are not of oppo- 
site politics, and do not tairly represent the two principal 
political parties into which the people of the county are 
divided, such balloting and such choice shall be of no effect, 
and the balloting shall continue until two papers, if there be 
such in the county, are chosen that meet the requirements 
above set forth. 

It was claimed that the Board and each meinber 
thereof entirely neglected the said law and its in- 
structions, whereupon a mandamus was served 
upon the Chairman of the Board to compel obedi- 
ence to the said law in the case of The People ex 
rel. Jacob C. Culyer vs. The Board of Supervisors 
of Alban}' County, Peckham and Tremain, attor- 
neys for relator. 

After the reading of the mandamus Mr. Flynn 
said it was quite clear that the Board must pro- 
ceed to a designation of papers, and he presumed 
the matter would be satisfactorily disposed of at 
their next meeting. 

At a meeting of the Board, held November 20, 
on motion of Mr. Shattuck, the Board proceeded to 
billot for count}' papers, which ballot resulted in 
the election of the Argus and Express as county 
papers for the ensuing year, thus ending all further 
difficulty in the matter. 

At the meeting of the Board December 4, the 
Chairman presented the 

treasurer's REPORT OF RECEIPTS. 
Balance on hand at last report $44,646 26 

Total amount of receipts $1,071,547 25 

Disbursements $1,071,547 25 

Balance on hand $78, 79^ 49 

December 6, 1877, the Chairman presented the 
following communication from the citizens of 
Albany : 

To Hon. Jesse C. Dayton, Chairman of the Board of Super- 
visors of Albany County. 

Dear Sir : The undersigned citizens and taxpayers of 
tl:e City of Albany have been pleased to see that your Board 
has disallowed the large claims presented by various news- 
paper proprietors for the unauthorized publication of laws, 
proceedings, etc. The allowance of such illegal charges has 
been a great grievance and is becoming absolutely intoler- 
able. We trust that your Board will firmly adhere to its de- 
cision in spite of any clamor and denunciation in which the 
disappointed parties may indulge. We trust, too, that it 
will in a like manner discountenance and disallow all im- 
proper and illegal charges from whatever source they may 
come. By so doing, although you may incur the ill-will of 
baffled raiders on the county treasury, you will receive the 
support and praise of all good citizens. 

Dated December 5, 1877. 

This communication was signed by twent3'-one 
of the first citizens of Albany, and was ordered 

Also the following communication from Mr. 
Nathan D. Wendell, County Treasurer : 

The following is a statement of the balance due the county 
from the several cities and towns at this date, November 30, 

City of Albany $17,734 87 

City of Cohoes 2,216 09 

Town of Berne 2,566 77 

Town of Bethlehem 1,058 57 

Town of Coeymans 61 91 

Town of Guilderland 2 13 92 

Town of Knox 93 83 

Town of New Scotland 3 1 93 

Town of Rensselaerville 2, 191 92 

Town of Westerlo 489 33 

Town of Watervliet 715 58 

Total $27,469 72 

The report of the Committee on Assessment 
Rolls presented the following report : 

The assessed value of the real and personal property in 
the county as assessed in 1877 is as follows : 

Total assessed value of real and personal property : 

City of Albany $36,164,284 co 

City of Cohoes 3,641,494 00 

Towns 12,773,362 40 

Grand total $52,580,135 40 

On the 7th of December Mr. Lansing offered the 
following, which was adopted ; 

Whereas, The term of office of Supervisors is fixed by law 
at one year; and 

Whereas, The duties of said officers are onerous and of 
grave responsibility, and members of the Board are held to 
a strict accountability by their immediate constituency, and 
it is impossible for a Supervisor to learn the whole duties in 
one term ; and 

Whereas, The said Board of Supervisors should be a con- 
tinuous body, and the members thereof should be elected for 
a term of three years, similar to the Senale of the United 
States, one-third expiring every year; therefore, be it 

Resolved, That the Committee on Application to the Leg- 
islature petition that body on behalf of this Board, at the 
next session, for an act making the election of Supervisors 
of this county for a term of three years, and one-third there- 
of expiring and electing yearly. 

On December 8 the President from the Com- 
mittee on Equalization presented the following 
stateinent : 



The equalized valuation of real and personal 

property in the City of Albany amounts to. .$34,357,310 90 

City of Cohoes amounts to 4,041,494 00 

Towns 14, 181,330 50 

Total $52,580, 13s 40 

On December 27 Mr. McDonald called up a 
resolution naming the following papers as papers 
designated to publish county audits ; Argus, Times, 
Freie Blatter, Albany Cotmty Democrat, Morning Ex- 
press, Rensselaer Press, Coeymans Herald, Albany 
Evening Post, Albany Herald, Cohoes Daily News. 

Mr. Smith moved to amend by making the 
amount to be paid for the same f 60 per paper. 


Adjourned December 28, sine die. 


Supervisors present. 


First Ward, Frederick U. Bresler; Second Ward, Thomas 
Powers; Third Ward, John Bowe; Fourth Ward, Timothy 
J. Sullivan ; Sixth Ward, Ignatius Wiley ; Seventh Ward , 
James Young; Eighth Ward, Michael J. McDonald; Ninth 
Ward, William Wright; Tenth Ward, Herbert R. Stark- 
weather; Eleventh Ward, Isaac N. Lansing; Twelfth Ward, 
William H. McCall ; Thirteenth Ward, Charles R. Smith; 
Fourteenth Ward, Charles K. Knowles; Fifteenth Ward, 
Patrick H. Daly; Sixteenth Ward, James Stackhouse. 


First Ward, William O'Brien; Second Ward, Truman W. 
Reynolds; Third Ward, Daniel Sullivan; Fourth Ward, 
Lucius Alexander ; Fifth Ward, George E. Simmons. 


Berne, Frederick W. Conger; Bethlehem, William Flag- 
ler; Coeymans, John A. Hunt; Guilderland, John C. Grant; 
Knox, William J. Haverley; New Scotland, D. V. S. Rayns- 
tord; Rensselaerville, Albert T. Moore; Watervliet, Je.sse 
C. Dayton; Westerlo, Daniel W. Wooster. 

Jesse C. Dayton was elected Chairman; Thomas 
C. Cravan was elected Clerk; Dr. |. R. Boulware 
was elected County Physician; Patrick H. McCaf- 
fery, Doorkeeper. 

The following gentlemen were elected Coroner's 
Physicians, by ballot : 

Dr. R. H. Starkweather, Dr. L. C. B. Grave- 
line, Dr. J. W. Moore, Dr. Henry E. Mereness. 


A joint meeting of the Supervisors of the County, 
together with the Mayor and Recorder of the City, 
was held at Supervisors' rooms May 15, pursuant 
to chapter 152, laws 1844. 

Present, Hon. M. N. Nolan, Ma3-or; Hon. Wm. 
S. Paddock, Recorder,* and all the Supervisors of 
the County and City. The Mayor acted as Presi- 
dent and the Recorder as Secretary. 

The matter of the large number of industrious, 
worthy mechanics out of employment, caused by 
the general depression of business, owing, as was 
alleged, to the interference of prison labor with 
legitimate trades, was presented to the meeting by 
Mr. Daly, who offered a resolution that a com- 
mittee be appointed to inquire into the manner in 

*See Biography of Recorder Paddock, in another part of this work, 
under head of Legal Biographies. 

which contracts were made for labor, and the com- 
pensation received for the same by the Superin- 
tendents of the Penitentiary ; the quantity, quality 
and value of the manufactured articles, and the 
relative cost of the labor on such articles compared 
with the cost of labor of similar articles produced 
by our local manufacturers ; the effect of prison 
labor as conducted in this institution on skilled 
labor in the County ; the effect on our local manu- 
facturers engaged in the production of such articles 
as produced by the convicts in said Penitentiary ; 
and in what manner, if an}', it affected the skilled 
labor employed by them ; also to investigate as to 
the general and financial management of the affairs 
of the institution, and that the said committee 
have power to send for persons and papers. 

After an animated debate Mr. Daly's motion 
prevailed, and the Mayor appointed the following 
committee to act with the Mayor and Recorder, as 
provided in the preamble and resolution : Messrs. 
Dal}', Maher, Rowe, Bresler and Young. 

The meeting then adjourned. 

On Thursday, May 16, 1878, the Chairman 
announced the Standing Committees, 6. 


All the Supervisors present. 

The session continued on, with one or two brief 
adjournments, until January 10, 1879, when it 
adjourned sine die. 

According to the annual report of N. D. Wen- 
dell, County Treasurer, the money received by 
him during the year from all sources amounted 
to $1,078,885.76. The amount disbursed by him 
was $1,078,885.76. 

Estimated disbursements for December, 1878 : 

Supervisors' salaries and accounts $20,000 

Salaries County Officers 5, 000 

Asylum Accounts 5,000 

Court expenses 10,000 

Audited and miscellaneous 10,000 


COUNTY IN 1878. 

City of Albany $36,342,890 00 

Cohoes 3,620,426 00 

Towns 12,717,524 %%y^ 

Grand totals $52,680,840 58^ 

Equalized valuation of real and personal property 
in 1878 was : 

Albany City $34,458,018 

City of Cohoes 4,041,494 

Towns 14,181,328 

Grand totals $52,680,840 


lierne, $2.24; Bethlehem, $1,12; Coeymans, ^1.14; 
Guilderland, $1.56 ; Knox, Sr.36 ; New Scotland, $1.08 ; 
Rensselaerville, $1.62; Westerlo, $1.66; City of Cohoes, 
$1.10. ' ' J' 

Stationery.— The stationery furnished the Cir- 
cuit Courts, Special Term, and the Countv Courts, 
for three years ending December 31, 1878, was 



as follows: 1876, $2,078.60; 1877, $2,135.41; 
1878, $1,310.43. 

1879. — The annual spring session of the Board 
of Supervisors met May 13, 1879; '^^ following 
members present : 


First Ward, Henry Hoffman; Second Ward, Thomas 
Powers; Third Ward, John Bowe ; Fourth Ward, E. A. 
Maher; Fitth Ward, T. J. Sullivan; Sixth Ward, Ignatius 
Wiley; Seventh Ward, James Young; Eighth Ward, Rich- 
ard Rhatigan; Kinth Ward, Stephen P. Eastman; Tenth 
Ward, H. R. Starkweather; Eleventh Ward, W. H. Gay- 
lor; Twelfth Ward, W. H. McCall; Thirteenth Ward, 
John B. Slingerland; Fourteenth Ward, Wlieeler B. Melins; 
Fifteenth Ward, Michael E. Higgins; Sixteenth Ward, Wm. 
H. Murray. 


First Ward, William O'Brien; Second Ward, John H. 
Pynes ; Third Ward, Peter Grandjean; Fourth Ward, 
John Groves; Fifth Ward, George E. Simmons. 

Berne, Frederick W. Conger; Bethlehem, Wm. Flagler; 
Coeymans, John A. Hunt; Guilderland, John C. Grant ; 
Knox, I. W. Chesebro; New Scotland, D. V. S. Raynsford;- 
Rcnsselaerville, Albert T. Moore; Watervliet, John Reiley ; 
Westerlo, A. C. Requa. 

President, Edward A. Maher; Clerk, Thomas H. Craven; 
Journal Clerk, John C. Morgan; County Physician, Dr. 
James L. Babcock ; Doorkeeper, Michael Hayden ; Cor- 
oner's Physicians, Dr. H. R. Starkweather, Dr. Wm. H. 
Murray, Dr. P. J. TCeegan, Dr. G. H. Billings. 

The members proceeded to ballot for C'ounty 
papers. The Argus and Evening Journal were de- 
clared elected as such. 

Mr. Sullivan offered a resolution appointing 
Joseph Levi as .Scaler of Weights and Measures for 
.\lbany County, which was adopted. 

The President announced the Standing Commit- 

At a meeting; of the Board held May 15, Mr. 
Higgins offered a resolution recommending five 
members of the Board to form a committee to inquire 
into the manner and mode of making contracts in 
the Albany County Penitentiaiy, and that they have 
power to send for persons and papers, and to em- 
ploy counsel to ascertain what powers this Board 
has in that institution. 

Report of ex-County Treasurer Wendell from date 
0/ his last report, Novemljer jo, iSyS, to 
January I, iSyg: 


Balance on hand November 30, 1878 $14,621 78 

From collectors 3i77i 00 

City of Albany, tax 1877 37i775 94 

City of Albany water rents of 1878 4,208 55 

Redemption of land sold for taxes 7,912 85 

Temporary loan 35, 000 00 

L. Hotaling, District Attorney, costs collected. 203 71 

Account back taxes for towns 4' 95 

S103.535 78 


Audited accounts §17,440 82 

Mrscellaneous 430 73 

,$17,871 55 

Brought forward $17,871 55 

Salaries 4,980 75 

Interest 3,208 33 

Redemption of land sold for taxes 5,436 36 

Publication of tax list 485 00 

Marshall Infirmary 65 00 

Jurors $914 30 

Constables 2,6ig 50 

J. Fencham 276 00 

.Stenographer 120 00 

Court Crier 252 00 

Justices 158 50 

Court orders 198 20 

$4,618 50 

Bonds paid 5,600 00 

Coupons paid 203 00 

Balance paid Henry Kelly, Treasurer-elect. . . 61,067 29 

Sio3,535 78 
Redistributing the County. — A special meet- 
ing held June 17, 1879, was held to re-apportion 
Assembly Districts, twenty- eight members being 

The Board proceeded to redistribute the County 
according to law, and discharged their duty in a 
most satisfactory manner. 

The proceedings were published at the dme in 
the daily papers, and they may be found fully pub- 
lished in the proceedings of the Board of Supervis- 
ors for the year 1879, page 23. 

Treasurer's Report. — At a meeting of the 
Board December 2, the President presented de- 
tailed report, showing the receipts and disburse- 
ments of the office from January i to November 
30, 1879, one month having been included in the 
report of Mr. Wendell, the late Treasurer : 

Total receipts $843,298 50 

Total amount paid out 5844,286 30 

Total amount disbursed $744,286 30 

Total amount received 843, 208 50 

Leaving treasury overdrawn 5087 80 

The following balances are due the County at 
this date, viz. : 

City of AUjany $28,901 14 

City of Cohoes 4^002 07 

Town of Berne , 002 14 

Bethlehem^ ■."■.■.::;:: 67898 

Guilderland rg, Qg 

Knox .'...'.'.'..'. 371 85 

New Scotland 119 14 

Rensselaerville 2 752 i;8 

Town of Westerlo 651 01 

\Vestervliet !.'.".' i.'.' i!! ! 2, 137 64 

'r°''''' 543,189 59 

The Town of Coe3'mans has a credit balance of 

At the meeting of the Board held December 5, 
the report of the Committee on Assessment Rolls 
was received, and the amount assessed on real and 
personal property in the 

City of Albany for 1879 is $37,647,975 00 

City of Cohoes for 1879 3,591,098 00 

Fownsm 1879 12,192,128 21 

Making a grand total of 553,431,201 21 



The Committee on Equalized Valuation pre- 
seated the following report : 

Equalized value of real and personal propert}' in 

City of Albany for 1879 $33,746,992 40 

City of Colioes for 1879 5,341,100 00 


Berne $699,074 30 

Bethlehem 2,224,973 56 

Coeymans 1,344,564 79 

Guilderland 1,218,169 08 

Knox 469,717 50 

New Scotland 1,564,741 43 

Rensselaerville 746,371 00 

West Troy and Green Island 2,972,978 51 

Watervliet 2,857,945 76 

Westerlo 744,482 88 

Grand total $53,731,201 21 

Destructiox of the City Hall by Fire. — 
On the loth da}' of February, 1880, the City Hall 
was destroyed b}' lire. * 

Special Meeting of the Board. — On Febru- 
ary 16, 1880, the Board convened a special session 
in the Justices' Court-rooms, City Buildings; the 
meeting convened in pursuance of a written call 
signed by all the members of the Board for the pur- 
pose of taking such steps as the Board might deem 
necessar}' in view of the destruction of the Cit\' 
Hall by fire. All the members of the Board were 

The ])roceedings were \txy interesting. Many 
valuable communications from the most eminent 
citizens were read, among which were the proceed- 
ings of a meeting of the Albany Bar held at the 
Justices' Court-rooms, City Buildings, on the nth 
day of February, 1880, at which the following reso- 
lution was adopted: 

Resolved, That the site of the City Hall, recently de- 
stroyed by fire, is the most appropriate and convenient for a 
building for the County Court and Comity officers, and the 
members of the Albany County Bar hereby unanimously 
urge the Board of Supervisors to take immediate steps 
toward the erection of said building or another upon the 
City Hall site for the use of the County Courts and officers. 

Henry Smith, 


Wm. p. Rudd, 1 <-. . . 

Alpheus T. Bulkley, [ ^"^^l""'^'- 

The Board had been strongly urged to jjurchase, 
or lease, the property in the City known as Martin 
Hall for the use of the County and Cit}' offices. 
The members of Albany Bar, deeming this building 
as entirely unfit for such purposes, by reason of its 
location and construction, united in a written pro- 
test against purchasing or leasing it, directed to the 
Board, urging upon the members not to consider 
further the proposition to do so. 

An interesting letter from Hon. W. L. I.earned 
to Edward A. Maher, Esq., Chairman of the 
Board, relative to the packages of half-burned and 
wet package of papers rescued from the City Hall 
while burning. Judge Learned recommended some 
immediate action to prevent them from being 
entirely ruinetl. 

* For a more full description of City Hall, old and new, see chapter on 
Public Buildings. 

" If allowed to dry in their present condition," he said, 
"they will stick together and, perhaps, mildew so as to be 
utterly illegible. They should be taken to some safe and 
dry place, opened carefully, spread out separately to dry. 
As Clerk of the Court and as President of the Board you 
know the great value of these papers, and as such Chair- 
man you can give some official direction to the necessary 
expense. I cannot think that there would be any hesitation 
in paying whatever this most important work may cost. I 
therefore beg leave to press on you, and through you the 
County Clerk, the necessity of immediate action." 

The public spirit and forethought of Judge 
Learned in thus calling attention of the Board to 
the important matter contained in his letter was 
warmly commended by the public. As the Board 
acted upon his timely recommendation, papers and 
documents of immense value were saved to the 

deserved recommexdation to w. b. melius. 

E. A. Maker, Esq.— Dear Sir : We think the Board of 
Suijervisors should by resolution, or in some other 
expressive manner, while commending ihe firemen and 
others who so bravely worked to save the property of ihe 
city and county from the fire at the City Hall, not omit to 
speak specially of the great and extraordinary services of 
W. B. Melius, to whose exertions we are all indebted for the 
preservation of the most valuable records. 

Hamilto.n Harris, 
R. W. Peckham, 
T. J. Van Alstyne, 
v.. Countryman. 

This reference to the services of Mr. Melius by 
these distinguished citizens was eminently just, and 
shows how generously ihey appreciated his almost 
superhuman efforts. The members of the Board, 
acting under the recommendation of this letter, 
adopted a handsomel}- worded preamble and reso- 
lutions expressive of their high appreciation of the 
valuable services of 'Six. ]Melius in thus saving the 
property of the city and county. 

Mr. Melius has been connected with the County 
Clerk's office, officially, at least eighteen years, and 
in all, for twenty-five 3ears. No man understands 
the records of the County as fully as he. 

The fire in the City Hall broke out about one 
o'clock on the morning of the loth of February. 
It was bitterly cold, and an icy wind was blowing. 
Mr. Mt^ius was one of the first to reach the clerk's 
office, and began the work of rescuing the precious 
volumes containing the records of mortgages, deeds, 
judgments, decrees, etc.; notwithstanding the 
blinding and almost suffocating smoke that filled 
the room, he passed 700 volumes, weighing from 
1 2 to 16 pounds each, through a narrow window in 
the searching room to a place of safet}'. A few- 
moments after the last one was passed out the 
flames swept fiercely and destructively through the 
rooms. The loss of these records would be im- 
mense and irreparable to all owners of real estate 
situated in the County of Albany and to all persons 
interested in mortgages, decrees and judgments 
contained in these volumes. 

Mr. Melius was quite overcome with his efl"orls 
and had to be assisted in reaching his home. 

Intkrest of the County in the City Hall 
Building. — Measures were taken at this meeting to 



ascertain what interest the County of Albany had 
in the City Hall building then lately destroyed by 
fire, and Hon. R. W. Peckham was employed to 
assist a committee a[)pointed for the purpose of 
ascertaining the said interest of the County. 

Books of Record of the County. — The County 
Clerk was by resolution authorized to make true 
and perfect copies of all the books of record of the 
County mutilated, damaged and defaced in the 
then recent burning of the City Hall, and that he 
be paid the ordinary legal rates by the Count)' 
Treasurer, and he was furdier authorized to re- 
arrange, sort and label all papers disarranged and 
confused by the same fire, and that he be reason- 
ably compensated therefor. Mr. Melius was, on 
motion, authorized to assist the County Clerk in 
the foregoing designated work. 

Other important business touching the matters 
growing out of the destracdon of the City Hall was 
transacted; also at the adjourned meeting held 
March i, i88o, other important measures were 
taken in regard to the same, which will be found 
in the MS. record of proceedings of the Board, from 
page 9 to 20, inclusive. 

i88o. — Annual Spring Session held at riieir 
rooms, No. 38 Beaver street, May 11, 1880. 
The followmg members of the Board were present: 

First Ward, Henry Hoffman; Second Ward, Thomas 
Powers; Third Ward, John Bowe; Fourth Ward, E. A. 
Maher; Fifth Ward, T.J Sulhvan; -Sixth Ward, Ignatius 
Wiley; Seventh Ward, James Young; Eighth Ward, 
Richard Rhatigan; Ninth Ward, Stephen I'. Eastman; 
Tenth Ward, H. R. Starkweather; Eleventh Ward, W. H. 
Gaylor; Twelfth Ward, W, H. McCall; Thirteenth Waid, 
John B. Slingerlaiid; Fourteenth Ward, Wheeler B. Melius; 
Fifteenth Ward, M. E. Higgins; Sixteenth W.ird, W. H. 


First Ward, Wm. O'Brien; Second Ward, John H. 
Pynes; Third Ward, Peter Grandjean; Fourth Ward, John 
Cirovcs; Fjftli Ward, George IC. Simmons. 


Berne, Frederick W. Conger; Bethlehem, William 
Flagler; Cocymans, John A. Hunt; Guilderland, John C. 
Grant; Knox, J. W. Chesehro; New Scotland, D. V. S. 
Raynsford; Rejisselaerville, Albert T. Moore; Watervliet, 
John Reiley; Westerlo, A. C. Requa. 

At the election of a chairman of the Board for 
the ensuing year suggestions were made as to the 
legality of the election of the members of the Board 
for the term of two years, whereupon the following 
oflScers were elected for the ensuing year. 

Edward A. Maher, President; John A. Mangan, Journal 
Clerk; Thomas H. Craven, Clerk; Dr. James L, Babcock, 
County Physician; Michael Hayden, Doorkeeper; Edgar 
Palmer, Sealer of Weights and Measures. The following 
gentlemen were elected coroners: Dr. W. H. Murray, Dr. 
A. R. Starkweather, Dr. P. J. ICeegan, Dr. G. H. Billings. 


At a meeting of the Board, May 12, the Presi- 
dent presented a communication signed by a large 
number of the leading citizens of Albany request- 
ing that the services of a night watchman at the 
County Clerk's office should be continued, and 
they further recommended that the night watch- 
man be made a permanent employee. 

On motion of Mr. Bowe it was resolved to 
authorize the County Clerk to continue the 
services of night watchman until otherwise directed 
by the Board, his salary not to exceed $75 per 

The Board met according to adjournment on 
November 22, when Mr. Weaver presented the 
following report of the Committee on State 
Equalization : 

Albany County assessed value of real estate 

for the year 1878 $47,702,870 

Equalization in the year 1879 at 64,295,172 

Equalization overassessed value $16,592,302 

The Board of Equalization of Taxes, in pursu- 
ance of chapter 312, laws of 1859, fi.xed the aggre- 
gate valuation of property in Albany County at 
the sum of $68,426,226, upon which a State tax of 
$239,491.80 must be levied for the current fiscal 
year commencing October i, 1880, being three and 
one-half mills on the dollar : 


For schools 1 


For general purposes. . 

For new Capitol y^ 

Canals 3^^!^ 













A report giving a statement of the receipts and 
disbursements of the County treasury was sub- 
mitted on December 2, as follows: 

Receipts and disbursements from December i, 
1879, to November 30, 1880: 


Total amount received $996,299 gg 

Disbursements gg6,299 99 

Amount on hand 39,008 46 

The amount of real and personal property 
assessed in Albany County in 1880: 

City of Albany, real and personal $37,085,425 00 

" " Cohoes, " " 3,648,093 00 

Towns, real and personal 12,330,250 26 

Grand total $53,063,768 26 

On December 6 the President received the fol- 
lowing statement from the Count)' Treasurer, being 
the balance due the County at that date: 

City of Albany S42, 193 55 

*' Cohoes 1,620 45 

Town of Berne 3j039 50 

'* Bethlehem 12 30 

" Coeymans 42 86 

" Guilderl.and 458 01 

Knox ig7 94 

' ' New Scotland 1 2 1 94 

" Rensselaerville 2,849 74 

" Westerlo 581 22 

Watervliet 4,66418 



S55.163 69 

City of Albany, real and personal. 
'• Cohoes " " . 

■532,883,306 03 
- 5-394,927 56 

Makuig a total 553,063,' 




On January 5, 1881, Mr. Murray, in a well- 
worded resolution, made a motion that a tax of 
$100.08, assessed on the premises No. 117 Beaver 
street, in this cit}', and used by Dr. John Swin- 
burne as a Dispensary, be canceled, and the 
Board of Assessors were directed to omit said 
property from its lists of taxable property and 
assessment roll, so long as the ptoperty is retained 
for dispensary dr hospital purposes. 

This was unanimously adopted, inasmuch as Dr. 
Swinburne is known to devote largely of his own 
time and money to the charitable care of the sick 
poor of the city, and employing assistants, and 
keeping and sustaining a private dispensary wholly 
from and upon his own personal means, for the 
purpose of relieving the sick poor and unfortunate 
of the city. 

Adjourned January 24, 1881. 

Proceedings of the Board of Supervisors at the 
annual meeting held May 10, 1881, in Martin 
Hall. Members present : 

First Ward, Augustus Whitman; Second Ward, John 
Ryan; Third Ward, William Casey; Kourth Ward, Edward 
A. Maher; Fifth Ward, George L. Thomas ; Sixth Ward, 
John Parr; Seventh Ward, James Young; Eighth Ward, 
Michael J. Hayden ; Ninth Ward, James A. Lynom; Tenth 
Ward, Mathew C. Clark; Eleventh Ward, William V,. Scotl; 
Twelfth Ward, William Guinan; Thirteenth Ward, Joseph 
C. Griffin ; Fourteenth Ward, Robert Geer; Fifteenth 
Ward, Michael E. Higgins; Sixteenth Ward, Wm. H. Mur- 
ray; Seventeenth Ward, Frank Brennan. 

First Ward, John Clark; Second Ward, John H. Pyncs; 
Third Ward, C. M. Nadeau; Fourth Ward, John Groves; 
Fifth Ward, Charles Knott. 

Berne, Frederick W. Conger; Bethlehem, W. C. Hota- 
ling; Coeymans, Estes H. Strevell; Guilderland, Aaron 
Fuller; Knox, Izrahiah Chesebro; New Scotland, Henry H. 
Meed; Rensselaerville, Hercules Sayre; Watervliet, John 
Reilly; Westerlo, Anson C. Requa. 

President — Edward A. Maher. 

Clerk — Thomas H. Craven. 

Journal Clerk — John. C. Mangan. 

County Physician— Dr. U. B. La Mcure. 

Doorkeeper — James A. McCotter. 

Coroners' Physicians — Doctors P. J. Keegan, H. R. 
Starkweather, R. D. Clark, G. H. Billings. 

Sealer of Weights and Measures — Edgar Palmer. 

Counsel for Overseer of Poor — Martin D. Conway. 

Pages— John Ward, Joseph Foy. 

County Papers. — Argus and Express. 


By the laws of 1880, Chapter 285, M. H. Nolan, 
Edward Maher, Barclay Jermain, Charles Van 
Bentheusan, Robt. C Pruyn, C. P. Easton, Erastus 
Corning and Leonard (}. Hun were appointed 
Commissioners to repair or rebuild the City Hall 
in this city. The names of the gentlemen com- 
posing this Committee was the highest guarantee 
that the important duties committed to them would 
be performed with the utmost ability, exactnes.s 
and dispatch. 

At this meeting of the Board, in pursuance of 
Section 8 of the said act of 1880, this Committee 
presented a succinct and ably drawn petition to 
the Board, requesting that body to direct the issue 

of bonds of the County of Alban)-, to the amount 
of $145,000, to be negotiated by the Chairman of 
the Board of Supervisors and the Treasurer of the 
county, at such times and in such amounts as may 
be required by the Commissioners ; such bonds to 
be signed by the Chairman of the Board of Super- 
visors and the Treasurer, to bear semi-annual in- 
terest at the rate of four per cent per annum, and 
payable, one-third thereof in twenty years, and one- 
ihird thereof in twenty-two years, from the date of 
their respective issues. 

The Commissioners presented a resolution to the 
Board, in conformit}' with the said petition, which 
directed that the said sum of $145,000 be paid, as 
stated above, to wit: $50,000 in the year 1901, 
$50,000 in 1902, $45,000 in 1903. 

Committee on Coroners and Physicians. — This 
Committee is very important, and for a time was 
very onerous, requiring a clerk ; but by the law 
touching the salaries of physicians appointed to 
make post morleni examinations, and by a law of 
the Board letting by contract the burial of paupers 
under said contract, the Committee were relieved 
from much of their labor, so it became unnecessary 
to keep a clerk, and a resolution was presented for 
the discharge of the clerk, but it was tabled ; 
whereupon it was moved by Mr. Higgins that a 
clerk be elected, and John P. Masterson was 
elected clerk to the Committee. Adopted. 

Special Meeting, August 12, i88r. — Called 
under a written request and signed by all the mem- 
bers of the Board, to enable the Finance Commit- 
tee and County Treasurer to borrow money to 
meet deficiencies and transact such other business 
as might be necessar}'. The sum required was not 
to exceed $120,000, and was for the purpose of 
paying State tax, which was to fall due on the ist 
of September then next. This amount was directed 
to be raised in conformity to the foregoing. 

State I3oard of Health. — At a meeting, 
November 15, an important communication was 
received from the State Board of Health in regard 
to the amendments of laws designed to secure 
the complete registration of births, marriages and 
deaths, and especially to give the greatest possible 
accuracy to the record of the causes of death and 
burial of ihe dead. 

The Board of Equalization of Taxes fixed the 
aggregate valuation of properly in Albany County 
at $67,372,736, upon which amount a State tax of 
$151,588.66 was to be levied for the current fiscal 
year commencing October i, 188 1, being 2\ mills 
on the dollar, for the following purposes : 

For Schools jYff mills, per Chap. 453, Laws 1881. 

" General purposes. ^ " " " 453, <. ,g!ji. 
"Canals ^ " ■■ - jg^^ « igy,. 

Total 2} mills. 

The non-resident taxes credited to the County 
for 1880 were $202.92. 

At a meeting of the Board November 21, 1881, 
a communication was read in regard to the State 



Board of Assessors and the Stale Board of Equal- 

The assessed valuation of real estate in Albany 

County in 1880 $49,151,808 

Personal estate 3,91 1,960 

Total $58.063,768 

To the assessed valuation the Stale Board have 
added $14,308,968; this made the equalized valua- 
tion of real estate $63,460,776; to this add the per- 
sonal, $3,911,960, which makes the sum $67,372,- 
736, upon which we pay a State tax this year. 

In the year 1881 there was added to our assess- 
ed valuation , $14,695,025 

In the year 1880 14,308,968 

An apparent reduction of $386,057 

The increase in the assessed valuation of the 
whole State for 1880 was $24,935,164, or .0107 
per cent. 

The increased assessed valuation of Alban\' 
County for 1880 was but $18,000, or .0004 per 
cent. It should have been quite as much as that 
of the State. 

An article contained in the Evening Journal, 
signed "H.," containing alleged misstatemenls 
touching the acts of the Board relative to the print- 
ing of 250 copies of its rules, was made the subject 
of a question of privilege in order that the said 
statement should be prompdy refuted. It was de- 
nounced and proven to have done injustice to the 

A communication was also received from Dr. 
John Swinburne asking to be relieved from taxes 
assessed on his private hospital, which was granted. 

Arsenal. — The estimates of the expense of fit- 
ting up for rooms in the arsenal for the benefit of 
the militar}' of the cit}'. 

The contract was awarded by the proper Com- 
mittee, so far as building lockers, etc., was con- 
cerned, at $2,439. 

Election Notice. — The Argus and Morning 
Express were designated as papers to publish 
election notices. 

The Treasurer's Account, for the year 
ending November, 1881, was presented 
December 2, 1881, showing the receipts of 
his office for that time to be $1,032,444 88 

Disbursements $1,032,444 88 

Statement of real and jiersonal property 
assessed in the County of Albany, 18S1: 

Real $61,422,635 

Personal 7>5°7. 755 

Total $68,930,390 

On December 8, on motion of Mr. Conger, a 
resolution was adopted authorizing the Finance 
Committee to borrow, on the credit of the County, 
the sum of $50,000 to pay bonds in like amount 
maturing March i, 1882, and to issue therefor 
county bonds bearing interest, not to exceed 4 per 
cent, per annum, payable semi-annually, the prin- 

cipal payable Marcli i, 1904. The said bonds 
M'cre to be registered or coupon, and they were to 
be sold at public auction on February 15, 1882, 
after being advertised two weeks. 

Equalized Valuation of Albany Co., 1881 ; 

alhanv city. 

Real estate $48,886,198 00 

Personal 7)507)755 00 

Total 856,393,953 00 

Cohoes City real estate $9,455,072 00 

" " personal estate 336,64400 

Total 9,791,716 06 

Albany City, Cohoes and towns, 

real estate $81,453,069 25 

" " personal 8,889,220 18 

Grand totals $90,342,289 43 

State and County Tax. — The rate of State and 
County tax was fixed by resolution at fifty-four 
cents on each $100 of the equalized valuation of 
this count)'. 

Special Meeting. — Monday, December 12, 1881, 
a special meeting convened pursuant to a call pre- 
viously made for the purpose of fixing the rate of 
the city of Cohoes, and of the town of Watervliet. 
The rate of taxadon for the city of Cohoes for 1881 
was fixed at 1 1.2 5 upon each $100. The rate for 
Watervliet for 1881 was fixed as follows : 

On each Sioo of the assessed valuation: 

Watervliet, First District $75 

West Troy and Green Island 68 

District Attorney's Report. — D. Cady Herrick 
presented his report of the costs received by him, 
and also a statement of the fines imposed since 
January i, 1881, which by recapitulation shows as 

Costs and judgments $1,526 26 

Fines in Oyer and Terminer 275 00 

" " County Sessions 409 00 

" " Special Sessions 95400 

S3, 155 26 

Cohoes Jail. — By resolution the County Treas- 
urer was authorized to pay the city of Cohoes $500 
for rent of jail pursuant to Sec. 15, Chap. 60, 
Laws of 1 88 1. 

Previous to the adjournment of the Board, on 
December 20, 1881, Supervisor Geer, in a pleas- 
ing and finely worded speech, on behalf of the 
members of the Board, presented President Maher 
an elegant watchchain and charm. Mr. Maher 
received it with a very feeling and appropriate 
address. Supervisor Murray then arose, and, on 
behalf of the members of the Board, presented 
Mr. Thomas H. Craven, Clerk of the Board, with 
a valuable silver service. 

In presenting it, Mr. Murray made some timely 
and exceedingly well received remarks touching 
the high esteem in which Mr. Craven was held by 
the Board. The latter thanked the Board in a very 



happy manner. The whole proceeding gave great 
satisfaction to the Board and public. 

The Board of Supervisors of the city and county 
met at their Annual Session at their rooms in Music 
Hall, May 9, 1882. 

The following members were present: 

First Ward, Agustus Whiteman; Second Ward, Thomas 
Powers; Third Ward, Wm. Casey; Fourth Ward, Edward 
A. Maher; Fifth Ward, John Cook; Sixth Ward, John D. 
Capron; Seventh Ward, Edward Koark; Eighth Ward, 
Michael J. Hayden; Ninth Ward, Daniel J. Murphy; Tenth 
Ward, Mathew C. Clark; Eleventh Ward, Alfred Booth; 
Twelfth Ward, William H. McCall; Thirteenth Ward, 
Joseph C. Griffin; Fourteenth Ward, Robert Geer; Fifteenth 
Ward, James Skillicorn; Sixteenth Ward, Alonzo B. Voor- 
hees; Seventeenth Ward, Thomas J. Reilly. 


First Ward, John Clark; Second Ward, Frank Rockwell; 
Third Ward, Charles M. Nadeau; Fourth Ward, John 
Groves: Fifth Ward, Neil Morris. 


Berne, Thomas J. Wood; Bethlehem, W. C. Hotaling; 
Coeymans, Estes H. Strevel; Guilderland, Aaron Fuller; 
Knox, Wm. J. Haverly; New Scotland, Hiram Becker; 
Rensselaerville, Hercules Sayre ; Watervliet, Joseph Ander- 
son; Westerlo, Anson C. Requa. 

President, Edward A. Mayer. 

Clerk, Thomas H. Craven. 

Journal Clerk, John A. Lawless. 

County Physician, Dr. R. D. Clark. 

Doorkeeper, Bernard Ross. 

Coroner^' Physicians, Drs. H. R. Starkweather, P. H. 
Keegan, M. J. Lewi and G. H. Billings. 

County Sealer of Weights and Measures, John Powers. 

Counsel for Overseers of the Poor, Mr. D. Conway. 

County Papers, Daily Argus and Daily Express. 

After considerable business relative to peniten- 
tiary matters, of which we shall give an account in 
another place, the Board adjourned. 

At a special meeting held May 24 the President 
announced the Standing Committees for the ensuing 

At a meeting of the Board held July 27 it was re- 
sojved that the office of the Coroners of Albany 
County should be located in the rooms of the Su- 
pervisors, and that John P- Masterson be and he 
was appointed a clerk to said Coroners, his duties 
to assist as clerk to each of said Coroners in their 
official duties, and to keep a record of and file each 
inquisition; also to act as Clerk to the Committee 
on Coroners and Physicians of the Board, the 
salary not to exceed $100 per month, the County 
Treasurer to pay the same. 

At a meeting held November 14 the Clerk pre- 
sented the following statement : 

The Board of Equalization of Taxes have fixed the 
aggregate valuation of property in the County of Albany at 
the sum of $74,051,676, upon which amount a State tax of 
$181,426.61 must be levied for the current fiscal year begin- 
ning October [, 1882, as i^rovided in chapter 312, laws of 
1859, and amendments thereto, by chap. 351, laws of 1814, 
being 2 .^^ mills on the dollar, for the following purposes: 

For schools i y^ir ™i"s, chap. 296, laws 1882 

For general purposes .. . y^j " " 296 " 1882 
F'or canals /,% " " 208 " 1882 

Total 2f^^ mills. 

Non-resident taxes credited to Albany County for 1881 
amounted to $19.74- 

On November 21 Mr. Weaver, from the Com- 
mittee on State Equalization, presented the follow- 
ing statement : 

Equalized valuation of real estate of Albany 

County for the year 1881 $63,460,776 

Amount the County should have increased to 
retain its relative proportion with other coun- 
ties in the State 1,906,772 

The amount it would then have been equalized 

on real estate for 1882 $65,367,548 

The amount it is equalized for 1882 65, 162,456 

Amount of reduction $205,092 

Amount of Albany County's increase $1,906,772 

Amount added by State Board of Equalization . 1,701,680 

Difference in favor of Albany County . 


The amount of State tax for this year is $29,837.94 
greater than last year, and is accounted for as follows : 

Increase of personal estate $4,977,260 

Increase of real estate 1,701,680 


This amount, multiplied by la'st year's rate, 

2% mills on the dollar, produces $15,027.61 

Total amount of equalized real and personal 
($74,05 1,676) for 1882, multiplied by one-fifth 
of a mill, the Increase over 1881 14,810.33 


On November 28 the Clerk presented the Annual 
Report of the Coroners. 

The report of Richard Scully shows that from 
October 16, 18S1, to November 10, inclusive, there 
were 33 post mortem examinations with juries con- 
ducted before him. Peter Lasch reports 44 inquests 
held by him during the 3'earsof 1881-2 with jurors. 

The first annual report of James McCann states 
that he held 30 inquests during the year 1882, from 
January 22 to November 24. 

Richard Johnson reported 19 inquests held by him 
since November 24, 1 881, to September 26, 1882. 

On December 4 Mr. Sayre, from the Committee 
on Assessment Rolls, presented the following: 

Statement of the Real and Personal Prop- 
erty in Albany County as assessed in i88z. 

Total real in City of Albany . 
Total personal " " 

61,117,810 00 
6,432.332 00 

Real in City of Cohoes $3,410,079 00 

Personal" " 361,50000 

S67,55o>342 00 

3,771,579 00 

Towns, real estate $17,076,329 73 

personal 1,053,33493 


Grand total 589,451,585 66 

It was also resolved to raise by tax on property in 
the City of Albany the sum of $720,789.37 for the 
several contingent expenses of the city for hospitals, 
nurseries and temporary out-door relief of the poor, 
and for rebuilding Beaver Creek arch, at Philip 

On December 8 Mr. Requa, from the Committee 
on Equalization, presented the following report, 
which, on the next meeting, December 9, was 




City of Albany, real $48,977,620 00 

" " personal 6,432,53200 

$55,410,152 00 

City of Cohoes, real $9,472,697 00 

" " personal 361,50000 

— ^ 9>834.i97oo 

Towns, real £1,604,218 73 

" personal 7,847,366 93 

Grand total, includint; towns $89,451,585 66 

On December 14 a special session of the Board 
met at two p. m., pursuant to a call of the Presi- 

The object of this call was "for the purpose of 
taking suitable action regarding the death of the 
wife of Supervisor Geer, of the Fourteenth Ward." 

A motion was made to appoint a committee of 
three to draft resolutions to be reported at evening 
session. Messrs. Voorhees, Capron and McCall 
were named by the President as such committee. 

On motion the Board adjourned. 

At the evening session Mr. Voorhees reported 
the following: 

Resolved, That the members of this Board most sincerely 
sympathize with their associate, Robert Geer, in the irre- 
parable loss he has sustained in the death of his wife, and 
extend to him the assurance of their heartfelt sorrow. 

At the meeting of the Board, held December 22, 
that body tendered their most cordial thanks to 
their efficient President, Edward A. Maher, for 
the impartial manner in which he had presided 
over their deliberations; and they collectively and 
individually conveyed to him in the resolution the 
official and personal assurance of esteem and 

It was further resolved that the members of the Board 
"not only recognize but fully appreciate the invaluable 
services of the attentive, courteous and competent Clerk, 
Thomas H. Craven, and that we not only deem it a pleasure, 
but feel it to be a duty, to thus publicly and officially recog- 
nize our obligations to him for the faithful and conscientious 
performance of his important duties." 

After a very pleasant but brief address from the 
President the Board adjourned s-OTg die. 

1883. — Proceedings of the Board of Supervisors 
of Albany County at their annual meeting, May 8, 
1883. Members present : 


First Ward, George J. Goetz; Second Ward, Thomas 
Powers; Third Ward, Wm. Casey, Fourth Ward, Patrick 
Cuddy ; Fifth Ward, Peter J McGowan ; Sixth Ward, 
Andrew Vanderzee; Seventh Ward, Edward Roark; Eighth 
Ward, Michael J. Hayden; Ninth Ward, Daniel J. Murphy; 
Tenth Ward, Frederick Stackman; Eleventh Ward, Alfred 
Booth; Twelfth Ward, Wm. H. McCall; Thirteenth Ward, 
Joseph C. Griffin; Fourteenth Ward, Robert Geer; Fifteenth 
Ward, James Skillicorn; Sixteenth Ward, Edwin Ellis; 
Seventeenth Ward, Thomas Reilly. 

First Ward, Marcus Kennedy; Second Ward, Truman 
W. Reynolds; Third Ward, Charles M. Nadeau; Fourth 
Ward, Jared H. Blair; Fifth Ward, Neil Morris. 

Berne, Thomas J. Wood; Bethlehem, John L. Winne; 
Coeymans, Lansing Shear; Guilderland, Aaron Fuller; 
Knox, Charles G. Frink; New Scotland, Hiram Becker; 

Rensselaerville, Hercules Say re ; Watervliet, Nicholas Kane ; 
Westerlo, Anson C. Requa. 

President, Anson C. Requa; Clerk, Thomas H. Craven; 
Journal Clerk, John J. Dunphy; Doorkeeper, John J. Mc- 
Caffrey; County Physician, U. B. La Moure; Counsel to 
Overseer of Poor, George Parr; County Sealer of Weights 
and Measures, Jacob S. Scrafford. 

At a meeting of the Board, held May 24, the 
President announced the Standing Committees. 

At the next meeting, November 14, the balloting 
for coroners' physicians resulted as follows : 

Dr. J. H. Moore, Dr. F. L. Classen, Dr. D. P. Shevelin 
and Dr. G. H. Billings. 

The Argus ■s.xiA Journal were declared as County 

Charles L. Pease was appointed Committee Clerk 
to this Board. 

It was resolved that the regular sessions of the 
Board should be held on Monday, Tuesday, 
\\'ednesday and Thursday at 8.15 p. m. 

The Clerk presented the following statement : 

The Board of Equalization of Taxes, in pursuance of 
chapter 312 of the laws of 1859, fixed the aggregale valua- 
tion of property in Albany County at the sum of $76,442,516, 
upon which amount a State tax of $248,438.18 must be 
levied for the current year, commencing October i, 1883, 
as provided in said act and amendments thereto, by chapter 
351, laws of 1874, being Si^a, mills on the dollar, for the 
following purposes: 

Schools 'tbtit "ii"s, per chapter 376, laws 1883. 

General purposes. . i^W,,- mills, per chapter 376, laws 1883. 

For Canals 'rffo^ff mills, per chapters 373, 471, 495, 

laws 1883. 

Total . 


The non-resident taxes credited to tlie County for 1S82 
amoinit to $273.50. 

Coroners' Reports. — The Second Annual report 
of James J. McCann gives the number of inquests 
held by him during the years 1882-3 to be 44. 
The Third Annual report of Richard Scully for 
the same years shows 1 6 cases. 

Coroner Thomas Nolan reported 12 inquests 
held by him during the year 1883, from January 
8 to October 30. 

The Third Annual report of Coroner Peter Lasch 
shows that 40 inquests were held by him durino- 
the years 1882-3, fro^n December 2, 1882, to No° 
vember 16, 1883. 

At the meeting of the Board held November 12 
the President presented the 

Report OF THE Committee ON State Equaliza- 
tion. — There had been two tables presented by 
the State Assessors to the State Board of Equaliza- 
tion for adoption, but neither were accepted. On 
October 10 a table was presented which was further 
amended, and the Committee adopted ; it was as 
follows : 

Assessed valuation of real estate $81,604,218 

Deduction made from real estate 13,009,060 

Equalized real estate $68,595, '49 

Personal estate 7 g^y o5y 

Total equalized real and personal, as corrected. $76,442, 5 16 

Making a reduction, as between the tables of 

October 4 and 10, of $912,879 



The Clerk presented the following : 

Bonds of the City of Albany to the amount of $100,000, 
bearing interest at the rate of seven per cent., were issued 
for the construction of the High School building, the prin- 
cipal of which is payable in ten annual installments of 
$10,000 each. There will be required for the said annual 
payment $10,000, and ior interest on bonds $1,050, as fol- 
lows : Six months' niterest on $20,000, $700, and six months' 
interest on $10,000, $350. 

The Committee on Assessment Rolls presented 
the following report : 

Statement of the Real and Personal Property of Aibaiiy 
County as Assessed in 188^. 

City of Albany, real estate $60,750,120 00 

" " personal 6,480,735 00 

Total $67,230,855 00 

City of Cohoes, real $3,403,827 00 

" " personal 399,99000 

Total $3,803,817 00 

Towns, real estate $20,338,235 18 

" personal 1,107,89600 

Total $21,446,131 18 

Grand total $92,480,803 18 

jMr. Fuller, from the Committee on Equalization 
of Ta.Kes, presented the following report : 




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At a meeting of the Board December 7 the 
following was adopted : 

Resolved, That the rate of taxation be fixed as follows for 
the following towns and the City of Cohoes for the year 
1883 on each $100 of the assessed valuation : 

Berne, $1.04; Bethlehem, $1.36; Coeymans, $1.42; Guil- 
derland, $1.34; Knox, $1.44; New Scotland, 82 cents; 
Reiisselaerville, 86 cents; Westerlo, 66 cents; Watervliet, 
1st district, 86 cents; Watervliet, 2d district. West Troy 
and (Jrecn Island, 78 cents; City of Cohoes, $1.76. 

County Treasurer's Report. — Robert Gallup, 
Count}' Treasurer for the County of Albany, states 
in his report that the amount on hand at last re- 
port was $1,050. 53. This amount, together with 
all receipts of the office for the year ending No- 
vember 30, 1883, amounts to $928,229.81. The 
disbursements for the same time amount to 
$928,229.81, including a balance on hand of 

The Board adjourned January 11, 1884, after 
tendering sincere and heartfelt thanks to President 
Anson C. Requa, and the Clerk, Thomas H. 
Craven, who replied in very eloquent addresses. 

1884. — Annual Spring Session held at their 
rooms in the New City Hall, in the City of Albany, 
May 13, 1884. Members present: 


First Ward, George J. Goetz; .Second Ward, Michael J. 
Nolan; Third Ward, William Casey; Fourth Ward, Patrick 
Cuddy; Fifth Ward, Peter J. McGowan; Sixth Ward, 
Thomas C. Jeffers; Seventh Ward, Marshall Tebbutt; 
Eighth Ward, Michael J. Haydcn; Ninth Ward, Wm. F. 
Reedy; Tenth Ward, Frederick Stackman; Eleventh Ward, 
Meredith Burke; Twelfth Ward, James J. Wise; Thirteenth 
Ward, Joseph C. Griffin; Fourteenth Ward, Robert Geer; 
Fifteenth Ward, John T. Bi-ady; Sixteenth Ward, James 
Stackhouse; Seventeenth Ward, George Holler. 

First Ward, Marcus Kennedy; Second Ward, Truman W. 
Reynolds; Third Ward, Charles M. Nadeau; Fourth Ward, 
John P. Weber; Filth Ward, George W. Smith. 

Berne, Thomas J. Wood; Bethlehem, John L. Winne; 
Coyemans, Richard S. Blodgett; Guilderland, Aaron Fuller; 
Knox, Charles G. Frink; New Scotland, Charles Wood; 
Rensselaerville, Jacob B. Norwood ; Watervliet, Nicholas T. 
Kane; Westerlo, Anson C. Requa. 

Chairman, Anson C. Requa; Clerk, Thomas H. Craven; 
Journal Clerk, Elbert E. Richmond; Doorkeeper, Joseph 
Johnson; County Physician, Dr. U. B. La Moure; Coun-el 
to Overseer of Poor, Tliomas F. Connor; Sealer of Weights 
and Measures, Jacob S. Scrafford. 

A recess was taken till the afternoon, when a 
joint meeting was called. 

The committee appointed introduced Hon. A. 
Bleecker Banks, Mayor, and Anthony Gould, 

The Mayor acted as Chairman and the Recorder 
as Secretary of the meeting, and Mr. T. H. Craven 

IMr. Greer offered a resolution in which the 
Superintendent of the Penitentiary should be le- 
quested to furnish the Board with copies of all con- 
tracts made by him for the labor of prisoners; also 
lor copies of contracts made with the United States 
and with counties in regard to the terms on which 



their prisoners are maintained in that institution, 

It was also resolved that the Superintendents and 
Inspectors of the Penitentiary be and are pro- 
hibited from renewing existing contracts, or making 
an}' new ones, for the maintenance of prisoners of 
other counties or of the United States. 

Working Men's Assembly. — This organization, 
one of the most important in the Cit}- of Albany, 
often memorialized the Boartl in regard to matters 
touching the interests of the laboring classes, 
always respectfully. The\' were always given 
a respectful hearing. 

Special Meeting. — On August i8 the Board 
met to take action relative to the death of William 
Casey, Supervisor of the Third Ward, City of 
Albany. A committee of five, consisting of Messrs. 
Brady, Nolan, Goetz, Cudd\- and Stackman, was 
appointed to draft suitable resolutions. 

Mr. Brady addressed the Board in touching and 
appropriate language, and at the close of his ad- 
dress the Committee presented their resolutions, 
which were adopted. The address and resolutions 
are in ever}' respect worthy the character of Mr. 
Casey, while they reflect great credit upon their 
authors and are embellishments to the records of 
the Board of Supervisors of the County. 

The Board thereupon adjourned. 

Regul.vr Session of the Board of Supervisors 
met at the City Hall, November 12, 1884, for the 
fall session. AH members present. 

The election of Coroners' Phj'sicians then took 
place. The following were elected: 

Drs. S. C. Heale}', Frederick L. Classen, J. H. 
Billings, Wm. Hagedorn. 

County Papers. — The ballot for the County 
papers for the ensuing year resulted in the election 
of the Argus and Express. 

On motion the salary of the Coroners' Ph3'sicians 
was fixed at $600 per annum, their term of office 
to begin November 20, 1884. 

Annual Report of the Coroners. — The an- 
nual account of Michael H. Murray shows 29 in- 
quests held by him during 1884; James C. Mc- 
Cann shows 28 inquests; Richard Scully, 17; 
Thomas Nolan, 9; Peter Lasch, 2; total, 85. 

A71 Unconstitutional Law relative to Grand Jurors. 
— By chapter 532 of the laws of 1881, an impor- 
tant innovation was made relative to the selection 
of Grand Jurors in Albany and one or two other 
cities in the State. It provided : 

That the duties assigned the Supervisor, Town Cicrk or 
Assessors by the Revised Statutes in regard to Grand 
Jurors should be performed by the Recorder of the City of 
Albany. It provided that in Alljany County Grand Jurors 
should, after the passage of that act, be drawn from the 
box containing the names of Petit Jurors selected for said 
County, in the same manner as Petit Jurors, and that there- 
after no separate list of Grand Jurors should be prepared 
for said County. Under thi.s law a Grand Jury was drawn 
which convened for the May Term of the Albany Oyer and 
Terminer for 1882, .at whicli Term, and by said Grand Jury, 

one James Dempsey, and two others, were indicted for 


On that trial they were convicted, and the verdict was ap- 
pealed from to the General Term of the Supreme Court, 
where the conviction was affirmed. From the judgment of 
the Supreme Court an appeal was taken to the Court of 
Appeals, where the judgment of conviction was set aside 
on several points raised by the counsel for the prisoners, 
but chiefly on the ground that the Act of 1881, to which we 
referred, was imconstitutional, in that the bill resulting in 
the act was a private or local bill and against the provisions 
of Article 3, Sec. 18, of the Constitution as amended No- 
vember 3, 1874, which provides that the Legislature shall 
not pass a private or local bill in any of the following cases: 

Selecting, Drawing, Summoning or Im-paneling Grand or 
Petit yurors. — As this provision is qualified by Section 25 
of the same article, which provides : 

" Sections 17 and 18 of this Article shall not apply to any 
bill or the amendments to any bill which shall be reported 
to the Legislature by Commissioners who have been ap- 
pointed pursuant to law to revise the Statutes ; that the 
Statutes show that there had been no such officers as ' Com- 
missioners who had been appointed pursuant to law to re- the Statutes ' subseciuent to May i, 1878, and, there- 
fore, said chapter 532 could not have been reported as pro- 
vided for in said section 25 ; " 

The counsel for the defendants, Mr. E. J. Meegan, 
brought all the Acts of 1870, 1873, 1874, 1876 and 1877 in 
regard to the amendment of the Code and of the various 
constitutional amendments touching the Political Code, the 
Penal Code,- the Code of Civil Procedure and the Civil Code 
into consideration against the constitutionality of the Act of 
1881, to which we have alluded, and, as we have said, the 
Act in regard to the drawing of Grand Jurors in the County 
of Albany was declared unconstitutional. It therefore be- 
came the duty of the Supervisors of Albany County for 1884 
to select Grand Jurors for the then ensuing year, under the 
general law, which requires that the Board shall prepare a 
list of 300 men between the ages of twenty-one and sixty, 
owners of real estate either in their own names or in that of 
their wives, or assessed on personal property for at least 
the sum of $250, and inhabitants of the town or ward in 
which they were selected. 

The importance of the foregoing to this work, and to the 
general reader, will be appreciated. We have presented 
the subject at some length, because it is not only one of the 
most interesting but important matters found in the history 
of Supervisors of Albany Comity. 

Citizens' Association of Albany. — We have occa- 
sionally alluded to this highly important organiza- 
tion. It is proper to add that it has been engaged for 
some years, with the assistance of counsel, in the 
examination of County charges, and the legal 
grounds and authority for the same. 

The citizens comprising this association have 
alwaj's been of the highest standing. A careful ex- 
amination of their work in regard to bills, especially 
their work for 1884, convinces us, as it would all 
who examine it, of the great value and usefulness 
to the County of this association, and the conscien- 
tious manner in which they discharged their dut}'. 
The Executive Committee of it for 1884 were Mar- 
cus T. Hun, C. P. Williams and Mathew Hale. 

Increased Valuation of Real Estate. — The 
Committee appointed to appear before the State 
Board of Equalization in behalf of the interests of 
Albany County reported that the total increased 
assessed valuation of real estate of the State for the 
year 1883 was $111,954,771, of which Albany's 
portion would be §3,000,246. This, assuming 
the equalization of 1883 correct, would have made 
the equalization of 1884 as follows ; 



Equalization of real estate for 1883 $68,595,149 

To which add above increase 3,000,246 

Equalization made by State Board, 1884 71,273,649 

Reduction on equalization for 18S4 $321,749 

Making the following statement of Alban)' 
County for the j-ear 1884 : 

Equalized valuation of real estate $71,273,649 

To which add personal property 7,558,621 


While the foregoing statement is, to some ex- 
tent, gratifying, yet it does not measure out to Al- 
bany County that degree of justice to which it is 

Assessment of Property, 1884. — At a meeting 
of the Board, December 2, ]Mr. Brady, Chairman 
of the Committee of Assessments, presented a state- 
ment of the real and personal property in the 
County of Alban}', as assessed in 1884 ; 

City of Albany, real $60,961,465 00 

" " personal 6,339,417 00 

Total $67,300,882 00 

City of Cohoes, real $3,580,205 00 

** *' personal 394,120 00 

Total $3,974,325 00 

Towns, real $21,909,250 29 

personal 1.558,553 94 

Total $23,467,804 23 

Grand total $94,743,01 1 23 

Equalized Valuation. — On December 4, Mr. 
Fuller, from the Committee on Equalization of 
Taxes, presented a statement exhibiting the 
equalized valuation of the County of Albany for 
the year 1884: 

City of Albany, real estate $5r,g93,990 

" " personal <'i339>4i7 

Total 858,333,407 

Cohoes, real estate $10,080,177 

" personal 394, 120 

Total $10,474,297 

This amount, with the real and personal property 
of the towns, which comprised the value of 301,- 
328|- acres, amounted to: 

Total real estate $86,450,920 29 

** personal 8,292,090 94 

Grand total $94, 743,01 1 23 

Albert Gallup, County Treasurer, presented the 
following communication to the President of the 
Board : 

"The following balances are due the County of 
Albany, Dec. 4, 1884, as shown by the books in 
the Treasurer's office :" 

City of Albany $82,593 '2 

' ' Cohoes 5, 102 65 

Town of Berne 4,237 13 

" Bethlehem 3^9 53 

" Coeymans 1.05S 04 

' ' Guilderland 288 47 

' ' Knox 35 90 

" New Scotland 146 85 

" Rensselaerville 3.536 76 

' ' Westcrlo 662 1 2 

898,047 57 
Town of Watervliet has a credit balance 260 14 

Leaving amount due county $97,778 43 

Rate of Taxation of City of Albany. — The 
rate of taxation for the City of Albany was fixed as 
follows upon each $100 of the assessed valuation 
for City and County purposes; 

City of Albany, for that portion added to the city in 
1870, S1.03; portion west of Allen street, $1.04; remainder 
of city, $2.04; corporations which pay State tax to Comp- 
troller, 81. 78X. 

The rate of taxation fixed for the town of Water- 
vliet for 1884 on each $100 of assessed valuation: 

Watervliet, First District, 72c.; Watervliet, Second 
District, West Troy, Green Island, 75c. 

treasurer's report. 

The Treasurer's report of the County for the 
year ending Nov. 29, 1884, shows the re- 
ceipts in his office to have been $903, 149 38 

Disbursements 903,149 38 

Balance on hand $18,597 86 

Burial and Headstones for Soldiers. — On 
Januar}' 11, 1884, the Board adopted a resolution 
requiring the Clerk to keep an account of the 
amount paid for the burial and for headstones for 
deceased soldiers of the late war, under section 4, 
chapter 354, laws of 1884. In pursuance of said 
resolution and said law, the Treasurer presented a 
ver}- interesting and extended report showing the 
number of soldiers who had died in the County of 
Albany during the year 1884, the name of each 
soldier, the company and regiment to which he 
belonged, his age, time and place of death, the 
amount of expenses paid for burial and to whom 
paid. The report shows the number of soldiers 
who died in the County during the year to be 46. 
The burial expenses of each soldier was $35. The 
total amount paid for these burials during the 
year was 1 1,600. 

preservation or public records and books. 

On Dec. 17, 1884, Wm. D. Strevell, Clerk of 
the Count}-, presented an interesting communica- 
tion to the Board, stating that a quantity of valua- 
ble record books removed from the Ci't}- Hall at 
the time of the fire were scattered over the floor in 
a confused condition in one of the rooms in the 
tower of the new City Hall, where the}- had been 
placed after its completion. The communication 
also showed that further neglect would be highly 
injurious to them; that Messrs. Wheeler B. Mehus 
and Daniel Casey, long familiar with the records 
of the County Clerk's office, had offered to arrange 
the papers, records and books for thesum of |i,ooo; 



and it was strongly recommended that the sum be 
appropriated for that purpose. 

The Citizens' Association having examined the 
records referred to in the communication, Hon. J. 
Howard King, President of the Association, 
indorsed the said communication, whereupon it 
was adopted by the Board by a vote of 24 ayes to 
I no. 

It is gratifying to state that at this writing, 
March 11, 1885, the work referred to in this com- 
munication, important and difficult as it was, has 
been completed in a most satisfactory manner, and 
the books, papers and records are easily accessible 
to all parties desiring to examine them. 

The last proceedings of the Board which we have 

been able to obtain were under date of Dec. 18, 
1884, which includes the above. 

Thus we conclude our history of the Board of 
Supervisors of the County of Albany, embracing a 
period of over a century and a half Notwith- 
standing the difficulties we have encountered in 
obtaining a regular line of records by lapse of 
time, and the destruction of some by fire, we feel 
it is not affectation to say that through the courte- 
ous aid of the custodian of papers and documents, 
and of the generosity of private citizens and former 
officials who have valuable documents, we have 
been able to present a history which must be of 
much value and interest to the people of the 



Bj' Ij. B. PH,0<J'r< )«,, Esci. 

ALBANY has long been the seat of the law-mak- 
ing power of the State ; here the great courts 
of dernier ressort have held their sittings since the 
adoption of the first constitution. Here, too, the 
Supreme Court of the State, presided over by the 
ablest jurists in the nation, has held its regular terms, 
from 1777 down to 1885. Here, also, for nearly two 
centuries, other important courts have pronounced 
the laws. 

Among the judges and lawyers who have con- 
ducted these courts " there have been many diver- 
sities of talents and abilities. There have been 
those of the Bar who were listened to wholly for 
their intellectual qualities, for the wit or the wis- 
dom, the learning or the philosophy, which charac- 
terized their efforts. There have been those whose 
main attraction was a curious felicity and facility of 
illustration and description, adorned by the richest 
gems which could be gathered by historical re- 
search or classic study. There have been those to 
whom the charms of manner, the graces of elocu- 
tion and the melody of voice were the all-sufficient 
recommendation to applause. There have been 
those who owed their success more to opportunity 
and occasion, to some stirring theme or some ex- 
citing emergency, than to any peculiar attributes 
of their own. And we may say that there have 
been those who combined in a large degree all of 
these qualities." 

In writing the history of the Bench and Bar of 
Albany County one feels as though he was writing 
the Bench and Bar of the State itself, such is the 
commanding influence they have had and still have 
in legal history. In entering on our duty we shall 
begin with the first organization of courts of justice 
in the county. 


Courts of justice were organized in the colony 
of New York by the English, under the authority 
of the code known as the " Duke's Laws." The 
principal courts were, at first, the Court of Sessions 
and Town Courts, but very soon after authority was 
given for the organization of Courts of Oyer and 
Terminer. The Dutch Court of Burgomasters and 
Schepens was changed to Mayor's Court. 

The above comprised what may be called the 
first judicial system, which existed from 1665 to 
1683; we do not find the record of any Court of 
03'er and Terminer, or of Court of Sessions, or of 
Town Courts, that were held in the County of 
Albany during this period. 

The second judicial system existed from 1683 to 
1691. The Town or Justices' Courts, Court of 
Sessions and of Oyer and Terminer were continued, 
and a Court of Chancery established. 

The third judicial system was inaugurated in 
1 69 1, and continued during the colonial period. 



It preserves the courts previously established, and 
added for the first time a Court of Common Pleas 
and a Supreme Court. 

The Court of Oyer and Terminer was made a 
criminal side of the Supreme Court, as it is now of 
the present Supreme or Circuit Court. We find no 
record of the proceedings of any of those courts 
of the County of Albany during this period of any 
importance, excepting the Court of Common 
Pleas, and some proceedings of a Court of Sessions 
that seems to have existed. There was, during 
this period, a Mayor's Court in the City of Albany 
having civil and criminal jurisdiction, composed of 
the Mayor and Aldermen. 

In 1683 an act was passed "to settle courts of 
justice," which directed a Court of Oyer and Ter- 
miner to be held in the respective counties of the 
province, composed of one judge, assisted by four 
justices of the peace of each county. 

In the City of New York and the City of 
Albany, the Mayor, Recorder and four Alder- 
men were associated with the judge. This 
court had jurisdiction over all capital criminal 
causes, trials at common law. It had appellate 
jurisdiction of five pounds or upward ; the au- 
thority for holding the court was derived from the 
Provincial Governor ; the court was abolished May 
6, 1691. Though this court held its sittings regu- 
larly at Albany, no record of an}- importance can 
be found of them. 

Court of Sessions. — In 1683 an act was passed 
directing that a Court of Sessions be held, by three 
justices of the peace, in each of the twelve counties 
of the province, as follows: In New York four times, 
in Albany three times, and in the remainder of the 
counties twice in each year. In the City of New 
York this court was held by the Ma3'or and four 
Aldermen. In the Cit}' of Albany it was held by 
the Mayor and the Justices of the Peace. It deter- 
mined all causes, civil and criminal, by a jury; but 
actions exceeding five pounds could be removed, 
upon application, to the Court of Oyer and Termi- 
ner. Its officers were a marshal, a crier and a 

We find a record of a Court of Sessions held at 
Albany in 171 7, as follows : 

" At a Court of Sessions, held in the City 
Hall of Albany, this 4th day of January, 

"Present — Robt. Livingston, Jr., Esq., il/ajw.-' 

Here follow the names of eight Justices of the 
Peace who were associated with the Mayor in 
holding the Court. 

" The Court opened and the Grand Jury called, 
who were sworn." 

There were fifteen Grand Jurors present, and 
Richard Kitchner was made foreman. 

"The Grand Jury being sworn and charge 
given, the Court adjourned until three o'clock in 
the afternoon. 

" The Court opened according to adjournment. 
The Sheriff moves that Ruben Veghts, who was 
summoned for a Grand Juryman, may be amerced 
for not appearing, who is hereb}- amerced accord- 

"The Court adjourned till to-morrow morning." 

The record shows that the Court met according 
to adjournment the next morning. 

' ' The Sheriff moves that Daniel Kitchner, who 
was a constable of Half Moon & Schatkook, may 
be amerced 1 3/1 8 for not appearing and attending 
this Court, which was granted according!}-. " 

The Court then adjourned sine die. 

It appears that no business was transacted at 
this Court except opening it, calling, charging and 
swearing the Grand Jury, and amercing one juror 
and a constable for non-attendance. 

The next Court was held on the first day of 
October, 1717, but no particular business was 
transacted except organizing the Grand Jury. 

" At a Court of Sessions, held in the City 
Hall of Albany, this 4th day of October, 
' ' Present — Myndert Schuyler, Esq. , Mayor, 

and twelve Justices. 
"Conradt Borghgaert and Elias Van Schaick, 
being called to appear to answer to the indictment 
brought against them by the Grand Jury for steal- 
ing potatoes, they both appear. The indict- 
ment was read to them and asked whether they 
were guilty or not guilty. They plead not guilty. 
The Petit Jury was called and sworn. Four wit- 
nesses were sworn. The Jury went out and a 
constable was sworn to keep them. The jury re- 
turn and find Conradt Borghgaert and Elias Van 
Schaick not guilty. 

singular judgment. 

' ' ]Mr. Collins, Attorney for the King, moves that 
they be discharged, paying costs of suit ; the Court 
give judgment for costs accordingly." 

The Colonial Courts had a singular way of con- 
ducting business. Here were two persons indicted 
for stealing, who plead not guilty ; were brought 
to trial before a jury, who pronounced them not 
guilty ; whereupon the Attorney for his Majesty 
the King of England moves that they be dis- 



charged, paying the costs of their trial, and the 
Court directed a judgment to be entered against 
them for the costs according!}', although found in- 
nocent of any crime. The question occurs to us, 
wliat would have been their fate had they been 
found guilty ? 

We find the following entry in the records 
of the Court of Sessions, held on the 6th day of 
June, 1722 : 

"The Grand Jury sent in a presentment against 
Jacob Vosburgh, Esq., for giving a judgment 
which was not in his power, concerning a cow, the 
goods of John Bernhard. 

"Entered, that Peter Van Buren, Esq., acquaint 
Jacob Vosburgh, Esq., of the presentment brought 
against him, concerning the judgment, that he had 
no business to give, that he may appear at next 
Court of Sessions to make answer to ye same." 

The following subpoena was issued in the case of a 
negro woman, named Nan, arrested for willfully set- 
ting on fire and burning the stable of Johanis Wen- 
dell, of the City of Albany : 

' ' City and County of Albany, ss. : 

" George, By the grace of God, of Great Britain, 
France and Ireland, King, Defender of the Faith, 

"To Eliza Lansing and Hendric Ten Eyck. We 
command you and every of }'ou that, all and sin- 
gular, your business set aside, and all excuses ceas- 
ing, you and every of you, in your proper persons, 
be and appear before our Court of Sessions of the 
City and County of Albany, in the City Hall 
therein, on the third day of this instant July, at one 
o'clock in the afternoon of that day, to testify all 
and singular, those things which 3'ou or any of you 
of your knowledge or notice may know in a certain 
cause now depending before the said Court, and on 
behalf of his Majesty, by bill or information, against 
a negro woman, of Abraham Kip, of the citj', called 
'Nan,' on suspicion of burning the stable of 
Johanis Wendell, of the said cit}'. And of this you 
and every one of you must by no means omit, un- 
der penalty of ^100. 

"Dated, in Albany, the second day of July, in the 
eighth year of his Majesty's reign, A. D. 1722. 

' ' Per cura, 
' ' Philip Livingston. " 

severe puin'ishment. 
The negro woman Nan was brought to trial 
at the time mentioned in the said subpoena, and 
was convicted of burning the building therein 
named, whereupon the following sentence was pro- 
nounced : 

" It having been adjudged that the said negro 
woman, called 'Nan,' is guilty of the crime 
charged against her ; she shall, therefore, within the 
space of ten days, be whipped behind a cart, on 
the naked back, twenty lashes, round this cit}', at 
the places following : Before the City Hall ; at the 
corner of the house of Jobs. Teller ; at the corner 
of the house of Jacob Yetts, Jun. ; at the corner 
of the house of Jobs. Ten Broek ; before the gate 
of John Wendell, and before the gate of Anthony 
Van Schaack, double the lashes ; then at the cor- 
ner of the house of Stephanis Groesbeck ; at the cor- 
ner of the house of Jan Jans Bleeker ; at the 
corner of the house of Jobs. Bleeker, Jun. ; at the 
corner of the house of Philip Livingstoji ; at the 
corner of the house of John Manse, ; at the corner 
of the house of the widow of John Dircks ; at the 
corner of the house of Jacob Lansing ; at the cor- 
ner of the house of Jobs. Dangler ; at the corner of 
the house of Anna Mary Carnisie ; at the Great 
Bridge, and then at the City Hall, five lashes ; after 
that to be imprisoned for the space of one year, 
unless her master will enter into bond and suffi- 
cient security to export her out of this province, 
and pay the charge of her imprisonment. 

"Copy of this judgment given to a constable to 
be executed." 


At a Court of Sessions held in the City of Albany, 
at the City Hall, on the 4th day of August, 1722, 
the Grand Jury sent up the following presentment : 

"The jurors of our Sovereign Lord the King, 
impaneled and sworn to enquire for the body of 
the City and County of Alban)', on their oath pre- 
sent Philip Verplanck, of the City of Albany, sur- 
veyor, for that he, the said Verplanck, on the 28th 
day of May last, without the gates of the said city, 
at a bonfire, did make disturbance, and hindered 
Myndert Schuyler, Esq., one of his Majesty's 
Justices of the Peace of the said city and county, 
in drinking the health of the Royal Family at the 
said bonfire. 

' ' (Signed) Johs. Mangael, Foreman. " 

The following entry was made, at a subsequent 
day of said term, and the case was thus disposed 

" Philip Verplanck, of this city, who was bound 
over to appear at this Court by recognizance, being 
called and appeared ; ordered that he be discharged 
on paying the fees." 

There are some records of the Colonial Court of 
Sessions missing after the term of the Court held 
January 8, 1723 ; but it continued to hold its reg- 



ular sessions down to 1775, when it was discon- 
tinued by the opening scenes of the Revohition. 

The Mayor's Court of Albany, to which we 
have referred, was a very important tribunal; there 
exists a pretty iull record of its proceedings in 
Albany, entitled, " Minutes of the Mayor's Court of 
Albany." Many persons are inclined to the opinion, 
from some of the entries in these records, that it 
had the jurisdiction and was a court of sessions; 
we find no other record of a court of sessions of 
that period. 

In 1686 Albany was incorporated as a city, and 
provisions were made for holding a Mayor's Court 
three times a year. The Mayor, Recorder and four 
Aldermen were associated with the judge in holding 
the Courts of Ojer and Terminer. We shall give 
some of the proceedings of this court hereafter. 

The Supreme Court was originally established 
in this State by Act of the Colonial Legislature, 
May 6, 1691, and continued by limitation to 1698; 
after this it was continued by proclamation, and 
finally by ordinance of the Governor-General and 
Council, dated May 15, 1699. 

It was empowered to try all cases, civil or crimi- 
iial, with jurisdiction and pro'cedure like the Eng- 
lish courts of King's Bench, Common Pleas and 
Exchequer, and was possessed of all the powers of 
those courts ; but it had no equity side. By a sub- 
sequent act of the General Assembly the judges 
were made Judges of Nisi Prius, and annually 
performed a circuit through the counties of the 
State, at which time they had a commission of 
Oyer and Terminer and General Jail Delivery, in 
which some of the county judges were joined. 

Regular terms of Nisi Prius, or Trial Courts, 
were held at Albany after the act of the Assembly 
we have referred to. This was the Colonial 
Supreme Court, with a Nisi Prius branch now 
known as the Circuits. 

We have briefly described the Courts during the 
Colonial period. Among these Courts, the Court 
of Common Pleas was one of the most important. 
It was established in New York and Alban)- by the 
Charter of 1686 ; by the Act of 1691, a Court of 
Common Pleas was established in each count\- in 
the State ; at first it was composed of one judge 
and three justices, but in 1 702 it was ordered that 
the judge be assisted by two or more justices in 
holding the courts, all of whom were appointed by 
the Governor, and held office during his pleasure. 
It had cognizance of all actions, real, personal 
and mixed, where the amount sued for exceeded 
five pounds. Its-practice assimilated to the King's 

Bench and Common Pleas at Westminster. Its 
errors were corrected in the first instance by Writs 
of Error into the Supreme Court. Appeals were 
allowed to the Supreme Court for any judgment 
where the amount involved exceeded twenty pounds. 
The clerks were appointed by the Provincial Gov- 
ernor — except the clerk at Albany, who, in some 
instances, was appointed by the King. 

The Mayor, Recorder and Aldermen of ihe City 
of Alban}-, or any three of them, were, in 1686, 
ex-officio members of the Court of Common Pleas, 
acting when no judge was present. On May 27, 
1 69 1, Peter Schuyler was appointed the Presiding 
Judge of the Court of Common Pleas of Alban}- ; 
May 27, 1702, he was succeeded by John Abeel, 
who served until October 14, 1702, when Peter 
Schuyler was reappointed. Judge Schu}-ler pre- 
sided for the long term of fifteen years, when, on 
December 23, 171 7, he was succeeded by Killian 
Rensselaer, who presided till 1726, -when Rutger 
Bleecker succeeded him. Judge Bleecker pro- 
nounced the laws from the bench of Common Pleas 
till 1733, when he was succedcd by Ryer Gerritse, 
who, on November 28, 1749, was succeeded by 
Robert Sanders. 

The court then consisted of Robert Sanders, 
Esq., and Sybrant G. Van Schaick, judges ; John 
Beekman, Leonard A. Gansevoort and Robert Rose- 
boom, assistants. The first records which can be 
found of the proceedings of this court that can be 
regarded as reliable are as follows : 

"At an Inferior Court of Common Pleas, held 
in and for the City and County of Alban}-, at the 
City Hall of the said city, on Tuesday, the 5th day 
of June, 1750. Present — 

" Robert Sanders, \ Esqr's., 

" Sybr't G. Van Schaick, j Judges. 

John Beekman, 
Leonard A. Gansevoort, 
Robert Roseboom, 


" Commission read. Court opened. 

" The following were among the cases called : 

" Gerret Borghgherdt, by A. Collins, his Attorney, 
vs. Isaac Van Alstyne, by Richard Stevenson, his 

" The Sheriff returns the venire ; the action de- 
ferred till next Court, the Deft, being sick. 

" Jacob C. Ten Eyck, b}- Richd. Stexenson, his 
Attorney, vs. Albert Van Slyke, by A. Collins, his 
Attorney, who Confesses Judgment to the Plaintiff 
for the Sum of one hundred and forty-three Pounds, 
one half Penny, with Lawful Interest, and costs. 
Whereupon Judgment is Granted Accordingly. 



" The next case was France Claw, Junr. , b)' A. 
Collins, his Attorney, vs. Joh's ^'^an Duesen, b)- A. 
Crooke, his Attorney. 

"The Sheriff returned the venire with a panel of 
the Jury, who, being called, the following appeared, 
and were sworn, ^iz. : 

' ' Albertus Becker, Philip Shelters, Pietrus ]3oy;ar- 
dus, \\'illiam Plase, HansT. Wilier, Oeorge Redin- 
bergh, Richard Oliver, Philys Selt-Pagh, Martin 
Cooper, Paul Dick, Kihan Stafle Iken, Benj'n 

' ' Pleading read. 

"The following evidence sworn for the Plaintiff." 

Here follows the names of seven witnesses for the 
plaintiff, one of them ("Isaac ^''osburgh) sworn on 
his Voire Dire.'' Four witnesses were sworn for 
the plaintiff. 

"Declaration and A(fida\it of the widow Cobus 
read for the plaintiff; Court duly addressed by 
Counsel for the parties. 

"Jury charged. Two Constables sworn to keep 
the Jur}', and the Jury go out. 

"France Claw, Junr., by Collins, vs. Joh's Van 
Duesen, b)' Crooke. 

" The Jury returned, and, asked if they were agreed 
on their verdict, answered, 'Yes.' Being asked for 
whom they found it, answered, 'for the Plaintiff, 
Si.xteen Pounds damages, and Sixpence costs.' 
Whereupon, Mr. Collins said ; ' May it please the 
Court, the Pltf.'s Att'y remits eight Pounds of the 
damages, being more than he sued for.' ^^'here- 
upon, on motion of the Plaintiff's Attorney, the 
Court grants Judgment for the remaining eight 
Pounds and costs of suit." 

The proceedings of the court at diat early da\- 
were very similar to those in the courts at the pres- 
ent time. For instance : The following is the 
proclamation of the crier before the presiding judge 
charges the grand jury ; 

" Hear Ye ! Hear Ye ! All men or persons are 
strictl}' charged and commanded to keep silent 
whilst his Majesty's Commission of the Inferior 
Court of Common Pleas is reading. " 

Proclamation to open court : 

"Hear Ye ! Hear Ye ! All men or persons that 
have anything to do at this Inferior Court of Com- 
mon Pleas, let them draw near, give their attention, 
and they shall be heard." 

Proclamation to adjourn the court : 

" Hear Ye ! Hear Ye ! All men or persons that 
have here appeared at this Court of Common Pleas 
may for the present depart, and attend again as the 
Court orders. " 

Juror's Oath : " You shall well and truly try the 
issue joined between A. B. , Plaintiff, and C. D. , 
Defendant, and a true \'erdict give according to the 
evidence, so help \ou God !" 

It appears that in those days there were two 
constables sworn to attend the jury, with different 
oaths ; one of. them was probably to sit at the out- 
side door of the jury-room, and the other to sit by 
the door on the inside. Their oaths will be re- 
garded by the ofiGcers of the present court as some- 
what singular. The outside constable's was as 
follows : 

GRAND juror's OATH. 

"You shall go out with such jurors as shall have 
leave of the Court ; you shall not suffer any person 
to speak to them, neither shall you speak to them, 
but bring them in presently, so help you God." 

Constable's oath who attended the jury inside : 
' ' You shall well and truly keep ever}- person sworn 
on this jury together in some private and convenient 
room, without meat, drink, fire,xandle or lodging, 
or anything that shall minister to their comfort ; 
and you shall not suffer any person whatever to 
speak to them, or any of them, neither shall you, 
\ourself, speak to them, unless it be to ask them 
whether they be agreed on their verdict. So help 
you God. " 

One of the most stubbornlj' contested cases was 
that of Masta Winne, who appeared in person 
against Hendrick Van Buren, by Rutgert Corry, 
his attorney. The case was tried by a jur}^, and a 
large number of witnesses were sworn for the re- 
spective parties. The jury found a verdict for the 
defendant, upon which judgment was entered. 
Whereupon Mr. Winne moved for forty days to file 
his declarations, and the defendants moved for 
forty days more to file their pleas, which the court 
granted accordingly. 

This procedure will hardly be understood by 
lawj-ers of the present da)'. As we understand it, 
however, this was the course adopted to remove 
the case to an Appellate Court. When a party was 
defeated, he asked leave to file his declaration or 
plea, as the case might be. This compelled the 
other party to do the same. At the expiration of 
the time for filing the respective pleadings, and 
they being filed, the case was appealed ; the pro- 
ceedings were stayed on granting the first motion. 

Judge Gansvort was one of the judges of the 
Court of Common Pleas under the Federal Gov- 



At a Court of Common Pleas for the City and 
County of Albany, held at the City Hall, in the 
City of Albany, on the 2d"of October, 1759, Volkert 
P. Douw was one of the judges of that court. This 
is the first time we find Judge Douw occupying the 
Bench of the Colonial Court of Common Pleas. 
He continued to preside on the bench until Janu- 
ary 10, 1 77 1, when hewas succeeded by Rensselaer 

The Colonial Court of Common Fleas continued 
to hold its regular terms of court under the Colo- 
nial laws until January, 1776, when the increasing 
spirit of American Independence caused it to dis- 
solve. Its last presiding judge was Henry Bleeker; 
its last term began at the City Hall, in the City of 
Albany, Januarj- 19, 1776. 


There is a singular incident connected with the 
recorded proceedings of this term. Opposition to 
all manner of British rule, executive, legislative and 
legal, had now nianifested itself to such a degree 
that the judges and officers of the court at the term 
about which we are writing organized under the 
immediate fear of a popular outbreak. Neverthe- 
less the court convened and proceeded with its busi- 
ness. The sheriff returned a few writs, a few judg- 
ments by confession and b}' default were taken, and 
some unimportant business was transacted, when 
the following cause was reached : 

Solomon Eckkr 
Harme Quackexboss. 

The entry in the rule book then proceeds as fol- 
lows : ' ' On motion of Peter W. Yates, attorney for 
the defendants, ordered that the plaintiff show 

cause at ." Here the entry is suddenly broken 

off, probably by fear of the popular outbreak of the 
Sons of Liberty, and it is the last proceeding of the 
Colonial Court of Common Pleas. 

On July 26 following the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence was read in front of the City Hall to a 
vast assembly of the citizens of Albany and the 
surrounding country. 

It is proper to add that the only attorney present 
at the court we have described was Peter W. Yates. 
Henry Ten Eyck was sheriff at this time, the last 
under the English government ; Stephen De Lanc}', 
clerk. The associate judges were John H. Ten 
Eyck and Henry Van Schaack. Judge Van Schaack 
had just been appointed. He was a law3er con- 
trolling a very respectable practice. 

It was the practice of the clerk of the Colonial 
Court to enter in the common rule book at the 

term of court the names of all the lawyers having 
causes to dispose of, as follows: 

" Mr. Gansevoort's rules." Then would follow a 
list of his causes, and the manner in which they 
were dispo.sed of Then would follow: 

" !\Ir. Peter W. Yates," and his and the 
manner of their disposition, and so on. 

At some of the terms the leading lawyers would 
have from ten to twenty cases under their rules, 
with a brief entry opposite each cause, like the fol- 
lowing: "The deft in this cause has confessed the 
action and suffered jud. before Judge Douw for 
£(i 4S. 2d. damages, besides costs of suit. On 
motion of Mr. Gansevoort, attorney for pl't'f, judg- 
ment is ordered for the same." Often the entry 
would be, " Interlocutory judgment." 


Of the lawyers whose names most frequently 
appear in those courts were Richard Gansvort, A. 
S)'lvester, Mr. Corry, Robert Yates, Peter W. Yates, 
Mr. Bleeker. The two Yateses, Robert and Peter 
W., seem to have controlled for many years an ex- 
traordinary amount of legal business. 

The Court of Common Pleas which we have de- 
scribed was establishsd in the State of New York 
by the Provincial Governor and Council, IMay 15, 
1699, and continued in the County of Albany 
down to January 19, 1776. But we can find no 
earlier record of the court than we have given. 

This court had cognizance of causes above five 
pounds, and, as we have seen, had three judges 
and three assistant judges. \Vith some of the jus- 
tices they held at the .same time a Court of General 
Sessions of the Peace for the trial of criminals. 

After the adoption of the first Constitution this 
Court of Common Pleas was reorganized without 
any material change in their procedure; it continued 
in existence in this way until the adoption of the 
Constitution of 182 1, when some changes were 
made in it, one of which was increasing the number 
of judges in soine counties to the number of 

The Constitution of 182 1 provided for the ap- 
pointment by the Governor of five judges in each 
county, of whom one was designated as First Judge. 
This court continued until it was abolished by the 
Constitution of 1846, and a county court instituted 
in its place. 

The First Judge of the Albany County Court of 
Common Pleas was Volkcrt P. Douw. He was ap- 
pointed First Judge of the county by a provincial 
convention, by which he was commissioned Januarv 
6, 1778. 




We have seen that Judge Douw was presiding 
judge of the Court of Common Pleas for many 
years; he served with ability and learning down to 
May, 1775, when, moved by his patriotic spirit, he 
declined to hold his office under the British Gov- 
ernor-General of New York, and resigned. 

Owing to the unsettled state of the country, few 
courts were held under the Constitution of the State 
until after the close of the war. We can find no 
record of any court at which Judge Douw presided, 
nor of any court in the County of Albany until 
1785. In the meantime Judge Douw was by 
reason of his age compelled to retire from the 
bench, and on March 6, 1781, Abram Ten Broeck 
was appointed by Gov. George Clinton First 
Judge of the Court of Common Pleas of Albany 
County. Peter Van Ness, John Price and John M. 
Beekman were appointed associate judges or jus- 
tices. The first record of the sittings of the Court 
of Common Pleas in the County of Albany after the 
Revolution, which can be found, is the following; 

" At a Court of the Common Pleas, held for the 
City and County of Albany, at the City Hall, in 
the City of Alban}', on Tuesday, the loth day of 
January, 1785. Present — 

"Abraham Ten Broeck, Esq., First Judge. 
' ' Peter Van Ness, Esq. , \ 
" John Price, >- Associate Judges. 

" John M. Beekman, ; 

"After organizing the court adjourned until the 
19th day of Jan uar)', 1785. 

"The court met pursuant to adjournment, 
January 19, 1785. Present — 

" Peter Van Ness, Esq., ■\ 

' ' John Price, >- Associate Judges. 

"John M. Beekman, ) 

"On reading a license under the hand of Richard 
Morris, Esq., for the admission of Killiaen Van 
Rensselaer, Esq., to the bar of the Supreme Court, 
ordered that the said Killiaen Van Rensselaer be 
admitted an attorney and counsellor at law in this 

" Abraham Ten Broeck, Esq., First Judge, took 
his seat. " 


Among the attorneys present at this court were 
Mr. Visscher, who had a large number of causes 
on the calendar; Mr. Gilbert, Mr. Gansevoort, Mr. 
Wynkoop, Mr. Bay, Mr. Sill, Mr. Graham, Mr. 
Sylvester and Mr. Lush. These gentlemen repre- 
sented a large number of causes, of which there 


were 131 on the docket; but none of them appear 
to have been tried, although several were referred, 
showing that the practice of trying causes in that 
manner was as prevalent then as at the present. 

There were several judgments taken by default, 
and many " interlocutory judgments" entered. It 
seems to have been a law term of the court, as there 
is no record of a grand or a petit jury. 

This term of court was succeeded by regular 
terms thereof down to 1821. The following is a 
list of the first or presiding judges of that court 
down to 1846 : 

Leonard Gansvort, appointed March 19, 1794; 
John Taylor, appointed February 7, 1797; Nicho- 
las N. Quackenboss, appointed January 13, 1803; 
David McCarthy, appointed March 13, 1804; 
Charles Cooper, appointed March 29, 1806; Jacob 
Ten Eyck, appointed June 8, 1807; Apollo Moore, 
appointed June 6, 181 2. 

Mr. Judge Moore discharged the duties of this 
office till March 15, 1828, when he was succeeded 
by James L'Amoreaux, who discharged the duties 
of the office till March 12, 1833, when he was 
succeeded by Samuel Cheever. Judge Cheever 
was, on the 17th day of iMay, 1838, succeeded by 
Jacob Lansing, who presided till April 17, 1843, 
when he was succeeded by Peter Gansevoort, who 
held the office of First Judge until the court was 
abolished by the provisions of the Constitution of 

This court was continued without material 
change by the Constitution of 1821 until its 
abolishment in 1846. The judges were appointed 
by the Governor and Senate for a period of five 
years. By the Constitution of 1846 all judicial 
officers were made elective. 

The following is a record of the earliest Mayor's 
Court we can find: 

"At a Mayor's Court, held at the City of 
Albany, at the City Hall of the said city, on the 
20th day of May, 1760. Present — 

"SybrantG. Van Schaick, Esq., Mayor. 

"Jacob Ten Eyck, Esq. 
"Jacob Lansing, 

"Benson Turner, ) by Corry. 

agl. [ 

"John Barron, ) by Yates. 

"The sheriff returned the venire in the above 
cause with the panel of the jurors annexed." 

Then follow the names of twelve jurors, after 
which appear the names of the witnesses sworn, 
and the following entry: "The jury charged and 

fCK, Esq., ) 
3, Esq., [ 




retired under two constables. The jury returned, 
and being asked whether they were agreed on their 
verdict answered ' Yes;' being asked for whom 
they found it, answered ' for the plaintiff, thirty- 
nine pounds damages, and six pence costs.' 

"On motion of Mr. Yates, attorney for the 
defendant, the judgment being deferred until 
next court. " 

There were seventy-five causes on the calendar. 
At this term ' ' Robert Yates produced license 
appointing him an attorney at law for the Mayor's 
Court and for the Court of Common Pleas for the 
City and County of Albany, and was accordingly 
admitted." Mr. Yates was one of the most dis- 
tinguished lawyers of his times. 

The last record of the Mayor's Court under the 
Colonial government closes with the year 1768. It 
was a court of much importance, and had, as we 
have said, both civil and criminal jurisdiction. 
After the adoption of the Federal Constitution an- 
other Mayor's Court was organized for the City of 
Albany, to which reference will be made hereafter. 

The Supreme Court under the First State 
Constitution. — On the 19th of February, 1777, 
the " Convention of the Representatives of the 
State of New York," assembled by adjournment to 
Kingston, N. Y., and on the 20th of April suc- 
ceeding adopted, agreeably to the recommenda- 
tions of the Continental Congress, the first Constitu- 
tion of the State of New York. In it the existence 
of the present Supreme Court of the State was 
recognized. On the 3d of May, 1777, the Con- 
vention elected John Jay Chief Justice, and Robert 
Yates and John Morin Scott Associate Justices. 
Scott, however, declined, and John Sloss Hobart, 
who received the next number of votes, was de- 
clared elected. Judge Hobart was one of the most 
distinguished men of his times. He was one of 
"the Sons of Liberty," organized in the City of 
New York in November, 1765, to oppose the exe- 
cution of the Stamp Act. From that time till the 
day of his death, February 4, 1805, he was con- 
stantly in public life, serving in various legislative 
and judicial offices, as United States Senator and a 
Judge of the United States Court in New York. 
When Hobart was appointed a Justice of the Su- 
preme Court, Robert R. Livingston was appointed 
Chancellor, and Egbert Benson Attorney-General. 

Fifteen persons were, on the same da)', elected a 
Council of Safety to carry on a temporar)- govern- 
ment until the Constitution could be put into oper- 
ation. On the 8th of Ma)-, 1777, a plan of gov- 
ernment was reported, in ^^■hich were the names of 

the above members of the Supreme Court, as were 
those of the Chancellor and Attornej'-General, and 
was adopted by the Convention. The plan also 
provided for the election of a Governor, Lieuten- 
ant-Governor, a Senate and an Assembly. 

The Convention dissolved on the 13th of May, 
and on the 14 th the Council of Safety went into 
operation. On the 20th a commission for holding 
Courts of 03'er and Terminer and General Jail De- 
livery in the State, drafted by Chief-Justice Jay, was 
issued by the Council. On the 5th of June follow- 
ing the Council directed that, until Legislature 
should otherwise provide, the Supreme Court 
should sit at Kingston, and that the terms should 
be the same as throughout 1774. These terms 
were the same as provided for in the ordinance of 
1760. The seal of the Supreme Court was like- 
wise ordered to be delivered to the Council. 

On the 9th of August, 1777, the first term of the 
Supreme Court of the State under the Constitution 
was held, and Chief-Justice Jay delivered the first 
charge to the Grand Jury. 

In 1778 the Judges of the Supreme Court were 
empowered to devise a seal, and it was directed 
that all proceedings of the Court should be before 
the "People of the State of New York,'' instead 
of, as heretofore, ' ' Before our Sovereign Lord the 
King,'' etc. 

On the 18th of May, in 1784, the first Grand 
Jury of the Court of Oyer and Terminer after the 
Revolution sat in the City of New York. Judge 
Hobart, with whom was associated James Duane, 
Ma3'or of the cit}', held the court ; Judge Hobart 
delivered the charge to the Grand Jur}-. 

First Court under the Constitution held at 
Albany. — On January i, 1785, the terms of the 
Supreme Court were directed to be held at Albany 
on the last Tuesday of July and the third Tuesday 
in October, and that in the City of New York on 
the third Tuesday in January and April in every 
year ; the April and October terms to continue for 
three weeks, and the January and July terms for 
two. Accordingly the first term of the Supreme 
Court ever held in the City of Albany convened on 
the last Tuesday of July, 1785. Hon. Richard 
Morris, who had been appointed Chief Justice in 
place of John Ja)-, presided. 

From that time down to the present the Supreme 
Court of the State has held regular terms, accord- 
ing to appointment, in the Cit}- of Albany. 

The most practical and, perhaps, the most per- 
fect manner of presenting the history of the Bench 
and Bar of Albany County is to give it in the lives 



of the judicial officers, the eminent jurists and law- 
}'ers, who made that history. We begin with 


Robert Yates was an eminent jurist, prominent 
in the legal and legislative history preceding and 
during the Revolution. With John Jay, John 
Sloss Hobart, William Duer, Gouverneur Morris, 
Robert R. Livingston and others, he was a mem- 
ber of the memorable committee appointed on the 
first of August, 1776, to prepare a form of govern- 
ment for the then new State of New York. The 
committee reported March 12, 1777, which report 
was debated until April 20 following, when the 
first constitution of the State of New York was 
adopted. He was a member of the first Provincial 
Congress, which assembled May 22, 1775, and 
adjourned the following November. He was also 
a member of the second Congress, which convened 
February 12, 1776, and adjourned May 13 follow- 
ing. On May 8, 1777, he was appointed a Jus- 
tice of the Supreme Court of the State, serving till 
October 28, 1790, when he was appointed Chief 
Justice of the State. In 1787 Judge Yates was 
appointed by the Legislature of the State, with 
Alexander Hamilton and John Lansing, Jr., a del- 
egate to the convention which formed the Consti- 
tution of the United States. According to the 
form of the resolution, they were appointed " for 
the sole and express purpose of revising the Ar- 
ticles of Confederation, and reporting to Congress 
and the several legislatures such alterations and 
provisions therein as shall, when agreed to in Con- 
gress and confirmed by the several States, render 
the Federal Constitution adequate to the exigencies 
of government and the preservation of the Union." 

Chief-Justice Yates and John Lansing withdrew 
from the convention, because it did not more ef- 
fectually secure the rights of the individual States; 
they were anti-Federalists or Republicans. 

"To these men and iheir copatriots the nation 
is indebted for the ten important amended Articles 
which were subsequently made a part of the Con- 
stitution." Hamilton was the only delegate from 
this State who signed it. 

Judge Yates was also a commissioner to settle 
the rival land claims of New York and Vermont, 
also of Massachusetts and Connecticut. He was 
born in 1738 and removed to Albany early in life, 
where he spent the remainder of his days. He 
died in 1801. 


John Lansing, Jr., was born at Albany, on the 
30th of January, 1785. He studied law with Robert 
Yates, afterward Chief Justice, in Albany, and with 
James Duane, in the City of New York. 

In 1776 and 1777 he was the military secretary 
of Major-Gen. Schu}'ler, Commander of the 
Northern Department, and who was engaged in 
the summer of the latter 3'ear in active operations 
to resist the advance of Burgoyne. In a letter to 
James Duane, dated at Saratoga (now Schuyler- 
ville) on the 30th of November, 1776, Mr. Lan- 

sing declined accepting, by reason of his holding the 
above post under Gen. Schuyler, a commission 
of lieutenant in the new levies of troops. 

After being admitted to the Bar, Mr. Lansing 
pursued the practice of his profession in the City 
of Albany with great success. 

From 1 780-1 to 1784 he was a member of 
Assembly (the 4th, 5th, 6th and 7th Sessions) from 
the City of Albany. 

On the 3d of February, 1784, he was appointed 
Member of Congress, under the articles of confed- 
eration, and on the 26th of October following was 

On the 13th of January, 1786, he was elected 
Speaker of the New York Assembly. On the 
28th of April following he, together with John 
Haring, Melancthon Smith and Robert Yates, 
was appointed (in place of John Jay and Walter 
Livingston, resigned) on the commission that met 
at Hartford, in that year, and made final decision 
of the territorial claims of New York and Massa- 

On the 29th of September, in the same year, he 
was appointed, by the Council of Appointment, 
]\Iayor of Albany. 

In 1786 he was again elected Member of As- 
sembl)' from the City and County of Alban}'. 

On the 26th of January, 1787, he was once more 
delegated a Member of Congress under the Confed- 

On the 6th of March, in the same year, the New 
York Legislature appointed Mr. Lansing, Alex- 
ander Hamilton and Robert Yates to the Phila- 
delphia Convention, which assembled on the 25th 
of May, and framed a Constitution of the United 
States. Mr. Lansing, together with Mr. Yates, was 
opposed to the principles of the Constitution, as 
presenting a system of consolidated government at 
variance with the rights of the States. He retired 
from the Convention with Mr. Yates, on the 5th of 
July, 1787, before the Constitution had been defi- 
nitely settled upon by that body, but not until it 
was seen how it was to be established, and published 
his reasons for so doing in a letter jointly with Mr. 
Yates to Gov. George Clinton. 

In 1788 Mr. Lansing was again a Member of 
the New York State Convention which ratified the 
Constitution from Albany County. 

On the i2th of December, 1788, the Assembly 
of the State of New York re-elected him Speaker. 

By an act of March 6, 1790, he was appointed 
by the Legislature one of the commissioners on 
the part of the State of New York to seitle the 
controversy of that State with Vermont; and on 
the 28th of September following he was appointed 
one of the justices of the Supreme Court of the 

In the succeeding year, by an act of the Leg- 
islature passed on the 6th of July, Judge Lansing, 
Abraham Van Vechten and Robert Yates were ap- 
pointed commissioners to determine the claims of 
citizens of the State of New York to lands situated 
in Vermont, ceded by New York at the settlement 
of the controversy, and what portion of certain 
moneys ($30,000) each claimant should receive. 



On the 15th of February, 1798, Judge Lansing 
received the appointment of Chief Justice of the 
Supreme Court of the State, in place of Chief- 
Justice Robert Yates, who had resigned under the 
constitutional limit of sixty years. 

On the 2 1st of October, 1801, Chief-Justice 
Lansing was appointed Chancellor of the State of 
New York, in place of Chancellor Robert R. Liv- 
ingston, who had also resigned under the above 

On February 4, 1804, Chancellor Lansing was 
nominated by a Republican legislative caucus to 
the office of Governor of the State of New York, 
but in a letter of the i8th of that month he de- 
clined the nomination. 

On the 28th of January, 1817, he was appointed 
a Regent of the University. 

In 1824 he was chosen a Presidential Elector 
from the City and County of Albany. 

On December 8, 1829, Chancellor Lansing 
visited the City of New York on business, which 
detained him several days. He was a guest at the 
City Hotel. The evening of December 12 was 
dark and stormy. Having an important letter for 
Albany, which he desired to mail, he left the hotel 
with a view of depositing it in the mail box on 
board a steamer that was to leave New York 
that evening. He did not return to the hotel, and 
was never seen or heard from after leaving it. It 
is generally believed that he fell into the river and 
was drowned, and yet his body was never re- 

Fifty-five years have passed away and the mj's- 
tery thathungover this sad event has been deepened 
by the lapse of each succeeding year. The sudden 
disappearance of a citizen so illustrious, whose long 
life had been mostly devoted to the interest of the 
State, produced a sensation at Albany as deep as 
did that of the sudden death of De Witt Chnton, 
a little less than a 3'ear previous. Although Chan- 
cellor Lansing was in his seven t)'-sixth year at the 
time of his death, he was vigorous and active in 
mind and body. In person he was large and 
handsome, with remarkably fine features. He was 
a fascinating conversationalist, dignified and impres- 
sive in his bearing. 

He was married in 1 78 1 to Miss Ray, daughter 
of Robert Ray, Esq., a distinguished citizen of the 
City of New York; four children, all daughters, 
were born to this marriage. 

Chancellor Lansing was the author of a small 
volume entitled "Reports of Select Cases in Chan- 
cery, and in the Supreme Court of the State of New 
York, in 1824 and 1828," viz., in Chancery, Lan- 
sing V. The Albany Insurance Company, March 
24, 1824; Egberts v. Lansing, September 7, 1822 ; 
Lansing v. Goelet ; Supreme Court, Globe In- 
surance Company v. Lansiog, February Term 


Among the great American lawyers whose 
names appear on the roll of the Albany Bar is that 
of Abraham Van Vechten. No name is more 
honored in the history of the State than his— 

honored not only as a learned, eloquent and emi- 
nently successful lawyer, but as a legislator whose 
wisdom and profundity are seen in the enactment 
of many of the laws that have given protection 
and greatness to the State of New York. 

He was born at Catskill, December 5, 1762. 
He received his elementary education at Esopus, 
now Kingston, New York, completing his educa- 
tion at Kings, now Columbia College. At the 
close of the revolutionary war he commenced the 
study of law under the direction of Chancellor 
John Lansing. He was one of the first lawyers 
admitted tQ the Bar after the organization of our 
government. Immediately after his call to the Bar 
he opened an office at Johnstown, Montgomer_y 
County, New York, but was soon invited to oc- 
cupy a more extensive field in the City of Albany. 

The high places at the Bar were then occupied 
by gifted advocates, among whom were Hamilton, 
Burr, Harrison, Jones and Livingston. But the 
brilliancy of such names could not cast young Van 
Vechten in the shade. He soon ranked among 
the illustrious seniors as an equal and a compet- 
itor for the highest professional eminence ; untir- 
ing in his efforts, the naturally great powers of his 
mind were continually developed and expanded. 

His intellect was formed to grapple with the 
most abstruse and difficult subjects of legal and 
judicial investigation; and he early inured himself 
to the most intense application of mental industry. 
In acuteness and the ready comprehension of any 
subject presented for his investigation, he had few 
equals. Nature seemed to have furnished him with 
powers eminently adapted to the illustration of 
legal principles, but he made no display of legal 
lore; his learning seemed incorporated with all his 
thoughts. What he once read was well digested 
and remained ever ready for application. 

A large portion of his life was spent in the dis- 
cussion of legal questions in our highest courts of 
law and equity; he was always listened to with pro- 
found attention by the ablest judges in the State 
and nation. His arguments, clear and learned, 
alwa3's elucidated and instructed, and greatly aided 
the tribunals to which they were addressed in 
coming to correct conclusions. His style was re- 
markable- for perspicacity and strength, enforced 
by thoughtful logic. 

In his manner he was usually calm and unim- 
passioned, yet earnest and forcible. His talents 
were too conspicuous to allow him to confine his 
eff"orts to the Bar. He was repeatedly chosen to 
represent his fellow citizens in both branches of the 
Legislature. The State Senate Chamber was the 
theatre of some of his highest intellectual efforts. 

As a member of the Court for the Correction of 
Errors he has left behind him enduring monu- 
ments of his legal learning. 

On February 13, 181 3, he was appointed At- 
torney-General of the State. He was the successor 
of that illustrious lawyer, Thomas Addis Emmet. 
In February, 1815, he was succeeded by Martin 
Van Buren. The high and responsible duties of 
Attorney-General were never discharged with more 
ability and success than by Mr. Van Vechten. 



During the administration of Gov. John Jay, 
that great statesman, in recognition of Van Vech- 
ten's commanding talents as a lawyer, tendered him 
— then one of the youngest members of the Bar — the 
office of Judge of the Supreme Court of the State. 
The offer was modestly declined, as Mr. Van 
Vechten preferred to practice his profession instead 
of presiding on the bench. The lawyer and the 
student are often astonished at the vast number of 
our reported cases heard in the Supreme Court and 
Court for the Correction of Errors in which Mr. 
Van Vechten represented one of the parties litigant. 

" Over a half century his brilliant mind was con- 
stantly shedding its light over the jurisprudence of 
the State and nation. The Bar -long delighted to 
accord to him its highest honors." 

To the younger members of the profession he 
greatly endeared himself by his kind and courteous 
manners; and by all he was venerated as an illus- 
trious model of professional excellence. In his 
daily consultations with his clients he was em- 
phatically a peacemaker. It was his constant 
habit to advise the settlement of disputes without 
recourse to litigation, allowing no selfish interest 
to influence his advice or bias his mind in giving 
his opinions. 

He was Recorder of the City of Albany from 1797 
to 1808; Regent from January, 1797, to 1823; 
State Senator from 1798 to 1805; member of As- 
sembly from 1 805 to 1 8 1 5 ; Attorney-General for the 
year 1 8 10, and again appointed in 18 13 — serving 
two years, and was a member of the Constitutional 
Convention of 182 r. 

His character as a citizen in the private walks of 
life afforded a model of excellence. "He con- 
stantl}' displayed in his intercourse with his neigh- 
bors and acquaintances the most amiable social 
qualities. To his other traits of character was 
added one which is justly deemed of far the most 
importance; he was a sincere believer in the 
Saviour of the world and a venerated member of 
the Dutch Reformed Church of Albany. In his 
judicatories his parental counsels were received 
with reverence as eminently calculated to promote 
the peace and prosperty of the church. His dis- 
interestedness was a prominent feature in his char- 
acter and was the foundation of that unbounded 
confidence which was reposed in him by all who 
knew him." 

On May 24, 1784, Mr. Van Vechten was united 
by marriage to Miss Catharine Schuyler, daughter 
of Philip P. Schuyler and Anna Wendell. This 
union proved eminently happy, and Mr. \2.\\ 
Vechten's domestic life was proverbial for the 
felicities it afforded. 


John V. Henry was one of the earliest members 
of the Albany Bar. He was admitted to practice 
as an attorney at law at a term of the Supreme 
Court held at Albany in January, 1782. Col. 
Aaron Burr was admitted at the same term. On 
the 14th of April following Mr. Henry and Burr 
were admitted to practice as counselors at law. 

The advantages of a finished classical and legal 

education, united to great native mental powers, 
very soon gave Mr. Heniy a commanding position 
in his profession, and he rapidly attained a State 
and national reputation, ranking with Hamilton, 
Burr, Hoffman, Lansing, and other great lumina- 
ries that adorned the Bar. 

Possessing attractive elocutionary powers, con- 
trolled by close and ready logic, enlivened and 
strengthened by extensive readmg, stimulated by 
ambition, it was natural that he should be attracted 
to the political arena. Here his abilities were 
speedily recognized and appreciated, and he be- 
came a leader. 

In 1800 he was chosen Member of Assembly for 
Albany County. By re-election he represented this 
county in the Assembly in the Legislature 01 
1 801-2. He was the acknowledged leader of the 
Federal party in those bodies. So moderately and 
so justly did he govern and exercise his political 
sentiments that he gained the esteem and friendship 
even of his political opponents, with a very few ex- 
ceptions. Hence his great influence in the Legis- 

In Januar)', 1800, Mr. Henry was appointed 
Comptroller by John Ja)', then Governor of the 
State. As he was emintntly qualified for the duties 
of this office, his appointment was very popular. 
George Clinton, who had been Governor from 
1777 down to 1794, w'as in 1795 succeeded by Jay, 
elected in the Gubernatorial election of that year. 
Gov. Jay was re-elected in 1798. In 1801 
Gov. George Clinton was re-elected. Mr. Clin- 
ton, though apparently friendly to Mr. Henry, 
suddenly removed him from the office of Comp- 
troller. At the time of this removal the Governor 
had been in office but a few months. Mr. Henry's 
successor was Elisha Jenkins, a merchant of Hud- 
son, N. Y. — a man in every sense Mr. Henry's in- 
ferior. This appointment of Jenkins was made at 
the instance of Ambrose Spencer, at that time a 
political boss, with powers equal to any of the 
modern rulers of political parties. Spencer after- 
ward became a Judge of the Supreme Court and 
Chief Justice of the State, ranking among the 
greatest and purest of American judges. 

Though Mr. Henry's removal from office greatly 
disgusted him, we must, on the whole, regard it as 
a fortunate circumstance in his life. It caused him 
to adopt an irrevocable resolution never again to 
accept any office, but devote himself entirely to the 
practice of his profession. This resolution gave 
him that commanding position at the Bar of the 
State and nation we have already described. 

For many years his practice was confined to the 
General Term of the Supreme Court, the Court for 
the Correction of Errors, and in the United States 
Supreme Court. 

To use the language of another, "The great 
superiority of Mr. Henry as an advocate consisted 
in his skill in condensing his arguments — in saying 
everything which could be said in favor of the posi- 
tion he wished to establish with the fewest words. 
These words were selected in the best possible 
manner. He never used a word except the very 
best to express his ideas. He was not generally 



florid, and seldom aimed at brilliancy, though, if 
the occasion required, he could be impressive, 
brilliant and powerfully eloquent." He continued 
to devote all his time, talents and energies to his 
profession until the 22d day of October, 1829, when 
he was suddenly removed from the scenes of his 
earthly labors and ambition by the hand of death. 

We give the following account of Mr. Henry's 
death as we find it in the Albany Gazelle of October 
24, 1829: 

"Mr. JohnV. Henry, one of the most distinguish- 
ed lawyers in the State, is no more. He attended 
the Supreme Court on Wednesday morning ; on his 
way from the court-room at the Capitol, about 1 1 
o'clock in the forenoon, when opposite the resi- 
dence of Chandler Starr, in State street, he was 
seized with an apoplectic fit. He was taken into 
Mr. Starr's and medical aid was immediately ren- 
dered. He lingered until half-past two o'clock 
yesterday afternoon, when his mighty spirit was 
yielded up to the God who gave it. His age was 
about sixty-four. 

"The death of Mr. Henry is a public calamity. 
The tears his family shed over his lifeless form fall 
not alone. Those who respect the probity, the in- 
dependence, the gallant bearing, and the high 
talents which sometimes redeem human nature 
from suspicion, must also lament the fall of such a 
man as this, in whom these traits were so happily 

"And so depart, with fearful rapidit}-, the sages, 
the statesmen and the jurists of our da3^ Clinton 
and Wells, and Emmet and Henry, have, in their 
turn, ceased to be. And what a lesson to mankind 
do their sudden deaths impart. One by one the 
wise and virtuous fall into the deep gulf of Time, 
and yet thousands tread thoughtlessly on the sol- 
emn verge. 

"The Supreme Court of the Slate, in session in 
the City of Albany, adjourned on Friday without 
doing any business in consequence of the death of 
John V. Henry." 

At this time John Savage was Chief Justice, 
William L. Marcy and John Wood worth were 
Associate Justices of the Supreme Court. 

At the opening of the court on Friday morning, the 
day after Mr. Henry's death, that great lawyer, 
Daniel Cady, in the presence of those illustrious 
judges, and distinguished lawyers from all parts 
of the State, arose and in a voice indicative of the 
deepest sorrow announced the death of Mr. Henry. 
So sensible and deep was Mr. Cady's emotion that, 
with all his commanding powers of eloquence and 
his usual self-control, he could at first hardly pro- 
ceed with his announcement. Gaining composure, 
he pronounced a beautiful and touching eulo y 
upon the distinguished deceased. He concluded by 
moving that the court adjourn until the ne.xt day. 

The Chief Justice, after observing that the motion 
of Mr. Cady accorded well with the feelings of the 
court, who deemed it due the memory of so dis- 
tinguished a lawyer as Mr. Henry that diis mark 
of respect should be shown, directed that the court 
adjourn until the ne.xt day. 


This distinguished lawyer, scholar and politician 
was a son of Chief-Justice Robert Yates. He was 
born at Albany in 1779. After receiving a liberal 
education he entered the office of John V. Henry, 
under whose tuition he prepared for the Bar. 
After receiving his degree as Attorney at Law, he 
began practice in Alban)'. With the advantages of 
extraordinary talents, an excellent classical and 
legal education and influential friends, he rapidly 
made his way to the front rank of his profession. 

In 1803 the Legislature appointed him one of 
a committee with John Cuyler and Charles D. 
Cooper to report an estimate of the cost of a State 
and Court House in Albany. 

On March 7, 1804, they submitted their report 
to the Legislature, and it was adopted. 

On April 6 following an act was passed author- 
izing the erection of the building. 

Li 1808 he was appointed a Master and Exam- 
iner in Chancery. In June, 1 808, he was appointed 
Recorder of the City of Albany. 

In January, 1809, he was removed, to make 
place for Mr. Graham, and was restored in 18 11, 
serving till July 8, 1816, when he was again 
removed, as before, for political purposes. In the 
administration of this office Mr. Yates exhibited 
rare judicial abilities. 

In April, 1818, he was appointed Secretary of 
State, serving till February 13, 1823, when he was 
re-appointed, serving till 1826, when he was suc- 
ceeded by Azariah C. Flagg. 

In the administration of this office he exhibited 
abilities which commended him largely to public 

In 1808 Mr. Yates became embroiled in a mem- 
orable legal contest with Chancellor Lansing. 
This contest grew out of an attempt of the Chan- 
cellor, in his official capacity, to punish Yates for 
malpractice and contempt of court. The case 
was seriously important in many senses, one of 
which brought the Court of Chancery and the 
Supreme Court of the State in collision. 

At the time of which we are speaking Yates was 
a Master in Chancery. By the ninth section of the 
act then in existence concerning Attorneys, Coun- 
selors at Law and Solicitors in Chancer)', all these 
officers were forbidden to bring any action in the 
name of another attorney or solicitor, without his 
knowledge and consent. 

At this time Yates was not a solicitor of the 
Court of Chancery, but began an important suit in 
that court, using the name of one Peter W. Yates, 
a solicitor, without his knowledge, against the 
statute. Complaint was presented to Chancellor 
Lansing, who granted an order for the arrest of 
Yates. He insisted that he appeared as solicitor 
with the consent of Peter W. Yates, but that gen- 
tleman denied the consent. 

Mr. Yates excepted to the issuing of the order 
for an arrest ; he insisted that the charge against 
him was a crime ; that the Court of Chancery had 
no criminal jurisdiction ; that whether he was 
guilty or not was a question which the consti- 



tution provided should be tried by a jury. But the 
Chancellor took a different view of the case. Mr. 
Yates was denied bail, and sent a prisoner to the 
old Albany jail. 

He was highly popular with the people, and 
his imprisonment caused great excitement. 
He was a proud, high-minded man, inflexible in 
his purposes, ardent in carrying them into execu- 
tion, and he determined to contest what he deemed 
to be the high-handed course of the Chancellor to- 
ward him, and he carried his determination with 
unequaled earnestness into effect. He retained 
Thomas Addis Emmet as his counsel, who applied 
to Judge Spencer for a writ of habeas corpus for the 
release of his client from imprisonment, which was 
granted, and, after a full hearing, Mr. Yates was 
discharged. Whereupon, by order of the Chancel- 
lor, Mr. Yates was re-committed to prison, on the 
ground that the Supreme Court had no right to in- 
terfere with the proceedings of the Court of Chan- 
cery. The General Term of the Supreme Court 
opened about that time at Albany, and Mr. Emmet 
immediately moved in open court for another writ 
of habeas corpus to bring before it the body of Mr. 
Yates. He was brought before the court, and after 
a full argument the first and second arrests of Yates 
were sustained, and he was remanded to prison. 
The case was immediately removed to the Court for 
the Correction of Errors, the Chancellor using every 
effort to prevent the allowance of the writ ; but 
he was defeated and the case was brought to argu- 
ment in that court. A judgment of the court was 
finally rendered, declaring the arrest of Yates illegal 
and directing his discharge. Soon after being re- 
manded to jail he obtained bail. The case will be 
found in 6 Johnson's Reports, 335. Yates imme- 
diately brought an action against Lansing for false 
imprisonment, and another long legal contest en- 
sued, in which the Chancellor succeeded on the 
ground that he was not liable, as he acted in a 
judicial capacity. 

Mr. Yates was afterward appointed by the Legis- 
lature to add notes, references and succinct mat- 
ters touching the laws under our colonial govern- 
ment to the revised laws of New York of 18 13 — a 
duty which he discharged with singular ability and 

He was afterward the recipient of many distin- 
guished official positions. 

Mr. Yates was a valuable contributor to the lit- 
erature of his country, and until a short time pre- 
vious to his death the productions of his pen 
added largely to his own honor and to that of the 
city in which he lived. He died in Albany, January 
10, 1839, ^o^d sixty 3'ears. 


Martin Van Buren was born in Kinderhook, 
then in the County of Albany, now Columbia, 
December 5, 1782. Li his boyhood he exhibited 
a love of knowledge, a fondness for books, "a 
quickness of apprehension, a shrewdness of obser- 
vation ; but the limited means of his father denied 
him the advantages for an education, except those 
taught in a common school. " He soon mastered 

all the branches taught in that humble institution 
of learning, and became a teacher in the common 
schools. In this occupation he acquired the means 
of defraying the expenses of an education at the 
Kinderhook Academy for two or three years. In 
this institution he acquired an excellent English 
education and became a very fine Latin scholar. 

"Asa student," says one of his biographers, 
"young Van Buren was distinguished not only for 
his industry and application, but for his unwilling- 
ness to take anything upon trust, and his conse- 
quent habit of investigation and reflection. He 
was fond, too, of argumentative discussions; he 
had never studied dialectics as taught in the schools 
and knew but little about Aristotle or Locke, yet 
he was a natural logician, and handled the weapons 
of those whose very names he was ignorant with great 
skill and ability. He was ambitious to surpass his 
companions in extemporaneous speaking and 
English composition; many were the encomiums 
he received for his excellence in these branches." 

Mr. Van Buren, like Ben Jonson, who pursued 
his classical studies with a trowel in his hand, was 
alwajs a student; always found time, especially in 
his earlier j'ears, to devote to classical studies. A 
desire to become a lawyer by profession was his 
early ambition, so strongly indulged that he began 
his legal studies at the early age of fourteen. His 
preceptor was Francis Sylvester, Esq., a leading 
member of the Bar. He pursued his legal studies 
with unwearied diligence and much success. At 
the age of eighteen he began to try causes in 
justices' courts, those tribunals which afford the 
legal student such a field for improvement in public 
speaking, in examining witnesses, in arranging 
testimony and in sharpening the perceptive facul- 
ties. He soon became famous as an advocate in 
these courts, acquiring a large and lucrative prac- 
tice therein. He often met as opponents the lead- 
ing members of the Columbia Bar, whose respect 
he gained by the exhibition of his rare abilities, his 
courteous and high-toned bearing. 

While a student he was an active politician and 
gave his allegiance to the Democratic party. His 
regard and admiration of Thomas Jefferson were 
almost unbounded. In the great contest between 
Adams and Jefferson, he advocated and defended 
the Republican principles with much ardor and 
ability. Though yet in his teens, he addressed 
Republican gatherings, wrote resolutions, memo- 
rials and pamphlets. In the autumn of 1800, 
when only eighteen years of age, he represented the 
Democrats of his native town in a Congressional 
convention. Mr. Van Buren completed the last 
year of his studies in the office of William R Van 
Ness, of the City of New Y'ork, one of the brilliant 
lights of the Bar, and subsequently one of the 
justices of the Supreme Court of the United States 
for the Southern District of New York. At a term 
of the Supreme Court of the State, held at Albany, 
October, 1803, Martin Van Buren was called to 
the Bar. After remaining in Albany a few months 
he returned to Kinderhook and actively besran his 
professional career. The Columbia County Bar at 
this time was one of the strongest and most brilliant 



in the State. Here William W. Van Ness, Elisha 
Williams, Thomas P. Grosvenor and Jacob Rustin 
Van Rensselaer, all of them prominent Federal- 
ists and distinguished lawyers and politicians, 
seemed to stand in the way of Mr. Van Buren's 
professional and political advancement. 

He was a Democrat; they were Federalists. 
They belonged to the aristocratic families of the 
county and State; Van Buren to the humbler 
ranks of life. They were wealthy and powerful; 
Van Buren was poor, with nothing to rely upon 
but his own energy and talents; these, it seems, 
were sufficient; with them he won his way to dis- 
tinction, triumphing over his powerful and disdain- 
ful rivals. His business increased, his clientage 
daily became more numerous and influential, and 
it was not long before he became the acknowl- 
edged leader of the Columbia Bar. 

In the meantime he was as active, energetic and 
powerful in politics as he was in his profession. 
Space will not permit us to enter into any descrip- 
tion of his splendid and eventful career; but from 
1808 to 1837 the history of that career is the 
political history of the State; at least, that history 
could not be perfectly written with the career of 
Martin Van Buren omitted. 

On the 20th of March, 1808, he was appointed 
Surrogate of the County of Columbia. The manner 
in which he discharged the duties of this office 
largely enhanced his professional reputation. 
About this time he removed to Hudson, a measure 
which contributed largely to his advantage. At 
this time Elisha Williams, undoubtedly the most 
gifted and eloquent lawyer of his time, whose 
magnificent oratory rendered him famous at the 
American Bar, was a resident of Hudson. Martin 
Van Buren soon became the rival of this great 
lawyer. In order to grapple with his formidable 
opponent Van Buren was compelled to submit to 
the most intense study; when the day's work was 
ended, after a little rest, he retired to his study and 
gave himself to his books with such deep applica- 
tion that frequently the dawning day paled the 
light of his lamp. In this way he successfully 
armed himself to meet his antagonist in the arena 
he had entered. 

His great success at the bar, his acknowledged 
abilities as a politician, soon led him to that legisla- 
tive career which gradually advanced him to the 
most exalted position in the nation. In 18 12 he 
was nominated by the Democrats of the Middle 
Senatorial District, of which Columbia County was 
a part, as their candidate for State Senator. He 
was opposed by a no less distinguished opponent 
than Edward P. Livingston, then a member of 
the State Senate. Mr. Livingston was a Democrat ; 
but there was something in his connection with 
the Bank of America which rendered his nomina- 
tion distasteful to the Democrats, or a large ma- 
jority of them, and they refused to renominate 
him, preferring Van Buren. Nevertheless he re- 
ceived the nomination, and received the support 
of the entire Federal party, together with the 
friends of Gov. Lewis. This was a powerful 
combination, but ^'an Buren overthrew it, after a 

desperate struggle ; but his majority was onlj' two 
hundred in a poll of over 25,000. 

He entered the State Senate at an extra session, 
November 3, 1812, and became the leader of his 
party in that branch of the Legislature. From 
this time he remained almost constantly in public 
life down to the time of his retirement from the 
Presidential chair. 

In the spring of 1 816 he was re-elected to the 
Senate, and shortly afterward became a resident of 
the City of Albany. This removal became neces- 
sary on account of the great increase of his profes- 
sional business, and to give him greater facilities 
for discharging his official duties. 

In 1817 Benjamin F. Butler, his distinguished 
pupil, who reflected so much honor upon his pre- 
ceptor, became his law partner, forming one of the 
most influential legal firms in the State. 

On February 6, 1821, Mr. Van Buren was 
elected by the Legislature a Senator in Congress. 
Thjs .caused him to partially withdraw from his 
practice, leaving his large business to Mr. Butler. 
He was occasionally employed in very important 
cases, among which were the cases of Wilkes vs. 
I.yon, argued in the Court for the Correction of 
Errors in 1823, and that of Varick vs. Johnson, 
argued in the same court in 1828 ; reported in 2 
Cowan, 338 ; 2 Wendell, 166. These cases have 
always been read by the lawyer and the student 
with great interest and profit. The arguments of 
Mr. Van Buren appear at length in them. The 
briefs were prepared by Mr. Butler. 

Mr. Van Buren appeared for the last time before 
a jury in the trial of the Astor case, and that of the 
Sailor's Snug Harbor, in the fall of 1827. His 
speech in the State Senate on the disputed accounts 
of Gov. Tompkins — the last he ever delivered 
in that body — was a memorable and magnificent 

The Constitutional Convention of 1821 was 
composed of the ablest men connected with the 
great political parties in New York. Among 
them were James Kent, Rufus King, Am- 
brose Spencer, Abraham Van Vechten, Elisha 
Williams and Peter R. Livingston. Foremost 
among these was Martin Van Buren. He took 
part in all the important discussions, and estab- 
lished the claim of his friends that he was a high- 
minded, gifted, eloquent and independent states- 
man. In his speeches there was none of that ad 
caplandiwi eloquence calculated to touch the pas- 
sions of the multitude ; they were the offsprings of 
research, of an enlarged and liberal mind, with 
statesman-like views. In the Senate of the United 
States, then composed of the ablest and most illus- 
trious statesmen of the nation, Mr. Van Buren 
took a commanding position. * 

He was early committed against the policy of 
distribution of the public lands, subsequently advo- 
cated with so much zeal and ability by Mr. Clay. 
He was never friendly to a high protective tariff", 
but voted for the tariff" of 1824, though not entirely 
satisfied with all its details. He delighted to repeat 
the witty remark of John Randolph concerning 
the tariff movement of 1827-8, which he regarded 



almost wholly of a political character. "That 
tariff," said Mr. Randolph, "does not refer to 
manufactories of any sort or kind, except to the 
manufacture of a President of the United States." 

After the death of Mr. Clinton, in February, 
1828, Mr. Van Buren became Governor of the 
State, but on being appointed Secretar}' of State 
under President Jackson, he resigned the Governor- 
ship. This event took place March 12, 1829. 

He subsequently became Vice-President of the 
United States, and at a Democratic National Con- 
vention held at Baltimore in Ma}-, 1835, he was 
unanimously nominated a candidate for President 
of the United States. Col. Richard M. Johnson 
was nominated for Vice-President. !Mr. Van Buren 
was inaugurated on the 4th of March, 1837, and 
entered upon the duties of his great office. 

The subject of the abolition of slavery constituted 
an important feature in his inaugural address ; 
the agitation of this great question had begun in 
the 3-ear 1834-5 in the Northern States. Mr. \'^an 
Buren and his friends strongly opposed the move- 
ment. Though he brought to the office much 
ability as a statesman, the highest and most consci- 
entious patriotism, there were many unfortunate 
circumstances that tended to render his adminis- 
tration in a measure unpopular. We cannot sa}' 
that at this time his opposition to the anti-slaver}' 
question injured him as much as has been alleged. 
The measure had not then been far enough ad- 
vanced in a political sense to have a bearing upon 
his administration. What tended most to injure 
it was the terrible revulsion, or financial crisis, 
which prostrated the industry and commercial in- 
terests of the nation. The Whig ])arty adroitly 
took advantage of this unfortunate state of things 
and attributed the financial depression of the coun- 
try to the policy of Mr. ^'^an Buren's administra- 
tion. This resulted in his defeat for re-election in 
1840 and the elevation of Gen. Harrison. He 
retired from the Presidential chair to private life. 
His nomination by a wing of the Democratic party 
at Buffalo in 1848, and his defeat, are events too 
well known to need an}- description here. 


Benjamin F. Butler, an historic name in the 
State and Nation, a lawyer of the highest ability, 
a scholar of rare endowments, and a citizen of 
great purity of character, was born at Kinderhook, 
in the County of Columbia, December 17, 1795. 
His father was a merchant at that place ; a man of 
strict integrity, industrious in his vocation, and 
honorable in his relations to the society in which 
he lived. 

The early years of young Butler were passed in 
attending a common district school and in assist- 
ing his father in his store. He was a boy of re- 
spectful manners and an intellectual turn of mind. 
While engaged in the store, he became a favorite 
of a learned and distinguished Presbyterian clergy- 
man, who resided near his father ; from this 
gentleman he received his first knowledge of 
books and the rudiments of a classical education. 
At the age of fourteen, Benjamin, already far 


advanced in his studies, was sent to Hudson 
Academy, where he remained several years, an 
energetic and successful student. When his aca- 
demic course was ended, he entered the office of 
Martin Van Buren, then a }'oung lawyer who had 
been at the Bar but a few years, but who was 
regarded as a young man of great promise, and 
who had already secured a respectable position at 
the Columbia Ikr. This was in the year 181 2. 
In the }eai 18 16 Mr. ^''an Buren removed to 
Albau}-, where he entered upon his extraordinary 
official career. Young Butler accompanied him. 
In 18 18 Mr. Butler was called to the Bar, and im- 
mediately became the partner of Mr. ^'an Buren, 
a relation which existed until February, 1821, 
when Mr. Van Buren was appointed a Senator in 
Congress. In 1827 Mr. Butier was united in 
marriage to Miss Allen, a young lady of many 
accomplishments and many mental and personal 
attractions. She was a sister of the gallant Lieuten- 
ant William H. Allen, who distinguished himself 
in the engagement between the frigate "United 
States" and the British ship-of-war "Macedonia," 
in 181 2, and who was afterward killed by pirates 
in the Gulf of Mexico. 

The firm of Van Buren & Butler was the most 
distinguished legal firm in the State. The senior 
member stood at the head of the State Bar, and his 
practice at the United States Supreme Court and 
his position as a Senator in Congress gave him a 
national reputation. 

JMr. Butler, with his unwearied industry, tena- 
cious memory and active intellect, followed rapidly 
in the footsteps of his preceptor and former partner. 

Among the important cases which, by Mr. Van 
Buren's retirement from the firm, were left for Mr. 
Butler to conduct, were Wilkes vs. Lyon and 
Vm-ick vs. Johnson. These cases attracted great 
attention throughout the State, and for a consider- 
able time occupied the attention of the Court for 
the Correction of Errors. 

The labor necessary to their preparation for argu- 
ment was immense ; but Mr. Butler brought to the 
task that industry and research for which he was so 
distinguished. After several weeks of labor he 
placed in the hands of Mr. Van Buren a thoroughly 
arranged, exhaustive and perfect brief Mr. Van 
Buren argued the cases, assisted by ]\Ir. Buder. 

For two years after his admission to the Bar Mr. 
Butler confined himself to the Circuit Courts, at- 
taining a highly respectable reputation as a jury 
law}-er. He first appeared in a General Term of 
the Supreme Court in October, 1820, when he 
argued the case of the People vs. Foote ; his oppo- 
nent was the late Thos. J. Oakley, who then ranked 
among the great lawyers of the State. Soon after 
this, he argued, in the same court, the celebrated 
case of the President and Directors of the Bank of 
Auburn vs. Blanchard et al. , his opponent was 
Daniel Cady, an illustrious character in the legal 
history of the State. 

One of Mr. Butler's first cases in the Court for 
the Correction of Errors was that of Mauahain vs. 
Gibson — a case of historic importance. The op- 
posing counsel was that giant of the Bar, J. V. 



Henry. In the celebrated case of Troup vs. SniHh, 
and that of Morton vs. Cragan, Mr. Butler was 
associated with Samuel A. Talcott, one of the bril- 
liant ornaments of the New York State Bar. 

Mr. Butler appeared so often in the Supreme 
Court that a history of his cases he conducted in 
that court would fill several volumes. 

On February 19, 182 1, he was appointed 
District Attorney of Albany County, discharging 
the duties of this office till January, 1825, when he 
was succeeded by Edward Livingston. 

Though the labors of this office were heavy, and 
for one so young its responsibilities great, Mr. 
Butler's success was in proportion to his labor, and 
he retired from the office with the well-earned 
commendations of the public. Before his official 
term expired, a law was passed by the Legislature 
of 1824, appointing Chancellor Kent, Erastus Root 
and Benjamin F. Butler commissioners to revise 
the laws of the State ; but these gentlemen did not 
enter upon the duties thus assigned them, as the 
Legislature of 1825 passed an act by which Mr. 
Butler, John Duer and Henry Wheaton were made 
commissioners to revise the statute laws. Not long 
after the passage of this act, Mr. Wheaton was ap- 
pointed charge d'affairesXo the Court of Berlin, and 
John C. Spencer was appointed in his place. 

As was said by a distinguished member of the 
Bar, "the selection of Mr. Butler, who had then so 
recently commenced his practice, for a position so 
high and responsible, carried with it the evidence 
of the high estimation in which he was held by the 
Legislature. It was an undertaking of great hazard 
to his professional reputation, as well as an im- 
mense labor. It involved for a time the entire 
sacrifice of his business, as he was obliged to devote 
his time almost exclusively to that business. He 
undertook it, and, notwithstanding the prejudices 
it at first encountered, it was carried to a successful 

In the language of Judge Kent, "All who knew 
the indomitable energy of John C. Spencer will 
naturally believe that his spirit pervaded the whole 
work ; but, judging from internal evidence, I can- 
not avoid believing that much of the essential excel- 
lence of the Revised Statutes, and more of the 
labor which adapted them to our general sjstem of 
jurisprudence — the plan and order of the work, the 
learning of the notes, the marginal references, and 
the admirable index which accompanies it — should 
be ascribed to the labor, the patient touches of 
unwearied art, bestowed by Mr. Butler. The 
statutes, however, reveal the learning, skill, labor 
and ability of each of their great authors." 

Three years later a new edition of the statutes 
was deemed necessary, and the revisers were once 
more called to the work of revision. The whole 
existing statute laws of a general nature, all the acts 
of the Legislature passed since the year 1825, 
were carefully examined ; the statutes themselves 
critically reviewed and re-arranged, with annota- 
tions and references made by the Supreme Court, 
the Court of Chancery and the Court for the Cor- 
rection of Errors. 

This new edition was reported to the Legislature 
at its annual session in the winter of 1836, and by 
appropriate acts was passed as the Statutes of the 
State of New York. Other editions have succeeded 
it, embracing acts since passed. They are volumin- 
ous but indispensable works in the library of a 
practicing law3'er. 

Mr. Butler was elected a member of the Legisla- 
ture of 1828, and left on its records indubitable 
evidence of his ability as a legislator. 

In 1833 Mr. Butler was appointed commissioner, 
with Theodore Frelinghuysen, to settle the long- 
disputed boundary line between Ncm' York and 
New Jerse}', and brought this difficult question 
to a highly satisfactory adjustment. In the autumn 
of 1833, before the labors of the New Jersey 
commission were terminated, Mr. Butler was ap- 
pointed Attorney-General of the United States, in 
place of Roger B. Taney, appointed Chief Justice of 
the United States. A few days before Mr. Butler's 
departure for Washington to enter upon the duties 
of his office, the citizens of Albany, without distinc- 
tion of party, assembled and publicly expressed 
their regard for his virtues as a citizen and their ad- 
miration of his talents as a lawyer. Among those 
who addressed the meeting were Stephen Van Rens- 
selaer, Abraham Van Vechten and Harmanus 

In October, 1836, while discharging his duties 
as Attorney-General, Mr. Butler was appointed 
Secretary of War in the Cabinet of President Jack- 
son. He discharged the duties of the two offices 
until the 4th of March, 1837. In the Department 
of War there was at this time a large accumulation 
of business, owing to the Seminole war; but Mr. 
Butler, by his assiduity and S3'Stematic method, 
brought up the arrears of business, and left the de- 
partment in a satisfactory state to his illustrious 
successor, Felix Grundy, of Tennessee. 

The legal opinions rendered by Mr. Butler while 
Attorney-General are still read and admired for 
their profundity in substance, their perfection in 
diction ; they are also established as reliable prece- 

On the 4th of March, 1837, President Van Buren 
entered upon the duties of his administration. Mr. 
Butler continued to discharge the duties of Attor- 
ney-General until January, 1838, when he resigned 
and returned to the practice of his profession. 
Within a few months, however, the office of United 
States District Attorney for the Southern District of 
New York became vacant, and Mr. Butler was ap- 
pointed to fill that oflice. He discharged these 
duties until the inauguration of President Harrison, 
when he resigned. When President Polk assumed 
the executive chair he tendered Mr. Butler the 
office of Secretary of ^^'ar, but the off'er was respect- 
fully declined for reasons which were entirely satis- 
factory to the President. Not long after, however, 
the President tendered to Mr. Butler the office of 
United States District Attorney for the Southern 
District. This position Mr. Butler did not hesitate 
to accept, as it did not interfere with the duties of 
his profession. He discharged these official duties 
until after the election of Gen. Taylor, when he 



was removed for political reasons. In the mean- 
time Mr. Butler had become a citizen of the City 
of New York. 

In the summer of 1856 he made a visit to Eng- 
land, but returned very soon to complete a profes- 
sional engagement of great importance. This was 
the great case of Levit vs. Curtis, -which had been 
before the court for a long time, and was then 
pending in the Court of Appeals. He was com- 
pelled to terminate his European tour in order to 
conduct the argument of the case at a term of the 
court then approaching. 

In 1835 the Council of the University of the Cil}' 
of New York having decided to establish a faculty 
of law in that institution, Mr. Butler was requested 
to prepare a plan for its organization. He com- 
plied with the request, and on the 29th day of May, 

1835, submitted to Rev. J. N. Mathews, then 
Chancellor of the University, a document entitled 
" A Plan for the Organization of a Law Faculty 
and for a System of Instruction in Legal Science in 
the University of the City of New York." His 
plan was warmly approved by the Council and 
promptly accepted by the most flattering resolu- 

Mr. Butler continued to devote his entire ener- 
gies to the duties of his profession ; but it was ap- 
parent to his friends that his health was rapidly 
failing, and they prevailed upon him to visit Europe 
again. Accordinglj', in October, 1868, he em- 
barked on the steamer Arago, bound for Havre, 
intending to remain abroad two 3'ears. On the 
29th of October he landed at Havre. He visited 
Harfleur and Rouen, and on the 3d of November 
he arrived at Paris. The ne.xt day he wrote a long 
and interesting letter to his son, \Mlliam Allen 
Butler, Esq. In the evening of that day he was 
taken ill, and his disease rapidly progressed, and 
finally, on the 8th of November, his earthly career 


Among the illustrious legists whose names em- 
bellish the roll of lawyers of Albany County is 
Greene C. Bronson, who for twenty years and uj)- 
ward was a gifted and successful contestant at the 
Albany Bar. 

He was born at Utica, Oneida County, N. Y., 
in 1789. He began his practice at Utica about 
the year 18 15; he early developed a peculiarly 
strong judicial mind and method, in recognition of 
which he was, oaApril 13, 1819, appointed Surro- 
gate of Oneida County. He discharged the duties 
of this office for two 3'ears with singular ability. In 
the fall of 1 82 2 he was elected member of Assembly 
from Oneida Count}', and was honored by the posi- 
tion as chairman of the Judiciary Committee. The 
next year he was tendered a renomination, but de- 
clined, and devoted himself to his profession. 

On February 27, 1829, he was appointed Attor- 
ney-General ot the State, the successor of Samuel 
A. Talcott, universall}- acknowledged one of the 
greatest of American lawyers. I\Ir. Bronson dis- 
charged the duties of this office till January 12, 

1836, when he was appointed one of the Justices of 

the Supreme Court, ^^'e should have said that 
about the time he was appointed Attorney-General 
he removed to Albany, where he resided over 
twent)' successive years. 

On March 5, 1845, he was appointed Chief Jus- 
tice of the State, in place of Hon. Samuel Nelson, 
appointed a Justice of the Supreme Court of 
the United States. Few members of the American 
Bench rank higher than Judge Bronson ; the opin- 
ions written by him alwa3-s command the respect 
and admiration of the student and the practitioner ; 
the ingenuity and e.xactness with which they are 
written, their polemical strength and the extent of 
their erudition, are hardly equaled by those of any 
other judge. He occupied the Bench as Chief 
Justice two years, when he resigned, and was suc- 
ceeded by Samuel Beardsley, the last of the Chief 
Justices under the Constitution of 1821. 

In 1853 he was appointed Collector of the Port 
of New York, and removed from Albany to that 
cit}'. In 1859 he was Corporation Counsel for the 
City of New York, serving until 1863, when he re- 
tired to private life. 

In politics Judge Bronson was a Democrat, and 
during the divisions of the Democratic party into 
Hard Shell and Soft Shell factions, he was the 
leader of the Hard Shell wing. Some of his 
speeches delivered in defense of his position created 
marked attention throughout the nation for the 
skill ot their argument, the beauty and strength of 
their diction, and, more than all, for their boldness, 
and, as the opposition journals termed, for their 

Judge Bronson died in the City of New York, 
September 3, 1863. 


During a period of twent3'-six years Marcus T. 
Reynolds was one of the leading members of the 
Albany Bar. The history of his career during that 
time is the history of the Supreme Court, Court for 
the Correction of Errors and the Court of Appeals. 
For ten 3'ears previous to that time he often ap- 
peared in the different courts that held their sit- 
tings in Alban3' ; an examination of the reports 
of the cases argued in the Appellate Courts of the 
State from 18 17 to 1853 shows that Mr. Reynolds 
represented more cases adjudicated in the Supreme 
Court and Court of Errors than almost an3' other 
law3'er in the State. 

He was born at Florida, Montgomery County, 
N. Y., December 22, 1788. When he was ten 
years of age he was placed in a high school at 
Canajoharie, where he remained three years. Leav- 
ing Canajoharie, he entered a collegiate school at 
Utica, where he was fitted for college. In 1805 he 
entered Union College, from whence, in 1 808, he 
was graduated, standing second in his class. 

While in college he developed those polemical 
and elocutionary talents, that keen and sparkling 
wit, which distinguished him as an advocate. Hav- 
ing graduated, he began the study of law in the 
office of that truly great law3-er, Matthias B. Hil- 
dreth, of Johnstown, N. Y. Mr. Hildreth was for 
several years Attorney-General of the State. 



Young Reynolds was a particular favorite with 
his learned preceptor, who spared no pains in 
advancing his student in acquiring that knowledge 
necessary for a profound and successful lawyer. 
On October 12, 181 1, Reynolds was called to the 
Bar. About this time Addison Gardner, Samuel 
Stevens, John A. Collier, Charles O'Conor, 
William H. Seward, Ogden Hoffman and Alonzo 
C. Page were called to the Bar. 

Mr. Reynolds began his practice at Johnstown, 
N. Y. ;here he was compelled to contend with 
Daniel Cady, of whom it may be said he was a 
gladiator in the legal arena of uncommon prow- 
ess. Other eminent lawyers became the antago- 
nists of Mr. Reynolds, and in contending with 
legal giants he rapidly grew to be one himself 

He continued to practice at Johnstown until 
1828, when he removed to Albany, where he spent 
the remainder of his life, and where he retained 
that position which has given him an undying fame 
in the legal history of the State. 

The legal speeches of Mr. Reynolds were 
natural, easy, replete with argument, never too 
artificial, and recherche. His gestures were very 
few, generally with his right arm and forefinger, 
occasionally dropping the palm of his left hand 
upon the table, if one was before him ; if not, he 
balanced it before him in an easy, natural manner. 
He had the faculty of passing from ' ' grave to 
gay, from lively to severe," with surprising facilit}'. 
This is illustrated by his arguments in cases like 
Mabee vs. Peck, and cases like The People \'s, Lani- 
prey. So widely did these intellectual efforts differ 
from each other that a stranger would naturally 
have believed them to be the productions of 
different minds. The former case involved the 
consideration of mere abstract questions of law, 
and his argument abounded in nothing but reason, 
reneved by no lucid narration — no appeal to the 
feelings — no address to the imagination, and yet it 
was an intellectual triumph ; those who listened to 
him could hardly think it possible for a feeling of 
pathos, sympathy or pleasantry ever to enter his 
bosom, so thoroughl)' prosaic was his speech. 
Lamprey was tried for the murder of his own 
nephew. There were many circumstances in the 
case which appealed strongly to sympathy, and 
Mr. Reynolds interposed a powerful and successful 
defense, founded not only upon the facts, but 
upon grave and intricate questions of law. His 
address to the jury was an inimitable specimen of 
legal oratory. It was often enlivened by momen- 
tary displaj's of wit and humor ; it abounded in 
exquisitely wrought passages, in which pathos and 
argument were interlused. Even on the discussion 
of the legal questions in this case, ' ' he cast the 
playful hues of his fancy ; " so that it was diflicult 
to determine whether at the bar he was the giant 
or magician — Briareus or Prospero. 

He carried his cases by being thoroughly imbued 
with them himself, and then, by a clear and well- 
defined statement to court and jury, imparting the 
impression that he had no doubt of the right of his 
case. Before a jury he had a sort of magnetic power, 

by which he photographed his own ideas and rea- 
sons upon the minds of the jury. 

Many years before his death he was thrown from 
a horse ; the fall produced an injury to one of his 
knee-pans of such a serious character that ampu- 
tation became necessary. Immediately after the 
accident he was taken into a store, and the wound 
was examined by one of the most skillful surgeons 
in Albany, who became convinced that amputation 
must inevitably follow, and he so informed the suf- 
ferer, stating further that perhaps it had better be 
done on the following day. 

"I wish you to proceed instantly. I cannot have 
the matter upon my mind," said Reynolds. The 
surgeon obeyed. This was before chloroform was 
used by surgeons, but Mr. Reynolds submitted to 
the operation without a groan. After the loss of 
his leg he generally conducted his causes sitting. 

In person he was slightly above the ordinary 
stature ; his frame was slender, but well propor- 
tioned ; in his earlier years his form was more 
athletic. His face was thin ; his high forehead 
evinced intellectual power ; he lived a life of devo- 
tion to his profession, never seeking or holding 
public office. Simple and retired in his tastes and 
habits, a warm and generous friend, an open and 
manly adversary. Many of the religious, charita- 
ble and literary institutions of Albany are indebted 
to him for pecuniary aid and valuable assistance. 
For many years he was a member of St. Peter's 
Church, and for a long time one of the vestry. 

In his social relations, Mr. Reynolds possessed 
those qualities which accompany a refined and sen- 
sitive mind, causing him to be greatly beloved 
in the sacred circle of home. 

He died on the 13th of July, 1864, in the seven- 
ty-seventh year of his age. 

Ten years previous to his death, owing to ill 
health, he retired from the Bar, and nearly with- 
drew from former associations and society. At last 
his splendid intellect vanished, and his last years 
were passed in mental darkness. 


It would be impossible to give a history of 
the Bar of Albany without some description of 
Gen. Samuel Stevens. From the year 1837 
down to the adoption of the Code of Procedure 
Samuel Stevens, Marcus T. Reynolds and Nicholas 
Hill were, perhaps, three of the most prominent 
lawyers in the State. They were constantly engaged 
in the principal courts, often on the same side, 
but more frequently opposed to each other. 

Gen. Stevens was a lawyer of rare accomplish- 
ments, an advocate of great power. Like Ogden 
Hoffman, he contrived to give interest to a dry de- 
tail of facts by a happy adaptation of his mind to 
them ; he could, on the instant, select from a 
variety of matters those which would make the best 
appearance and be least exposed to observation 
and to answer. " He could estimate the probable 
case which was hid in his adversary's brief, and 
prepare his own to elude its force." As a speaker 
he was as effective before the court as either Hill or 
Reynolds ; as a jury lawyer he was more successful 



than the former, because he was more emotional, 
more vivacious and more vehement. His gesticu- 
lation was active and frequent, and he often illus- 
trated his argument with a humorous story which 
contained force and point; his good nature always 
prevailed at the Bar, accompanied by an incisive 
wit ever at his command, ever agreeable, because 
it never descended to offensive satire. In his man- 
ner he was what might be called free and easy ; 
like Martin Grover, when at the Bar, his mouth was 
always occupied by a quid of tobacco, by no 
means infinitessimal in size. He was popular with 
the people, and thus he had one quahty of the suc- 
cessful politician. He was first known to the polit- 
ical world as one of the ablest and most eloquent 
supporters of DeWitt Clinton in the State. 

In 1825 he represented his native county, Wash- 
ington, in the Assembly, and although one of its 
youngest members, he was regarded as the leader 
of the Clintonian party in that body. In 1827 
he was again elected to the Assembly. In Feb- 
ruary of that year he delivered a speech in the 
House on that part of the Governor's Message 
which referred to internal improvements. This 
speech gave him a State reputation as an ingenious 
reasoner and an accomplished legislative debater. 
He afterward identified himself with the Whig 
party, and in the I.egislativc Caucus held in Feb- 
ruary, 1839, was strongly sustained for candidate 
for Attorney-General ; Willis Hall, of New York, 
was, however, the successful candidate, on a vote 
of 45 to 42. He was never again before the pub- 
lic for an\- civil office, excepting once when he was 
nominated for Lieutenant-Governor. 

In personal appearance Gen. Stevens differed 
materially from both Hill and Reynolds ; he was 
short, thickset, tending to corpulency ; his eye- 
lids were always partly closed, as though they were 
affected by the light. He was of nervous tempera- 
ment, active, energetic and restless. 

The names of Hill, Reynolds and Stevens are 
strongly associated together ; at the Albany Bar 
there was scarcely a case of impc)rtance tried 
in which one of the three did not appear as 

Gen. Stevens was not so long identified with 
the Albany Bar as Hill and Reynolds, but he has 
left on its history a name and fame of which this 
Bar may be justly proud. 

He was for a time a partner of James Edwards, 
Esq., a distinguished member of the Albany Bar, 
and afterward he was the law partner of Peter 
Cagger, under the firm name of Stevens & Cagger, 
which became one of the most powerful in the 
State, and continued for several years. 


John C. Spencer, ranking among the ablest of 
American law3'ers, was for many years a member 
of the Albany Bar. Here he achieved his greatest 
legal and political triumphs. His name is not 
only identified with the legal but with the political 
history of the State. 

The political career of De Witt Clinton is largel}- 
blended with that of John C. Spencer. 

He was born at Hudson, N. Y., August i 2, 1786; 
he was a son of Ambrose Spencer, to whom we 
have often referred in this work. From his earliest 
years he was accustomed to the society of distin- 
guished, learned and gifted men. His first knowl- 
edge of politics was drawn from witnessing the con- 
test of our great American polidcians who flour- 
ished in the early part of the present century. He 
saw how causes were tried by witnessing the legal 
contests of Hamilton, Burr, Hoffman, Emmet and 
other great lawyers. 

He prepared for college at Hudson Academy, 
and entered Union College in 1799. During his 
collegiate course a friendship began between him- 
self and Dr. Nott — afterward for many years the 
distinguished president of that college ■ — which 
warmed as it ripened, and continued until the death 
of Mr. Spencer. 

As a student young Spencer was distinguished 
for close and thorough application to his studies, 
for the same thoughtful reserve, the same dignified 
reticence, which marked his character as a lawyer, 
legislator and cabinet minister. 

In July, 1803, at the age of seventeen, Spencer 
graduated with scholarly honors e.xceedingly grati- 
fying to all his friends. On leaving college he 
began the study of law with his distinguished 
father. In July, 1809, he was called to the Bar ; 
very soon after this he was united in marriage to a 
daughter of James Scott Smith, a highly respected 
citizen of New York City. Miss Smith was a lady of 
rare accomplishments, with that high cast of char- 
acter which eminently qualified her for the wife of 
John C. Spencer. At this time Western New York, 
though mostly a wilderness, was attracting the at- 
tention of the enterprising and intelligent people of 
the eastern and southern parts of the State. The 
beauty of its scenerj', embellished by lakes, rivers 
and hills, with their grand old forests, and its 
prospects for speedy settlement and future great- 
ness, were vividly portrayed by tourists. 

Among those who decided to emigrate to that 
country was l\Ir. Spencer, and in September, 1809, 
he became a resident of Canandaigua. With a 
few law books and fifteen dollars in money he 
began that professional career which has rendered 
his name memorable in the State and nation. 

He used to describe, in a pleasing manner, the 
first dinner of which he and his wife partook in 
their "own hired house" at Canandaigua. 

" Our meal was served on a plain kitchen table. 
I was seated on a cheap, old-fashioned chair — the 
only one we boasted of— and Mrs. Spencer occu- 
pied a common wooden stool. But everything on 
the table, though simple, was nicely cooked, and 
we enjoyed our meal with a relish never equaled 
at the more sumptuous repasts of our more pros- 
perous days." 

In 1809 Ontario County embraced within its 
limits all that territory included within the Coun- 
ties of Yates and Wayne, together with all that 
part of Monroe and Livingston lying east of the 
Genesee River. After Mr. Spencer became a resi- 
dent of Western New York the population rapidly 
increased, and its great agricultural and other ad- 



vantages developed to a surprising degree. The 
Ontario Bar became one of the most eminent in 
the State, at the head of which Mr. Spencer always 

In February, 1818, he was appointed by Gov. 
Tompkins Prosecuting, or District, Attorney 
for the five western counties of the State. It was 
a position of great responsibility and labor, but he 
discharged his duties with great alacrity and suc- 
cess. In the spring of 1 8 1 7 he was elected a rep- 
resentative in Congress, taking his seat in that 
body December i, 181 7, remaining in the House 
during its fifteenth session. While in Congress he 
received the nomination for United States Senator 
by the Clintonian members of the Legislature. 
Col. Samuel Young and Rufus King were his 
opponents. He received 64 votes, Col. Young 
57; but Mr. King was elected. For a politician as 
young as Mr. Spencer then — only twent3--eight 
years of age — this development of strength was 
exceedingly flattering to him. In the autumn of 
18 1 9 he was elected member of Assembly, and 
when the Legislature convened on January 2, 1820, 
Mr. Spencer was chosen Speaker. He was re- 
elected in the fall of 182 1, and again a candidate 
for Speaker, but was defeated by a few votes. He 
was elected to the Legislatures of 183 1 and 1833. 

Mr. Spencer represented the old Seventh Sena- 
torial District in the State Senate from 1825 to the 
close of the year 1828. He left the impressions of 
his great learning and genius on the records of 
both branches of the Legislature of this State, and 
many enactments of importance which make a 
prominent part of our legal structure owe their 
existence to his learning and genius. 

In 1826 the abduction of Morgan created an 
unparalleled excitement in the State. To secure 
the conviction of the abductors the great abilities 
of Spencer were invoked, and he was appointed by 
Gov. Van Buren a special public prosecutor for 
that occasion. 

But so skillfully and so secretly was the crime 
committed that all efforts of Mr. Spencer, aided 
by the power of the State, failed to bring the cul- 
prits to justice, and the mystery which hung over 
the affair at that time rests upon it now. Out of 
it grew the Anti-Masonic party, the foundations of 
which were laid by Thurlow Weed, William H. 
Seward, John C. Spencer, Frederick Whittlesy, 
Bates Cook and others. For a time it was very 
powerful, particularly in the western part of the 
State. It was short-lived, however, and soon 
withered away, or, rather, was absorbed by the 
Whig party, which was founded on broader princi- 
ples of State polity. 

Mr. Spencer, with Seward, Weed and others, 
became leaders of the ^^'hig part}'. 

In the autumn of 1836 he removed from Canan- 
daigua to Albany, where he resided the remainder 
of his life. He aided materially in the election of 
Gen. Harrison, who died ver)' soon after assum- 
ing the executive chair. John Tyler, who suc- 
succeeded him, appointed Mr. Spencer his Secre- 
tary of War, and though the \\'hig party dissolved 
all connection with Tyler, Spencer continued to 

adhere to him through his administration. He 
advocated the election of Gen. Taylor and 
the election of Gen. Scott. After the Presiden- 
tial election of 1852 he never mingled in politics. 
This, in brief, was the career of John C. Spencer 
as a politician ; the history of his legal career 
would fill volumes. A distinguished part of 
his legal work was in the part he took as one of 
the revisers of the New York Statutes. Gov. 
Clinton died on February 28, 1828. Before his 
death he appointed commissioners for the revis- 
ion of the Statutes ; they were John C. Spencer, 
John Duer and Benjamin Y. Butler. These gen- 
tlemen were selected for their high standing as 
law)ers, regarded, as they were, as the most 
learned of the profession in the State. The success- 
ful manner in which they discharged their duty is 
too well known to need comment here. The Re- 
vised Statutes of the State of New York are grand 
and enduring monuments of the genius, the learn- 
ing, the purity and wisdom of John C. Spencer, 
John Duer and Benjamin F. Butler. Though, 
through the innovation of subsequent law-makers 
and codifiers, many of their sections have been re- 
pealed, yet man)' remain, indispensable to the 
practicing lawj-er. 

In 1849 '^s ^^'^s appointed one of the codifying 
commissioners, but to the great regret of the judi- 
ciary, the profession and the public he declined 
the appointment and retired to private life. 

Few men were more beloved in Albany than 
Mr. Spencer ; its public interests seemed to be his 
interest, and his relations to its society were of the 
most pleasing nature. To his efforts the Albany 
Hospital owes, in a measure, its existence. As 
was said by a distinguished citizen of Albany, 
speaking of the hospital, " Its interests and welfare 
never ceased to occupy his mind ; and I have no 
doubt his agency in its foundation was a rich con- 
solation on his bed of death." 

The State Asylum for Idiots is another institu- 
tion which owes much to his influence and 
generosity. In many other benignant and public 
matters his name is honorably identified. He con- 
tinued the dispenser of charities, public and 
private, until his death. 

About the middle of May, 1854, he visited the 
City of New York, being then an invalid. While there 
his disease took a more violent and dangerous 
turn, which rendered it apparent that the life of the 
great statesman and law3'er was about to close. He 
lingered until about the 20th of May, when he 
quietly and peacefully passed away. He was then 
in the sixty-eighth year of his age. 

In the lovely cemetery of Albany, among all the 
beautiful and artistic monuments which embellish 
it, speaking its silent language of respect for the 
dead, none is oftener visited, none elicits more 
veneration, or brings up historic associations more 
vividly, than the shaft which commemorates the 
spot where repose the remains of John C. Spencer. 


Mr. Jajies Edwards was a member of the 
Albany Bar, whose professional acquirements, 



scholarly attainments and high character gave him 
a State reputation. 

He was born in Greenfield, Saratoga, N. Y., 
December 9, 1799. He removed to Albany in 
1816 ; here he began the study of law in the office 
of his uncle, Hon. Alfred Foote, at that time one 
of the most eminent lawyers in Albany. In 1822, 
at a term of the Supreme Court held in Alban}', he 
was admitted to the Bar, and soon afterward 
formed a partnership with Gen. Samuel Stcxens, 
whose biography appears in this work. The busi- 
ness of the firm was large and important, extend- 
ing into very many of the counties of Central and 
Southern New York. 

To use the language of the Albany Argus, "Mr. 
Edwards brought to his practice many admirable 
qualifications. He was always distinguished for 
his sound practical judgment, his solid legal attain- 
ments, his promptness and accuracy in business, 
energy, firmness and integrity of character, 
and conscientious fidelity to the interests of his 
clients. Among his clients and friends and the 
citizens of Albanj' he was always regarded as 
a most substantial, upright and leading man. He 
was kind-hearted, true in his friendship, warm and 
generous in his sympathies, ever open to the 
appeals of the poor and suffering, and ever seeking 
to rule his life in accordance with Christian princi- 
ples. He was a liberal-minded, public-spirited 
and valuable citizen, alwa3's seeking a warm inter- 
est in all measures for the promotion of public in- 
terests. " 

Mr. Edwards died suddenly on May 21, 1868, 
aged sixty-nine jears. 


AzoR Tabor was born at Knox, in the County of 
Albany, May i, 1798. After a careful and thor- 
ough classical education he entered the office of 
John Lansing, Chancellor of the State, where he 
prepared for the Bar. After his admission to prac- 
tice he opened an office at Albany. A prosperous 
and distinguished legal business opened to him, 
and he pursued a long and honorable career at the 
Bar. He ranked among the ablest law3'ers of the 
State, discharging the duties of a very large legal 
practice with fidelity and capacity, which com- 
manded universal approbation. 

His chosen profession was his almost exclusive 
pursuit. From this he was rarely tempted to turn 
aside. The only position he ever held was State 
Senator from the Albany district. He was elected 
in November, i85i;took his seat in the Senate 
July 6, 1852, closing his Senatorial career Decem- 
ber 31, 1854. As a member of the Judiciary Com- 
mittee — as an occasional debater — he exhibited 
that power and compass of mind, that extraor- 
dinary condensation of language, which rendered 
him so distinguished at the Bar. But as his am- 
bition was confined to his profession, he had no 
taste for legislative honors, and, declining a re- 
nomination, he left the Senate and a most honor- 
able Senatorial record, to pursue without interrup- 
tion his duties at the Bar. 

In April, 1833, he formed a jiartnership with that 

accomplished lawyer and highly esteemed citizen, 
Amos Dean. This relation was highly advanta- 
geous to both parties and continued several years. 

In 1854, owing to failing health, he retired from 
the profession and became a resident of Knox, his 
nati\c town, where, on June 10, 1855, he died. 

As has well been said, " his life was that of an 
honest, earnest, able man, and he left a memory 
upon which there is no stain." 

In the character of Azor Tabor the strength and 
vigor of manhood was softened by the gentleness 
of manners and tastes which belong to and adorn 
the other sex. We may say without afl^ectation that 
tiie history of the Albany Bar is enriched and em- 
bellished by his learning, his unostentatious and 
yet powerful eloquence, and by his virtuous and 
blameless life. 


Amos Dkan was born at Barnard, Vt., January 
1 6, 1 803. Like many other prominent lawyers and 
jurists of this State, he acquired his early education 
in the common schools, where he prepared for the 
great calling of teaching. Engaged in this occupa- 
tion, he sustained himself while pursuing his 
academic course preparatory to entering college. 
He entered Union College in 1823, and graduated 
from thence in 1826. 

At this time his uncle, Jabez D. Hammond, a 
distinguished lawyer and writer, was in partnership 
with that illustrious judge, Alfred Conkling. 

Mr. Dean began the study of law in their office; 
he was a diligent student; one of those who de- 
lighted in the nice distinctions and the philosoph}^ 
of the law as a science. Intricate and dry as is the 
study of law to some, to 3'oung Dean it had 
attractions that amounted to fascination; and so he 
came to study it as a matter of recreation, blending 
instruction with delight. Long before his admis- 
sion he had the gratification of hearing his uncle 
say: "Amos is a very thoroughly read law3'er 
alread3'. " 

He was admitted to practice at the May Term 
of the Supreme Court in 1829, and went at once 
assiduously and earnestiy to the work of his pro- 

For several 3'ears, and during the earlier period 
of his practice, he was associated with Azor Tabor, 
then recognized as one of the most eminent of the 
Albany Bar. Sa3's the Albany Evening Journal : 

" Professor Dean never assumed to attain celebrit}' 
as an advocate before juries. While he possessed 
marked abilities as an orator, which could have 
been educated to an eminent order by practice, his 
instincts and tastes led him to another field of in- 
dustry in his profession. His amiability of dispo- 
sition, his natural reserve, his kindly nature, his 
guilelessness and his overflowing charity repelled 
him from the theatre of professional strife and con- 
flict. He was peculiarly adapted to the duties of 
the office and the counsel room. Here he became 
eminent for wisdom, prudence and sagacit3f. 
These qualities, added to that higher and nobler 
one of an unimpeachable integrity, brought to him 
clients, success and fame. 



' ' Professor Dean was a scholar by education, 
study and taste. This led him to appreciate the 
benefits of a popular education, and to aid in its 
popular advancement. Impelled by such purposes, 
he conceived, in early manhood, the plan of estab- 
lishing associations for the mental improvement of 
young men. 

"In 1833 he gathered about him a few young 
friends of kindred tastes in an office in Albany, and 
there planted the germ of the "Albany Young 
Men's Association." From this beginning hun- 
dreds of kindred institutions that have since blest 
the country by their beneficent influences abroad. 

"Upon the organization of this association, Mr. 
Dean was unanimously selected as its first presi- 
dent. By the energy and sagacity of his adminis- 
tration the foundation of that noble edifice of pop- 
ular education, from which, for so many years, so 
much moral and intellectual light has been shed 
upon the youth of our city, and which has been 
the model for so many like structures in all sec- 
tions of the Union. 

"In 1833 he was associated with Drs. March and 
Armsby in establishing the Albany Medical College; 
from that time to 1859 he held in it the position of 
Professor of Medical furisprudence. When the 
law department of our university was established 
Mr. Dean was wisely and appropriately chosen one 
of its professors. In this sphere, so well adapted 
to his tastes, his talents shone out most brightly. 
His pupils, scattered all over the land, bear testi- 
mony to the value of his instruction. 

"Professor Dean has attained considerable emi- 
nence in the field of authorship and literature. In 
early life he delivered a series of able and interest- 
ing lectures on phrenology, a science then in its 
infancy. These lectures \\'ere afterward embodied 
in a book. 

" In early life he was the author of a Manual nf 
Law, which proved a valuable aid to business men. 
He delivered several valuable addresses and lec- 
tures upon subjects of public interest. In 1833 '""^ 
delivered the Annual Address before the Albany In- 
stitute. He pronounced a eulogy upon the death 
of Jesse Buel before the State Agricultural Society, 
and an Annual Address before the Senate of Union 
College. But his greatest achievement in literature 
was not given to the world, because of his death. 
This was the History of Civilization, upon which he 
had been engaged for several years previous to his 

" His industry, research and ability gave assur- 
ance of the merit and attraction of his work. 

' ' We have spoken of Professor Dean only as a 
professional and public man. If we sought to add 
panegyric to what we have said, we should speak 
of his qualities as a man and of his virtues in 
private life. Herein, if possible, his character was 
higher and nobler than in any other walk of life. 

"To the qualities which we have described he 
united a pleasing address, a quiet demeanor, a 
generosity of sentiment and an absence of guile 

*Since the death of Professor Dean, his great work, upon which 
he spent so many years, has been published in seven octavo vol- 

that endeared him strongly to the circle of his 
companionship. " 

Such was the tribute paid to Professor Dean by 
that eminent journalist of the State, Thurlow Weed. 
Those who remember Professor Dean — and there 
are many still in Albany who do — will bear ample 
testimony to the truth and fitness of Mr. Weed's 
beautiful sketch of his life. 


Fn the year 1828 Mr. Wheaton graduated with 
the highest honors at Union College, and immedi- 
ately commenced the study of law at Albany. At 
the May term of the Supreme Court he was ad- 
mitted to practice and opened an office at Albany. 

As he had been an ardent, close and apprecia- 
tive student both in law and in the classics, as he 
possessed those mental endowments so necessary 
for a lawyer, he rose rapidly to distinction. 

As has been said of Mr. Wheaton by another 
intimately acquainted with him, " He was accom- 
plished in mind and manners, irreproachable in 
character and habits, and elevated in aspirations. 
All who saw him enter upon the batde of life an- 
ticipated for him a prosperous, brilliant and hon- 
orable career. He married an attractive young 
lady, descended from one of the oldest and most 
wealthy families in Albany, and lived in a style be- 
coming his position and prospects. He devoted 
himself industriously to his profession, of which he 
soon became an ornament." He took rank with 
Reynolds, Stevens, Tabor and other leading members 
of the Albany Bar. By many he was regarded the 
superior of either of those exceedingly able lawyers, 
especially before a jurv. 

He represented Albany County with marked 
ability in the Legislatures of 1835, 1840 and 184 i. 
We have said he was in the Assembly of 1835. 
]\rr. Wheaton was a candidate for Assembly in the 
autumn of 1834 for Albany County. His opponent 
was Da\ id G. Seger. The canvass was very close, 
and each candidate claimed the certificate of elec- 
tion; but it was given to Mr. Wheaton, and he took 
his seat in the Assembly, January 6, 1835. Mr. 
Seger, however, contested his seat with such suc- 
cess that on January 9, 1835, Mr. Wheaton was 
ousted and Seger took his seat. The former and 
his friends, of which he had many, alwa)'S insisted 
that Seger succeeded by partisan influence, and 
not on the merits of his case. They afterward 
pointed contemptuously to what they had deemed 
(but with how much reason we are unable to state) 
Mr. Seger's humble career as a legislator, in con- 
trast with what Mr. Wheaton would have been, and 
what it subsequently was. 

As we have said, he was elected to the Legisla- . 
tures of 1840 and 1841, and was regarded as one of 
the most eloquent and influential members of the 
Plouse in both of those sessions. Some of his 
speeches made on its floor are almost unrivaled as 
specimens of legislative eloquence. 

On INlarch 30, 1841, Mr. Wheaton was ap- 
pointed District Attorney of Albany County. He 
made a useful and exceedingly able public prosecu- 
tor. It was an unfailing custom in those days to 



appoint none but the most eminent and successful 
advocates to the office of District Attorney. It 
was justly regarded as a most important and re- 
sponsible position — the people's advocate, com- 
pelled, in the discharge of his duties, to oppose the 
strongest and most gifted of the profession. In 
the year 1855 the management of a large estate in 
the City of New York compelled him to take up 
his residence there. The care of this property and 
some unfortunate turns it took greatly impaired his 
health, rendering him despondent. 

On August 26, 1865, Mr. Wheaton, in attempt- 
ing to cross the railroad track near Yorkville, 
caught one of his feet in what is known as a frog, 
and was thrown to the ground. Before he could 
extricate himself an approaching train passed over 
him, instantly killing him. 


It is said in the Bench and Bar of Neiv Fork 
that Nicholas Hill, in some of his characteristics, 
resembled John C. Spencer; they were both men 
of strong intellectual powers, active, restless men 
of vast research, vigorous logic, unwearied industry 
and capable of immense mental labor. Both were 
wanting in imagination; both were learned, close, 
critical polemical lawyers. But here the analogy 
ends; for much of the power which impelled Spencer 
to action was political ambition; this led him 
into a career which in a measure subordinated his 
professional zeal to politics, to divide his great 
talents and learning between the Bar and the polit- 
ical arena, between the duties of the legislator and 
the Minister of State. 

]Mr. Hill, on the contrary, concentrated all his 
mental powers upon his profession; this gave him 
a mastery at the bar which few men are capable of 
attaining. He disliked politics, and there was 
nothing in official position that could attract him 
from the sphere to which he had devoted himself 
He was ambitious, but his ambition was confined 
to his profession; all his study and reading was 
subservient to that ambition; therefore his knowl- 
edge of the law, his power of applying it to prac- 
tical use, of wielding its subtleties with lacility, and 
separating truth from error in a manner which ren- 
dered him unqualed at the bar of the State, and 
we may say of the nation. 

His life was unvaried by those events which excite 
the ambition of the politician and the statesman. 
It was spent over books, in the contests of the 
forum, before learned and venerable judges, whose 
deliberations were aided and enlightened b}- his 
learned and powerful arguments. 

Nicholas Hill was born in the County of Mont- 
gomer}'. New York, October 16, 1806. His 
father was a revolutionary soldier, who, on leav- 
ing the army, became a useful preacher of the 

Young Llill early exhibited a love of books, a 
quick comprehension of their contents, an unusual 
tenacity of memory. An indomitable energy and 
perseverance enabled him, with the aid of his 
father — who was an accomplished scholar — to 
acquire a very excellent classical education. 


Choosing the legal profession for his avocation in 
life, he began the study of law with Daniel Cad}', of 
Johnstown, with whom he prepared for the Bar. 
After obtaining his degree as an Attorney at Law, 
he commenced piactice at Amsterdam, New York, 
meeting with but little success, his practice being 
largely confined to the justices' court. At length 
he removed to Saratoga, New York, where he made 
the acquaintance of that illustrious judge, Esek 
Cowen, "whose life and career seemed to ofl"er 
that example of singleness of purpose, devotion to 
his profession and unwearied industr)- upon 
which he molded his career." Judge Cowen soon 
discovered in Hill those mental qualities which 
constitute a successful lawyer, and he gave him 
his influence and advanced his professional interests 
in many ways. At length he formed a copart- 
nership with Sidney Cowen, Esq., a son of Judge 
Cowen. Associated with Mr. Cowen, he prepared 
that great work known to the legal profession 
throughout the nation and in England as Cmven 
(s' Hill's Notes io Phillips on Evidence, which re- 
mains a lasting monument to the ability, energy, 
industry and learning of its authors — a work which 
may be considered a law library by itself. 

'I'he unassuming manner and native modesty of 
Mr. Hill tended at first to retard his progress at 
the Bar. Though a close and powerful reasoner, 
he did not possess those showy elocutionary qual- 
ities which dazzle the multitude and bring a lawyer 
rapidly into notice. 

Though he loved the forum and delighted in its 
contests, yet there were many of the attributes of 
the retiring scholar in his nature, and hence he 
derived the most sincere pleasure in the silence and 
retirement of his study. 

He had many qualities which constitute the 
successful jury lawyer, and gradually attained a 
high position as an advocate. Marcus T. Reynolds 
and Samuel Stevens, for several years his great 
rivals in the profession, had been distinguished at 
the Bar of the Supreme Court in banc and in the 
Court for the Correction of Errors a long time be- 
fore Mr. Hill was known in either of those tri- 

But from his first appearance there he created a 
very favorable impression on the minds of all the 
members of the Court. In the case of Tilden vs. 
Gardiner, which was one of the earliest argued by 
him before the General Term, his argument was 
listened to with profound attention by both the 
Bench and the Bar. "We shall hear from that 
man very often hereafter," said Chief-Justice Nelson 
to Judge Bronson, as he was folding the papers in 
the case, after the conclusion of Mr. Hill's remarks. 
Doubtless the reputation which the Notes to Phillips 
on Evidence had given aided him in gaining the 
confidence of the judges, and in obtaining the ap- 
pointment of State Law Reporter in 1841. The 
manner in which he prepared these reports greatly 
enhanced his reputation. They are characterized 
by the same methodical and expansive mind which 
is conspicuous in all his works. 

He was one of the most accomplished and accu- 
rate pleaders in the State, and few exceeded him 



in the faculty of analyzing a complicated question 
or clinching a contested conclusion. These quali- 
fications greatly aided him in the labors of report- 
ing the adjudicated cases of the State Courts, en- 
abling him to adjust them so that the student or 
the practitioner could determine at a glance the 
real points decided in them. Soon after receiving 
this appointment, he removed to Albany, Mhere he 
resided the remainder of his life. 

He occupied the position of State Reporter five 
years, when his increasing legal business compelled 
him to resign. Soon after his resignation he 
formed a copartnership with Peter Cagger and 
John K. Porter, constituting a firm which com- 
bined every variety of legal talent — a firm which 
was distinguished for its capacity and for the vast 
amount of legal business which it controlled. 
Each of its members possessed attainments which 
gave them superiority at the Bar, or in whatever in- 
tellectual field they chose to enter. 

Mr. Hill devoted himself to the General Term 
and the Court of Appeals; at length his business at 
the latter Court increased to such extent that he 
was compelled to confine himself almost exclusively 
to that tribunal. 

Mr. Hill's manner at the Bar was calm, dig- 
nified, natural and unassuming. The vivacity and 
strength of his mind, his prodigious quickness of 
conception, his plain but ready language, rendered 
him an effectual speaker in the forum. He gained 
the attention of the jurors by the natural force of 
reason; his language was never above or beyond 
them; it went direct to their understanding. He 
considered the case at bar with them, viewed it 
from their stand-point, and he "dexterously ac- 
commodated himself to what he detected to be the 
passing mood of each of the twelve," leading them 
instead of driving them to their conclusions. 

One of the most powerful weapons which an ad- 
vocate can use is candor. This was possessed by 
Mr. Hill, and it was, indeed, formidable in his 
hands. Without any parade of learning, he con- 
vinced the judges that he had examined every 
phase of the question he was arguing, and was, 
therefore, capable of enlightening their minds and 
aiding them in their deliberations; hence he was 
strong at Nisi Prius, still stronger before the Court 
in banc. 

His habits of life were regular and frugal, the 
only excess in which he indulged being his in- 
tense, never-ceasing application to his books, the 
study of his cases and his briefs. 

At length the physical powers of Mr. Hill, which 
were never strong, began to yield to constant and 
unrelaxed labors ; with the flight of each week this 
became more and more apparent, until finally his 
friends persuaded him to suspend his professional 
toils. He yielded to their advice, and they soon had 
the satisfaction of seeing his bodily strength and 
vigor return and his energies revive ; thus he con- 
tinued for several weeks, until he believed himself 
able to resume his usual duties. But, alas ! Even 
at the moment when hope was highest, with the 
prospect of returning health, he suddenl}' fell be- 
fore the destro}-er, and Nicholas Hill was numbered 

with the dead. This sad event occurred on the 
first day of May, 1859. He was then in the fifty- 
fourth year of his age — at that period when he yet 
had 3'ears of activit)', labor and usefulness before 

The intelligence of his death produced the most 
profound sorrow throughout the State, particularly 
among the members of the legal profession. When 
it was announced in the Court of Appeals, in that 
arena where he had so long been a prominent con- 
testant, where he had occupied a place since the 
organization of the court, a scene of sorrow un- 
equaled on such occasions and in such places 

Mr. Hill's death was announced in the Court of 
Appeals, by Hon. John H. Reynolds, in a eulo- 
gium which will never be forgotten. He was emi- 
nently qualified for that delicate and responsible 

Mr. Reynolds was one of the ablest members of 
the Albany Bar; a man of rare argumentative 
powers, enlarged and liberalized by scholarly train- 
ing and set off by literary accomplishments. He 
had been the law partner of Mr. Hill, and knew 
him, perhaps, better than any other man, and was 
tenderly attached to him. 

Mr. Reynolds' professional endowments, his pure 
and elevated character, endeared him to his brethren 
of his profession ; in a word, he was one of those 
whose names adorn the history of the Albany Bar. 


Few members of the Albany Bar left a brighter 
or more lasting record, not only as a lawyer, but in 
all that makes up an esteemed and useful citizen, 
than Peter Cagger. 

He was born at Albany, July 6, 1812. His 
parents were natives of Ireland, where his father 
was extensively engaged in business. Before the 
birth of Mr. Cagger, his father removed his family 
to the United States, and for a brief period were 
residents of the City of New York, but they soon 
removed to Albany, where they spent the remainder 
of their lives. 

We cannot describe the career and character of 
Mr. Cagger in more fitting language than the fol- 
lowing, written by a distinguished journalist of 
Albany : 

"The record of Mr. Cagger's life exhibits a series 
of happy antitheses. A Democrat of the Demo- 
crats, the bold, sagacious and widely known par- 
tisan, almost upon all occasions the sole daring 
manager of the interests of a great party, and the 
absolute controller of its fortunes and destiny — 
local. State and national ; he was so happily con- 
stituted as to attract, without effort, in seasons of 
fierce political excitement, the most potential among 
those of antagonistic sentiment, and to number 
among his friends his most bitter political oppo- 
nents. A Catholic of the Catholics, his very name 
a tradition and a household word among the people 
of his faith ; largely identified with the earh- histor\- 
of the old church in Albany ; an intelligent', consci- 
entious and faithful believer, he was, 'at the same 
tune, the chosen confident, the familiar friend, the 



trusted, most honored and reliable adviser of 
many whose peculiar religious bias might have 
suggested other counsel and far different associa- 
tions. To the young, to the middle-aged, his co- 
temporaries, and to ihe old there was something 
so genial, so magnetic and so inspiring about Peter 
Cagger that the abrupt intelligence of his sudden 
and unlooked-for death will be clothed with addi- 
tional pain. We might detail, if we chose, un- 
numbered instances of his kindness, his noble 
charities, the beautiful traits and Christian influ- 
ences which accompanied him through the years 
which Providence has bestowed, and which will 
live before Heaven, and before men, perhaps, when 
the record of the lawyer has faded, and the mem- 
ory of the politician is extinct. The poor, the 
widow, the orphan, the unprotected, never appealed 
to him in vain ; the tears of his own fatherless and 
bereaved family will mingle, as it were, with a tide 
of grief from hidden sources, and the hearts his 
own kind heart made happy, and the homes his 
liberality blessed, will keep his memory bright when 
even the marble has crumbled upon his grave." 

Michael Cagger, the elder brother, was a young 
man of great promise, of thoughtful, philosophic 
mind, and attracted the attention of distinguished 
men, who discovered in him unmistakable elements 
of future greatness. He died in the very prime of 
life. William Cagger, another brother, was for a 
time engaged in business in Albany, and afterward 
in the New York Custom House, in which position 
he died. Mr. Cagger married Maria Maher, 
daughter of James Maher, well known for a con- 
siderable period as State Librarian, and in the War 
of 1812 as the gallant Captain of the "Irish 
Greens," a military company originating in Albany 
and which bore a prominent part in the famous con- 
flict at Sackett's Harbor. A daughter, the sole 
remaining issue of this marriage, survives him. ' 

At an early period of life he was placed in the 
then celebrated law office of Reynolds & Woodruff. 
Even as a clerk his remarkable administrative 
capacity began to manifest itself, and the efficiency 
of his labors was occasionally recogriized in the 
most handsome manner by the distinguished princi- 
pals of that powerful firm. 

Mr. Cagger afterward associated himself with 
Mr. Samuel Stevens, and the firm name of Stevens 
& Caggerbecame speedily potential in legal circles. 
After a successful practice of some years, Mr. 
Stevens, a very able man and the peer of renowned 
lawyers in the legal arena, yielded to excessive 
labor ; and shordy after his decease a new legal 
firm, that of Hill, Cagger & Porter, was established, 
which will go down to posterity as one of the most 
remarkable combinations of alaility and fitness for 
the several departments of a great law office ever 
known in the annals of the State. 

"The great intellect of Hill shone in the court of 
last resort, where his genius coruscated, and in 
which his profound learning, and the unbending 
integrity of his character, secured reverence even 
of the Bench ; the commanding eloquence, the 
penetrating mind, the admirable sagacity of Porter 
took easy precedence of all others at Nisi Prius; 

and the extraordinary administrative talent of Cag- 
ger, ready at once and at a moment's beck for 
abstruse pleadings, for the minutiae of petty liti- 
gation, with its inexhaustible fund of device and 
ingenuity ; instinctively prepared for all combina- 
tions, of finance, of politics, and at home in im- 
portant business negotiations — all these things com- 
bined to make this famous trio so constituted as if 
every requisite and possible demand had been fore- 
seen and provided for." 

In the midst of his successful career as a lawyer 
and pohtician Mr. Cagger was suddenly summoned 
from earth. On the 6th of July, 1868, while riding 
with a friend in the City of New York, he was 
thrown from his carriage and instantly killed. 

This distressing event cast a gloom over his 
native city, whither his remains were tenderly car- 

At the time of his death Mr. Cagger was fifty-six 
years of age. 


Distinguished as a lawyer, judge, and Senator 
in Congress, was born at Charleston, Montgomery 
County, N. Y., May 31, 1802. His father was 
Frederick Waterman Harris; his mother's maiden 
name was Lucy Hamilton. When he was six years 
old his parents removed from Charleston and be- 
came residents of Preble, N. Y. Here his father be- 
came one of the extensive landowners in the County 
of Cordand. Ira prepared for college at the Homer 
Academy, and in September, 1822, became a 
member of the Junior class in Union College, from 
whence he was graduated in 1824. He im- 
mediately entered the office of Augustus Donnelly, 
a highly respectable counselor at law, of Homer, 
N. Y. , where he remained one year, and then went 
to Albany, N. Y., where he continued his legal 
studies under that great jurist, Ambrose Spencer. 
He continued with Judge Spencer until his call to 
the Bar in 1827. Opening an office in Albany, 
he began his practice under favorable circum- 
stances. At the end of six months he formed a co- 
partnership with Salem Dutcher, Esq., one of his 
associates in college, which proved to be a very 
successful relation. It continued until 1842, when 
it was dissolved by the removal of Mr. Dutcher to 
New York. His next law partner was Julius 
Rhoades, Esq. His knowledge of law, his rare 
professional accomplishments, brought him rapidly 
before the public. As an equity lawyer he stood 

In the autumn of 1844 he was elected to repre- 
sent Albany County in the Assembly. In 1845 he 
was re-elected, and in the spring of 1846 was 
chosen as a delegate to the Constitutional Conven- 
tion which assembled in June that year. In this 
body, as in the Legislature, Mr. Harris took a very 
conspicuous position. In the fall of 1846 he was 
elected to the State Senate, but after serving one 
session he was elected a Justice of the Supreme 
Court, and resigned his seat in the Senate for one 
on the Bench. At the expiration of his term, then 
four years in duration, he was elected for the full 
term, which had been extended to eight years. To 



use the language of another, "It was not until his 
elevation to the Bench that the abilities of Judge 
Harris were fully displayed. He exhibited